• Title, Summary, Keyword: Spatial correlations

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Spatial Correlations of Brain fMRI data

  • Choi Kyungmee
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.241-252
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    • 2005
  • In this study we suggest that the spatial correlation structure of the brain fMRI data be used to characterize the functional connectivity of the brain. For some concussion and recovery data, we examine how the correlation structure changes from one step to another in the data analyses, which will allow us to see the effect of each analysis to the spatial correlation or the functional connectivity of the brain. This will lead us to spot the processes which cause significant changes in the spatial correlation structure of the brain. We discuss whether or not we can decompose correlation matrices in terms of its causes of variations in the data.

MIMO Capacity, Level Crossing Rates and Fades: The Impact of Spatial/Temporal Channel Correlation

  • Giorgetti, Andrea;Smith, Peter J.;Shafi, Mansoor;Chiani, Marco
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.104-115
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    • 2003
  • It is well known that Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems offer the promise of achieving very high spectrum efficiencies (many tens of bit/s/Hz) in a mobile environment. The gains in MIMO capacity are sensitive to the presence of spatial and temporal correlation introduced by the radio environment. In this paper, we examine how MIMO capacity is influenced by a number of factors e.g., a) temporal correlation b) various combinations of low/high spatial correlations at either end, c) combined spatial and temporal correlations. In all cases, we compare the channel capacity that would be achievable under independent fading. We investigate the behaviour of "capacity fades," examine how often the capacity experiences the fades, develop a method to determine level crossing rates and average fade durations and relate these to antenna numbers. We also evaluate the influence of channel correlation on the capacity autocorrelation and assess the fit of a Gaussian random process to the temporal capacity sequence. Finally we note that the particular spatial correlation structure of the MIMO channel is influenced by a large number of factors. For simplicity, it is desirable to use a single overall correlation measure which parameterizes the effect of correlation on capacity. We verify this single parameter concept by simulating a large number of different spatially correlated channels.

An Energy-Efficient Periodic Data Collection using Dynamic Cluster Management Method in Wireless Sensor Network (무선 센서 네트워크에서 동적 클러스터 유지 관리 방법을 이용한 에너지 효율적인 주기적 데이터 수집)

  • Yun, SangHun;Cho, Haengrae
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.206-216
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    • 2010
  • Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used to collect various data in environment monitoring applications. A spatial clustering may reduce energy consumption of data collection by partitioning the WSN into a set of spatial clusters with similar sensing data. For each cluster, only a few sensor nodes (samplers) report their sensing data to a base station (BS). The BS may predict the missed data of non-samplers using the spatial correlations between sensor nodes. ASAP is a representative data collection algorithm using the spatial clustering. It periodically reconstructs the entire network into new clusters to accommodate to the change of spatial correlations, which results in high message overhead. In this paper, we propose a new data collection algorithm, name EPDC (Energy-efficient Periodic Data Collection). Unlike ASAP, EPDC identifies a specific cluster consisting of many dissimilar sensor nodes. Then it reconstructs only the cluster into subclusters each of which includes strongly correlated sensor nodes. EPDC also tries to reduce the message overhead by incorporating a judicious probabilistic model transfer method. We evaluate the performance of EPDC and ASAP using a simulation model. The experiment results show that the performance improvement of EPDC is up to 84% compared to ASAP.

The assessment of the Spatial Variation of the Wind Field using the Meso-velocity Scale and its Contributing Factors (중간 속도 규모를 이용한 바람장의 균질성 평가 및 영향요소 분석)

  • Lee, Seong-Eun;Shin, Sun-Hee;Ha, Kyung-Ja
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.343-353
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    • 2010
  • A regional wind network with complex surface conditions must be designed with sufficient space and time resolution to resolve the local circulations. In this study, the spatial variations of the wind field observed in the Seoul and Jeju regional networks were evaluated in terms of annual, seasons, and months to assess the spatial homogeneity of wind fields within the regional networks. The coherency of the wind field as a function of separation distance between stations indicated that significant coherency was sometimes not captured by the network, as inferred by low correlations between adjacent stations. A meso-velocity scale was defined in terms of the spatial variability of the wind within the network. This problem is predictably most significant with weak winds, dull prevailing wind, clear skies and significant topography. The relatively small correlations between stations imply that the wind at a given point cannot be estimated by interpolating winds from the nearest stations. For the Seoul and Jeju regional network, the meso-velocity scale has typically a same order of magnitude as the speed of the network averaged wind, revealing the large spatial variability of the Jeju network station imply topography and weather. Significant scatter in the relationship between spatial variability of the wind field and the wind speed is thought to be related to thermally-generated flows. The magnitude of the mesovelocity scale was significantly different along separation distance between stations, wind speed, intensity of prevailing wind, clear and cloudy conditions, topography. Resultant wind vectors indicate much different flow patterns along condition of contributing factors. As a result, the careful considerations on contributing factors such as prevailing wind in season, weather, and complex surface conditions with topography and land/sea contrast are required to assess the spatial variations of wind field on a regional network. The results in the spatial variation from the mesovelocity scale are useful to represent the characteristics of regional wind speed including lower surface conditions over the grid scale of large scale atmospheric model.

Construction of Spatial Information Big Data for Urban Thermal Environment Analysis (도시 열환경 분석을 위한 공간정보 빅데이터 구축)

  • Lee, Jun-Hoo;Yoon, Seong-Hwan
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to build a database of Spatial information Bigdata of cities using satellite images and spatial information, and to examine the correlations with the surface temperature. Using architectural structure and usage in building information, DEM and Slope topographical information for constructed with 300 × 300 mesh grids for Busan. The satellite image is used to prepare the Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Bare Soil Index (BI), and Land Surface Temperature (LST). In addition, the building area in the grid was calculated and the building ratio was constructed to build the urban environment DB. In architectural structure, positive correlation was found in masonry and concrete structures. On the terrain, negative correlations were observed between DEM and slope. NDBI and BI were positively correlated, and NDVI was negatively correlated. The higher the Building ratio, the higher the surface temperature. It was found that the urban environment DB could be used as a basic data for urban environment analysis, and it was possible to quantitatively grasp the impact on the architecture and urban environment by adding local meteorological factors. This result is expected to be used as basic data for future urban environment planning and disaster prevention data construction.

3D Deinterlacing Algorithm Based on Wide Sparse Vector Correlations

  • Kim, Yeong-Taeg
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.44-54
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    • 1996
  • In this paper, we propose a new 3-D deinterlacing algorithm based on wide sparse vector correlations and a vertical edge based motion detection algorithm. which is an extension of the deinterlacing algorithm proposed in [10. llJ by the authors. The prooised algorithm is developed mainly for the format conversion problem encountered in current HDTV system, but can also be aplicable to the double scan conversion problesm frequently encountered in ths NTSC systems. By exploiting the edge oriented spatial interpolation based on the wide vector correlations, visually annoying artifiacts caused by interlacing such as a serrate line. line crawling, a line flicker, and a large area flicker can be remarkably reduced since the use of the wide vectors increases the range of the edge orientations that can be detected, and by exploiting sparse vectors correlations the HjW complexity for realizing the algorithm in applications cam be significantly simplified. Simulations are provided indicating thet the proposed algorithm results in a high performance comparable to the performance of the deinterlacing algorithm. based on the wide vector correlations.

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Study on Regional Spatial Autocorrelation of Forest Fire Occurrence in Korea (우리나라 산불 발생의 지역별 공간자기상관성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Moon-Il;Kwak, Han-Bin;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Won, Myoung-Soo;Koo, Kyo-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2011
  • Forest fire in Korea has been controlled by local government, so that it is required to understand the characteristics of regional forest fire occurrences for the effective management. In this study, to analyze the patterns of regional forest fire occurrences, we divided South Korea into nine zones based on administrative boundaries and performed spatial statistical analysis using the location data of forest fire occurrences for 1991-2008. The spatial distributions of forest fire were analyzed by the variogram, and the risk of forest fire was predicted by kriging analysis. As a result, forest fires in metropolitan areas showed strong spatial correlations, while it was hard to find spatial correlations of forest fires in local areas without big city as Gangwon-do, Chungcheongbuk-do and Jeju island.

A Spatial Band Wavelet Video Coding

  • Kim, Eung-Tae;Park, Sang-Ju
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.603-606
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    • 2002
  • EZW, a wavelet transformation based compression algorithm, utilizes the correlations of the wavelet coefficients between subbands. Due to the reason that, it is based on Zero Tree's parent-descendant dependency of the subbands, subband coding is possible, but it is not efficient for applications, which require multi-resolution restorations. In this paper we compare and analyze the performance between spatial band coding, which apply the correlation between adjusting pixels, and EZW So as to prove that spatial band coding is superior to EZW in the sense that it exhibit higher PSNR values and that it is apt to molti-resolution restoration.

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Comparison of Small Area Estimations by Sample Sizes

  • Kim, Jung-O;Shin, Key-Il
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.669-683
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    • 2006
  • Model-based methods are generally used for small area estimation. Recently Shin and Lee (2003) suggested a method which used spatial correlations between areas for data set including some auxiliary variables. However in case of absence of auxiliary variables, Direct estimator is used. Even though direct estimator is unbiased, the large variance of the estimator restricts the use for small area estimation. In this paper, we suggest new estimators which take into account spatial correlation when auxiliary variables are not available. We compared Direct estimator and the newly suggested estimators using MSE, MAE and MB.

A Study on the Relation among Mathematical - Spatial - Verbal Abilities and Gender Differences of Engineering Students (공과대학생들의 수리 - 공간 - 언어 능력 사이의 관계 및 성별 차이에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yeon Mi
    • Journal of Engineering Education Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.34-44
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    • 2015
  • Mathematical, spatial, and verbal abilities are important for future engineers to succeed in the STEM disciplines. The purpose of the study is to assess engineering students' spatial abilities and analyse the relationship with mathematical achievement, verbal achievement, and gender. On the mental rotation tests, 65% of male students demonstrated a substantial level of spatial abilities. But only 30% of female students exhibited spatial skills at the same level as their male colleagues. The correlations between mathematical - spatial - verbal abilities are found to be negligible. When spatial visualization ability was plotted according to the mathematical achievement level, there was no difference in the mean spatial abilities score. But when mathematical achievement score was plotted according to the spatial abilities, there was a noticeable difference. Regression analysis confirmed that female students' mathematical achievement increased as spatial abilities improved. This phenomenon was not observed for male students. It's because male students' spatial ability already contributed to their mathematics achievement. So spatial ability can be regarded as one factor for the gender differences in mathematics achievement. The gender gap on spatial abilities and math achievement is large among high achieving students. For example, there was a 4.3 to 1 male - female ratio and 3.4 to 1 male - female ratio among students scoring 99th percentile in spatial visualization test and scholastic aptitude test-math.