• Title, Summary, Keyword: Spent Fuel Storage

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A STUDY FOR DOSE DISTRIBUTION IN SPENT FUEL STORAGE POOL INDUCED BY NEUTRON AND GAMMA-RAY EMITTED IN SPENT FUELS

  • Sohn, Hee-Dong;Kim, Jong-Kyung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.174-182
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    • 2011
  • With the reactor operation conditions - 4.3 wt% $^{235}U$ initial enrichment, burn-up 55,000 MWd/MTU, average power 34 MW/MTU for three periods burned time for 539.2 days per period and cooling time for 100 hours after shut down, to set up the condition to determine the minimum height (depth) of spent fuel storage pool to shut off the radiation out of the spent fuel storage pool and to store spent fuels safely, the dose rate on the specific position directed to the surface of spent fuel storage pool induced by the neutron and gamma-ray from spent fuels are evaluated. The length of spent fuel is 381 cm, and as the result of evaluation on each position from the top of spent fuel to the surface of spent fuel storage pool, it is difficult for neutrons from spent fuels to pass through the water layer of maximum 219 cm (600 cm from the floor of spent fuel storage pool) and 419 cm (800 cm from the floor of spent fuel storage pool) for gamma-ray. Therefore, neutron and gamma-ray from spent fuels can pass through below 419 cm (800 cm from the floor) water layer directed to the surface of spent fuel storage pool.

Technology Trends in Spent Nuclear Fuel Cask and Dry Storage (사용후핵연료 운반용기 및 건식저장 기술 동향)

  • Shin, Jung Cheol;Yang, Jong Dae;Sung, Un Hak;Ryu, Sung Woo;Park, Yeong Woo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Pressure Vessels and Piping
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 2020
  • As the management plan for domestic spent nuclear fuel is delayed, the storage of the operating nuclear power plant is approaching saturation, and the Kori 1 Unit that has reached its end of operation life is preparing for the dismantling plan. The first stage of dismantling is the transfer of spent nuclear fuel stored in storage at plants. The spent fuel management process leads to temporary storage, interim storage, reprocessing and permanent disposal. In this paper, the technical issues to be considered when transporting spent fuel in this process are summarized. The spent fuels are treated as high-level radioactive waste and strictly managed according to international regulations. A series of integrity tests are performed to demonstrate that spent fuel can be safely stored for decades in a dry environment before being transferred to an intermediate storage facility. The safety of spent fuel transport container must be demonstrated under normal transport conditions and virtual accident conditions. IAEA international standards are commonly applied to the design of transport containers, licensing regulations and transport regulations worldwide. In addition, each country operates a physical protection system to reduce and respond to the threat of radioactive terrorism.

Rock Cavern Storage of Spent Fuel (사용후핵연료 동굴저장)

  • Cho, Won-Jin;Kwon, Sangki;Kim, Kyung-Soo
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.301-313
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    • 2015
  • The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

REVIEW AND FUTURE ISSUES ON SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE

  • Saegusa, T.;Shirai, K.;Arai, T.;Tani, J.;Takeda, H.;Wataru, M.;Sasahara, A.;Winston, P.L.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.237-248
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    • 2010
  • The safety of metal cask and concrete cask storage technology has been verified by CRIEPI through several research programs on demonstrative testing for the interim storage of spent fuel. The results have been reflected in the safety requirements for dry casks issued by NISA/METI (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) of the Japanese government. On top of that, spent fuel integrity has been studied by the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). This paper reviews these research programs. Future issues include the long-term integrity of cask components and high burn-up spent fuel.

REVIEW OF SPENT FUEL INTEGRITY EVALUATION FOR DRY STORAGE

  • Kook, Donghak;Choi, Jongwon;Kim, Juseong;Kim, Yongsoo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2013
  • Among the several options to solve PWR spent fuel accumulation problem in Korea, the dry storage method could be the most realistic and applicable solution in the near future. As the basic objectives of dry storage are to prevent a gross rupture of spent fuel during operation and to keep its retrievability until transportation, at the same time the importance of a spent fuel integrity evaluation that can estimate its condition at the final stage of dry storage is very high. According to the national need and technology progress, two representative nations of spent fuel dry storage, the USA and Japan, have established different system temperature criteria, which is the only controllable factor in a dry storage system. However, there are no technical criteria for this evaluation in Korea yet, it is necessary to review the previously well-organized methodologies of advanced countries and to set up our own domestic evaluation direction due to the nation's need for dry storage. To satisfy this necessity, building a domestic spent fuel test database should be the first step. Based on those data, it is highly recommended to compare domestic data range with foreign results, to build our own criteria, and to expand on evaluation work into recently issued integrity problems by using a comprehensive integrity evaluation code.

A STUDY ON THE INITIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC SPENT NUCLEAR FUELS FOR LONG TERM DRY STORAGE

  • Kim, Juseong;Yoon, Hakkyu;Kook, Donghak;Kim, Yongsoo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.377-384
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    • 2013
  • During the last three decades, South Korean nuclear power plants have discharged about 5,950 tons of spent fuel and the maximum burn-up reached 55 GWd/MTU in 2002. This study was performed to support the development of Korean dry spent fuel storage alternatives. First, we chose V5H-$17{\times}17$ and KSFA-$16{\times}16$ as representative domestic spent fuels, considering current accumulation and the future generation of the spent fuels. Examination reveals that their average burn-ups have already increased from 33 to 51 GWd/MTU and from 34.8 to 48.5 GWd/MTU, respectively. Evaluation of the fuel characteristics shows that at the average burn-up of 42 GWd/MTU, the oxide thickness, hydrogen content, and hoop stress ranged from $30{\sim}60{\mu}m$, 250 ~ 500 ppm, and 50 ~ 75 MPa, respectively. But when burn-up exceeds 55 GWd/MTU, those characteristics can increase up to 100 ${\mu}m$, 800 ppm, and 120 MPa, respectively, depending on the power history. These results demonstrate that most Korean spent nuclear fuels are expected to remain within safe bounds during long-term dry storage, however, the excessive hoop stress and hydrogen concentration may trigger the degradation of the spent fuel integrity early during the long-term dry storage in the case of high burn-up spent fuels exceeding 45 GWd/MTU.

Thermal analysis of certain accident conditions of dry spent nuclear fuel storage

  • Alyokhina, Svitlana
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.717-723
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    • 2018
  • Thermal analysis of accident conditions is an important problem during safety assessment of the dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. Thermal aspects of accident conditions with channel blockage of ventilated storage containers are considered in this article. Analysis of flow structure inside ventilated containers is carried out by numerical simulation. The main mechanisms of heat and mass transfer, which take part in spent nuclear fuel cooling, were detected. Classification of accidents on the basis of their influence on the maximum temperatures inside storage casks is proposed.

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING ROK SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

  • Braun, Chaim;Forrest, Robert
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.427-438
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    • 2013
  • In this paper we discuss spent fuel management options in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from two interrelated perspectives: Centralized dry cask storage and spent fuel pyroprocessing and burning in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). We argue that the ROK will run out of space for at-reactors spent fuel storage by about the year 2030 and will thus need to transition centralized dry cask storage. Pyroprocessing plant capacity, even if approved and successfully licensed and constructed by that time, will not suffice to handle all the spent fuel discharged annually. Hence centralized dry cask storage will be required even if the pyroprocessing option is successfully developed by 2030. Pyroprocessing is but an enabling technology on the path leading to fissile material recycling and burning in future SFRs. In this regard we discuss two SFR options under development in the U.S.: the Super Prism and the Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR). We note that the U.S. is further along in reactor development than the ROK. The ROK though has acquired more experience, recently in investigating fuel recycling options for SFRs. We thus call for two complementary joint R&D project to be conducted by U.S. and ROK scientists. One leading to the development of a demonstration centralized away-fromreactors spent fuel storage facility. The other involve further R&D on a combined SFR-fuel cycle complex based on the reactor and fuel cycle options discussed in the paper.

Analysis and Design of Nuclear Spent Fuel Dry Storage System under Irregular Operation (사용후 핵연료 건식저장장치의 비정상 운영조건의 해석과 설계)

  • Song, Hyung-Soo;Min, Chang-Shik;Yoon, Dong-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.381-384
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    • 2004
  • Delaying and objection for the construction of storage spent-fuel disposal has prompted to consider expanding on-site storage of spent reactor fuel since it can eliminate the need for costly and difficult shipping and control of the spent fuel completely under the direction of the owner-utility. The dry storage unit developed in Canada can accommodate Korea heavy water reactor fuel elements and become a candidate for the Korean market. In this paper, finite element analyses were carried out in order to investigate the structural behavior of the nuclear spent fuel dry storage system, which is subjected to impact loads such as collision of a truck load and dropping of flask under the irregular operation.

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THE EFFECTS OF CREEP AND HYDRIDE ON SPENT FUEL INTEGRITY DURING INTERIM DRY STORAGE

  • Kim, Hyun-Gil;Jeong, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Kyu-Tae
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 2010
  • Recently, many utilities have considered interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel as an option for increasing spent fuel storage capacity. Foreign nuclear regulatory committees have provided some regulatory and licensing requirements for relatively low- and medium-burned spent fuel with respect to the prevention of spent fuel degradation during transportation and interim dry storage. In the present study, the effect of cladding creep and hydride distribution on spent fuel degradation is reviewed and performance tests with high-burned Zircaloy-4 and advanced Zr alloy spent fuel are proposed to investigate the effect of burnup and cladding materials on the current regulatory and licensing requirements. Creep tests were also performed to investigate the effect of temperature and tensile hoop stress on hydride reorientation and subsequently to examine the temperature and stress limits against cladding material failure. It is found that the spent fuel failure is mainly caused by cladding creep rupture combined with mechanical strength degradation and hydride reorientation. Hydride reorientation from the circumferential to radial direction may reduce the critical stress intensity that accelerates radial crack propagation. The results of cladding creep tests at $400^{\circ}C$ and 130MPa hoop stress performed in this study indicate that hydride reorientation may occur between 2.6% to 7.0% strain in tube diameter with a hydrogen content range of 40-120ppm. Therefore, it is concluded that hydride re-orientation behaviour is strongly correlated with the cladding creep-induced strain, which varies as functions of temperature and stress acting on the cladding.