• Title, Summary, Keyword: Spent nuclear fuel

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Integral nuclear data validation using experimental spent nuclear fuel compositions

  • Gauld, Ian C.;Williams, Mark L.;Michel-Sendis, Franco;Martinez, Jesus S.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.1226-1233
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    • 2017
  • Measurements of the isotopic contents of spent nuclear fuel provide experimental data that are a prerequisite for validating computer codes and nuclear data for many spent fuel applications. Under the auspices of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and guidance of the Expert Group on Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel of the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety, a new database of expanded spent fuel isotopic compositions has been compiled. The database, Spent Fuel Compositions (SFCOMPO) 2.0, includes measured data for more than 750 fuel samples acquired from 44 different reactors and representing eight different reactor technologies. Measurements for more than 90 isotopes are included. This new database provides data essential for establishing the reliability of code systems for inventory predictions, but it also has broader potential application to nuclear data evaluation. The database, together with adjoint based sensitivity and uncertainty tools for transmutation systems developed to quantify the importance of nuclear data on nuclide concentrations, are described.

MANAGING SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM NONPROLIFERATION, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES

  • Choi, Jor-Shan
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 2010
  • The growth in global energy demand and the increased recognition of the impacts of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel plants have aroused a renewed interest on nuclear energy. Many countries are looking afresh at building more nuclear power stations to deal with the twin problems of global warming and the need for more generating capacity. Many in the nuclear community are also anticipating a significant growth of new nuclear generation in the coming decades. If there is a nuclear renaissance, will the expansion of nuclear power be compatible with global non-proliferation and security? or will it add to the environmental burden from the large inventory of spent nuclear fuel already produced in existing nuclear power reactors? We learn from past peaceful nuclear activities that significant concerns associated with nuclear proliferation and spent-fuel management have resulted in a decrease in public acceptance for nuclear power in many countries. The terrorist attack in the United States (US) on September 11, 2001 also raised concern for security and worry that nuclear materials may fall into the wrong hands. As we increase the use of nuclear power, we must simultaneously reduce the proliferation, security and environmental risks in managing spent-fuel below where they are today.

Reference Spent Fuel and Its Characteristics for a Deep Geological Repository Concept Development

  • Choi, Jong-Won;Ko, Won-Il;Kang, Chul-Hyung
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.23-38
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    • 1999
  • This study addresses the reference spent fuel and its characteristics for developing a geological repository concept. As a disposal capacity of the reference repository system to be developed, spent fuel inventories were projected based on the basis of the Nuclear Energy Plan of the Long-term National Power Program. The reference spent fuel encompassing a variability in characteristics of all existing and future spent fuels of interest was defined. Key parameters in the reference fuel screening processes were the nuclear and mechanical design parameters and the burnup histories for existing spent fuels as of 1996 and for future spent fuels with the more extended burnup the initial enrichment and its expected turnup. The selected reference fuel was characterized in terms of initial enrichment, bumup, dimension, gross weight and age. Also the isotopic composition and the radiological properties are quantitatively identified. This information provided in this study could be used as input for repository system development and performance assessment and applied in fuel material balance evaluation for the various types of back-end fuel cycle studies.

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Overview of Finnish Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Programme

  • Siren, Topias
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Mineral and Energy Resources Engineers
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.367-376
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    • 2017
  • Finland is the first country in the world constructing the geological spent nuclear fuel disposal facility. The Finnish programme for spent nuclear fuel is organized through a private company Posiva Oy that has been established by the two power companies currently operating nuclear power plants in Finland to dispose owners spent nuclear fuel. First plans for the disposal of the spent nuclear fuel started already at 1978 when first studies for the geological disposal started. The planning was followed by the site selection programme, culminating to the selection of the Olkiluoto site as the disposal site in 2001 by decision in principle by Parlament of Finland. In 2004 the construction of the rock characterization facility ONKALO$^{TM}$ started on the disposal site. ONKALO has served in confirming underground site studies, while it has been designed to be an inseparable part of the final disposal facility. After 10 years of confirming studies in 2015, Posiva Oy, was granted the construction license for the final repository. In early 2020s the disposal of the spent nuclear fuel is expected to start in ONKALO.

Technology Trends in Spent Nuclear Fuel Cask and Dry Storage (사용후핵연료 운반용기 및 건식저장 기술 동향)

  • Shin, Jung Cheol;Yang, Jong Dae;Sung, Un Hak;Ryu, Sung Woo;Park, Yeong Woo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Pressure Vessels and Piping
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 2020
  • As the management plan for domestic spent nuclear fuel is delayed, the storage of the operating nuclear power plant is approaching saturation, and the Kori 1 Unit that has reached its end of operation life is preparing for the dismantling plan. The first stage of dismantling is the transfer of spent nuclear fuel stored in storage at plants. The spent fuel management process leads to temporary storage, interim storage, reprocessing and permanent disposal. In this paper, the technical issues to be considered when transporting spent fuel in this process are summarized. The spent fuels are treated as high-level radioactive waste and strictly managed according to international regulations. A series of integrity tests are performed to demonstrate that spent fuel can be safely stored for decades in a dry environment before being transferred to an intermediate storage facility. The safety of spent fuel transport container must be demonstrated under normal transport conditions and virtual accident conditions. IAEA international standards are commonly applied to the design of transport containers, licensing regulations and transport regulations worldwide. In addition, each country operates a physical protection system to reduce and respond to the threat of radioactive terrorism.

Thermal analysis of certain accident conditions of dry spent nuclear fuel storage

  • Alyokhina, Svitlana
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.717-723
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    • 2018
  • Thermal analysis of accident conditions is an important problem during safety assessment of the dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. Thermal aspects of accident conditions with channel blockage of ventilated storage containers are considered in this article. Analysis of flow structure inside ventilated containers is carried out by numerical simulation. The main mechanisms of heat and mass transfer, which take part in spent nuclear fuel cooling, were detected. Classification of accidents on the basis of their influence on the maximum temperatures inside storage casks is proposed.

A STUDY ON THE INITIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC SPENT NUCLEAR FUELS FOR LONG TERM DRY STORAGE

  • Kim, Juseong;Yoon, Hakkyu;Kook, Donghak;Kim, Yongsoo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.377-384
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    • 2013
  • During the last three decades, South Korean nuclear power plants have discharged about 5,950 tons of spent fuel and the maximum burn-up reached 55 GWd/MTU in 2002. This study was performed to support the development of Korean dry spent fuel storage alternatives. First, we chose V5H-$17{\times}17$ and KSFA-$16{\times}16$ as representative domestic spent fuels, considering current accumulation and the future generation of the spent fuels. Examination reveals that their average burn-ups have already increased from 33 to 51 GWd/MTU and from 34.8 to 48.5 GWd/MTU, respectively. Evaluation of the fuel characteristics shows that at the average burn-up of 42 GWd/MTU, the oxide thickness, hydrogen content, and hoop stress ranged from $30{\sim}60{\mu}m$, 250 ~ 500 ppm, and 50 ~ 75 MPa, respectively. But when burn-up exceeds 55 GWd/MTU, those characteristics can increase up to 100 ${\mu}m$, 800 ppm, and 120 MPa, respectively, depending on the power history. These results demonstrate that most Korean spent nuclear fuels are expected to remain within safe bounds during long-term dry storage, however, the excessive hoop stress and hydrogen concentration may trigger the degradation of the spent fuel integrity early during the long-term dry storage in the case of high burn-up spent fuels exceeding 45 GWd/MTU.

Development of transportation and storage device for spent nuclear fuel capsules (핫셀에서 사용후핵연료봉 장전 Capsule의 이송 및 저장장치 개발)

  • Hong D.H.;Jung J.H.;Kim K.H.;Park B.S.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.369-370
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    • 2006
  • During demonstrations of a process conditioning spent nuclear fuels, it is necessary to transport and handle Spent fuel road cuts from Post Irradiation Examination facility to Slitting device in The hot cell. the spent fuel pellets which are highly radioactive materials are separated with its clad and are fed into the next conditioning process. For this, a spent fuel rod, 3.5 m long, is cut by 25 cm long which is suitable length for the decladding process. These rod-cuts are packed into the capsule and are moved to the ACPF(Advanced spent nuclear fuel Conditioning Process Facility). In the ACPF, Once the capsule is unloaded in the ACPF, Capsule is taken out one-by-one and installed on the decladding device. In these processes, the crushed spent fuel pellet can be scattered inside the facilities and thus it contaminate the hot cell. In this paper, we developed the specially designed transportation and storage device for spent nuclear fuel capsules.

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REVIEW AND FUTURE ISSUES ON SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE

  • Saegusa, T.;Shirai, K.;Arai, T.;Tani, J.;Takeda, H.;Wataru, M.;Sasahara, A.;Winston, P.L.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.237-248
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    • 2010
  • The safety of metal cask and concrete cask storage technology has been verified by CRIEPI through several research programs on demonstrative testing for the interim storage of spent fuel. The results have been reflected in the safety requirements for dry casks issued by NISA/METI (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) of the Japanese government. On top of that, spent fuel integrity has been studied by the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). This paper reviews these research programs. Future issues include the long-term integrity of cask components and high burn-up spent fuel.

Proposal of an Improved Concept Design for the Deep Geological Disposal System of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Korea

  • Lee, Jongyoul;Kim, Inyoung;Ju, HeeJae;Choi, Heuijoo;Cho, Dongkeun
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.18 no.spc
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2020
  • Based on the current high-level radioactive waste management basic plan and the analysis results of spent nuclear fuel characteristics, such as dimensions and decay heat, an improved geological disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel from domestic nuclear power plants was proposed in this study. To this end, disposal container concepts for spent nuclear fuel from two types of reactors, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU), considering the dimensions and interim storage method, were derived. In addition, considering the cooling time of the spent nuclear fuel at the time of disposal, according to the current basic plan-based scenarios, the amount of decay heat capacity for a disposal container was determined. Furthermore, improved disposal concepts for each disposal container were proposed, and analyses were conducted to determine whether the design requirements for the temperature limit were satisfied. Then, the disposal efficiencies of these disposal concepts were compared with those of the existing disposal concepts. The results indicated that the disposal area was reduced by approximately 20%, and the disposal density was increased by more than 20%.