• Title, Summary, Keyword: Spatial and temporal analyses

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Analysis of Characteristics of Air Pollution Over Asia with Satellite-derived $NO_2$ and HCHO using Statistical Methods (환경 위성관측자료의 통계분석을 통한 동아시아 대기오염특성 연구)

  • Baek, K.H.;Kim, Jae Hwan
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.495-503
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    • 2010
  • Satellite data have an intrinsic problem due to a number of various physical parameters, which can have a similar effect on measured radiance. Most evaluations of satellite performance have relied on comparisons with limited spatial and temporal resolution of ground-based measurements such as soundings and in-situ measurements. In order to overcome this problem, a new way of satellite data evaluation is suggested with statistical tools such as empirical orthogonal function(EOF), and singular value decomposition(SVD). The EOF analyses with OMI and OMI HCHO over northeast Asia show that the spatial pattern show high correlation with population density. This suggests that human activity is a major source of as well as HCHO over this region. However, this analysis is contradictory to the previous finding with GOME HCHO that biogenic activity is the main driving mechanism(Fu et al., 2007). To verify the source of HCHO over this region, we performed the EOF analyses with vegetation and HCHO distribution. The results showed no coherence in the spatial and temporal pattern between two factors. Rather, the additional SVD analysis between $NO_2$ and HCHO shows consistency in spatial and temporal coherence. This outcome suggests that the anthropogenic emission is the main source of HCHO over the region. We speculate that the previous study appears to be due to low temporal and spatial resolution of GOME measurements or uncertainty in model input data.

Analysis of Characteristics of Satellite-derived Air Pollutant over Southeast Asia and Evaluation of Tropospheric Ozone using Statistical Methods (통계적 방법을 이용한 동남아시아지역 위성 대기오염물질 분석과 검증)

  • Baek, K.H.;Kim, Jae-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.650-662
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    • 2011
  • The statistical tools such as empirical orthogonal function (EOF), and singular value decomposition (SVD) have been applied to analyze the characteristic of air pollutant over southeast Asia as well as to evaluate Zimeke's tropospheric column ozone (ZTO) determined by tropospheric residual method. In this study, we found that the EOF and SVD analyses are useful methods to extract the most significant temporal and spatial pattern from enormous amounts of satellite data. The EOF analyses with OMI $NO_2$ and OMI HCHO over southeast Asia revealed that the spatial pattern showed high correlation with fire count (r=0.8) and the EOF analysis of CO (r=0.7). This suggests that biomass burning influences a major seasonal variability on $NO_2$ and HCHO over this region. The EOF analysis of ZTO has indicated that the location of maximum ZTO was considerably shifted westward from the location of maximum of fire count and maximum month of ZTO occurred a month later than maximum month (March) of $NO_2$, HCHO and CO. For further analyses, we have performed the SVD analyses between ZTO and ozone precursor to examine their correlation and to check temporal and spatial consistency between two variables. The spatial pattern of ZTO showed latitudinal gradient that could result from latitudinal gradient of stratospheric ozone and temporal maximum of ZTO in March appears to be associated with stratospheric ozone variability that shows maximum in March. These results suggest that there are some sources of error in the tropospheric residual method associated with cloud height error, low efficiency of tropospheric ozone, and low accuracy in lower stratospheric ozone.

Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Cervical Cancer Patients in Upper Northern Thailand

  • Thongsak, Natthapat;Chitapanarux, Imjai;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon;Bunyatisai, Walaithip;Sripan, Patumrat;Traisathit, Patrinee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.5011-5017
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. There have been several studies indicating that risk is associated with geographic location and that the incidence of cervical cancer has changed over time. In Thailand, incidence rates have also been found to be different in each region. Methods: Participants were women living or having lived in upper Northern Thailand and subjected to cervical screening at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Generalized additive models with Loess smooth curve fitting were applied to estimate the risk of cervical cancer. For the spatial analysis, Google Maps were employed to find the geographical locations of the participants' addresses. The Quantum Geographic Information System was used to make a map of cervical cancer risk. Two univariate smooths: x equal to the residency duration was used in the temporal analysis of residency duration, and x equal to the calendar year that participants moved to upper Northern Thailand or birth year for participants already living there, were used in the temporal analysis of the earliest year. The spatial-temporal analysis was conducted in the same way as the spatial analysis except that the data were split into overlapping calendar years. Results: In the spatial analysis, the risk of cervical cancer was shown to be highest in the Eastern sector of upper Northern Thailand (p-value <0.001). In the temporal analysis of residency duration, the risk was shown to be steadily increasing (p-value =0.008), and in the temporal analysis of the earliest year, the risk was observed to be steadily decreasing (p-value=0.016). In the spatial-temporal analysis, the risk was stably higher in Chiang Rai and Nan provinces compared to Chiang Mai province. According to the display movement over time, the odds of developing cervical cancer declined in all provinces. Conclusions: The risk of cervical cancer has decreased over time but, in some areas, there is a higher risk than in the major province of Chiang Mai. Therefore, we should promote cervical cancer screening coverage in all areas, especially where access is difficult and/or to women of lower socioeconomic status.

The Temporal and Spatial Distribution Analysis of Red Tide using GIS (GIS를 이용한 적조의 시-공간적 분포 분석)

  • Jeong Jong-chul
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution aspects of red tide using GIS techniques. The damage caused by red tide appears various aspects according to the species, concentration and spatial distribution of red tide plankton. Therefore, in order to prevent the damage of red tide it is important to understand the distribution characteristics of red tide by each species according to time and space. In this perspective, we analyzed the beginning outbreak area, spatial occurrence frequency and spatial migration of red tide. The spatial data used by this study was constructed by digitizing the red tide quick report and coupled with various attributes such as species, concentration and water temperature for construction of red tide database. We used various spatial analysis methods such as union, intersect, tracking, buffer and spatial interpolation for analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of red tide. From the result of these spatial analyses, we could get the spatial information on the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of red tide at the Southern Sea.

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Effects of Spatio-Temporal Resolution of Diagnostic Wind Field on the Dispersion of Released Substance (바람장의 공간적.시간적 해상도가 누출물질 확산에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영성
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.327-338
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    • 2000
  • complexity in atmospheric environment coupled with shoreline and complex terrain often causes local variations of meteorology that are distinct from those representative over larger surrounding area, These kinds of local variations are less significant in usual long-term environmental impact analyses dealing with continuous plume. The variations could however be crucial in predicting dispersion of toxic substance released in a relatively small area for a short duration. In the present paper the effects of spatial and temporal resolution of diagnostic wind field on the dispersion of the released substance are investigated by using a puff model. A hypothetical release scenario assumes that a substance is released from a location in the Yochon Industrial Estate and passively dispersed within a few-kilometer distance for an hour. The results show that diagnostic analysis could resolve more spatial variations to some extent by employing smaller grid size. The peak concentrations and puff trajectories obtained from spatially -and/or tmeporally -varing diagnostic wind field are found appreciably different from those obtained from uniform wind field. Attention to high-resolution wind field in the both spatial and temporal spaces is called in the consequence analysis of toxic substance release.

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Individual Differences in Regional Gray Matter Volumes According to the Cognitive Style of Young Adults

  • Hur, Minyoung;Kim, Chobok
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2019
  • Extant research has proposed that the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style can elucidate individual differences in the preference for modality-specific information. However, no studies have yet ascertained whether this type of information processing evinces structural correlations in the brain. Therefore, the current study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate individual differences in gray matter volumes based on the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style. For this purpose, ninety healthy young adults were recruited to participate in the study. They were administered the Korean version of the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire, and their anatomical brain images were scanned. The VBM results demonstrated that the participants' verbal scores were positively correlated with regional gray matter volumes (rGMVs) in the right superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus/fusiform gyrus, and the left inferior temporal gyrus. In addition, the rGMVs in these regions were negatively correlated with the relative spatial preference scores obtained by individual participants. The findings of the investigation provide anatomical evidence that the verbal cognitive style could be decidedly relevant to higher-level language processing, but not to basic language processing.

Long-Term Trend Analyses of Water Qualities in Mangyung Watershed (비모수 통계기법을 이용한 만경강 유역의 장기간 수질 경향 분석)

  • Lee, Hye Won;Park, Seoksoon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.480-487
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    • 2008
  • Spatial and temporal analyses of water qualities were performed for 11 monitoring stations located in Mangyung watershed in order to analyze the trends of monthly water quality data of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) measured from 1995 to 2004. The long-term trends were analyzed utilizing Seasonal Mann-Kendall test, LOWESS and three-dimensional graphs were constructed with respect to distance and time. The graph can visualize spatial and temporal trend of the long-term water quality in a large river system. The results of trend analysis indicated that water quality of BOD and TN showed the downward trend. This quantitive and quantitative analysis is the useful tool to analyze and display the long-term trend of water quality in a large river system.

Temporal and spatial analysis of SST and thermal fronts in the North East Asia Seas using NOAA/AVHRR data

  • Yoon, Hong-Joo
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • v.2
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    • pp.831-835
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    • 2006
  • NOAA/AVHRR data were used to analyze sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and thermal fronts (TFs) in the Korean seas. Temporal and spatial analyses were based on data from 1993 to 2000. Harmonic analysis revealed mean SST distributions of $10{\sim}25^{\circ}C$. Annual amplitudes and phases were $4{\sim}11^{\circ}C$ and $210{\sim}240^{\circ}$, respectively. Inverse distributions of annual amplitudes and phases were found for the study seas, with the exception of the East China Sea, which is affected by the Kuroshio Current. Areas with high amplitudes (large variations in SSTs) showed 'low phases' (early maximum SST); areas with low amplitudes (small variations in SSTs) had 'high phases' (late maximum SST). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses of SSTs revealed a first-mode variance of 97.6%. Annually, greater SST variations occurred closer to the continent. Temporal components of the second mode showed higher values in 1993, 1994, and 1995. These phenomena seemed to the effect of El $Ni{\tilde{n}}o$. The Sobel edge detection method (SEDM) delineated four fronts: the Subpolar Front (SPF) separating the northern and southern parts of the East Sea; the Kuroshio Front (KF) in the East China Sea, the South Sea Coastal Front (SSCF) in the South Sea, and a tidal front (TDF) in the West Sea. Thermal fronts generally occurred over steep bathymetric slopes. Annual amplitudes and phases were bounded within these frontal areas. EOF analysis of SST gradient values revealed the temporal and spatial variations in the TFs. The SPF and SSCF were most intense in March and October; the KF was most significant in March and May.

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Dynamic Capacity Concept and its Determination for Managing Congested Flow (혼잡교통류 관리를 위한 동적 용량의 개념 및 산정방법)

  • Park, Eun-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2004
  • The capacity concept presented in the Highway Capacity Manual is for steady-state traffic flow assuming that there is no restriction in downstream flowing, which is traditionally used for planning, design, and operational analyses. In the congested traffic condition, the control objective should be to keep the congested regime from growing and to recover the normal traffic condition as soon as possible. In this control case, it is important to predict the spatial-temporal pattern of congestion evolution or dissipation and to estimate the throughput reduction according to the spatial-temporal pattern. In this context, the new concept of dynamic capacity for managing congested traffic is developed in terms of spatial-temporal evolution of downstream traffic congestion and in view of the 'input' concept assuming that flow is restricted by downstream condition rather than the 'output' concept assuming that there is no restriction in downstream flowing (e.g. the mean queue discharge flow rate). This new capacity is defined as the Maximum Sustainable Throughput that is determined based on the spatial-temporal evolution pattern of downstream congestion. And the spatial-temporal evolution pattern is estimated using the Newell's simplified q-k model.