• Title, Summary, Keyword: Southern Thailand

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Survival and Prognostic Factors of Different Sites of Head and Neck Cancer: An Analysis from Thailand

  • Pruegsanusak, Kowit;Peeravut, Sumet;Leelamanit, Vitoon;Sinkijcharoenchai, Wattana;Jongsatitpaiboon, Jaturong;Phungrassami, Temsak;Chuchart, Kanyarat;Thongsuksai, Paramee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.885-890
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    • 2012
  • Background: Head and neck cancers are prevalent in Thailand, in particular in the southern region of the country. However, survival with a large data set has not been reported. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the survival figures and the prognostic factors in a cohort of patients treated in a university hospital located in the south of Thailand. Patients and Methods: Consecutive new cases of primary carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharyx, hypopharynx and larynx, treated at Songklanagarind Hospital during 2002 to 2004, were analyzed. The 5-year overall survival rates were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were identified through multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: A total 1,186 cases were analyzed. Two-thirds (66.6%) of the cases were at advanced stage (stage III & IV) at presentation. The five-year overall survivals for the whole cohort, oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx were 24.1%, 25.91%, 19.2%, 13.4%, 38.0% respectively. Stage and treatment type were strong prognostic factors for all sites. An age ${\geq}$ 80 years was associated with poor survival in oral cavity and larynx cancer. Conclusions: The results revealed remarkably poor outcomes of the patients in the series, indicating a strong need to increase the proportion of early stage presentations and maximize the treatment efficacy to improving outcomes. Very old patients are of particular concern for treatment care of oral cavity and larynx cancer.

Estimation of the Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma in Songkhla, Thailand, 1989-2013, Using Multiple Imputation Method

  • Yeesoonsang, Seesai;Bilheem, Surichai;McNeil, Edward;Iamsirithaworn, Sophon;Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn;Sriplung, Hutcha
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Histological specimens are not required for diagnosis of liver and bile duct (LBD) cancer, resulting in a high percentage of unknown histologies. We compared estimates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) incidences by imputing these unknown histologies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted using data from the Songkhla Cancer Registry, southern Thailand, from 1989 to 2013. Multivariate imputation by chained equations (mice) was used in re-classification of the unknown histologies. Age-standardized rates (ASR) of HCC and CCA by sex were calculated and the trends were compared. Results Of 2,387 LBD cases, 61% had unknown histology. After imputation, the ASR of HCC in males during 1989 to 2007 increased from 4 to 10 per 100,000 and then decreased after 2007. The ASR of CCA increased from 2 to 5.5 per 100,000, and the ASR of HCC in females decreased from 1.5 in 2009 to 1.3 in 2013 and that of CCA increased from less than 1 to 1.9 per 100,000 by 2013. Results of complete case analysis showed somewhat similar, although less dramatic, trends. Conclusion In Songkhla, the incidence of CCA appears to be stable after increasing for 20 years whereas the incidence of HCC is now declining. The decline in incidence of HCC among males since 2007 is probably due to implementation of the hepatitis B virus vaccine in the 1990s. The rise in incidence of CCA is a concern and highlights the need for case control studies to elucidate the risk factors.

First report of Harmacloninae (Lepidoptera, Tineidae) in Korea

  • Lee, Dong-June;Ko, Jae-Ho;Lee, Tak-Gi;Cha, Yeong-Bin;Bae, Yang-Seop
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.162-166
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    • 2020
  • Previously, 33 species, 18 genera, eight subfamilies of the family Tineidae were reported in Korea. In this study detail a new record to Korea, species, Micrerethista denticulata Davis, 1998 in the subfamily Harmacloninae in Korea. This species is the most widespread species of the genus in southern Asia, ranging from Thailand through Indonesia to southern Japan but absent from New Guinea. Globally, Harmacloninae Davis, 1998 includes 22 species of two genera. The subfamily can be distinguished from the other Tineidae subfamilies by an additional wing locking mechanism, loss of pretarsal arolium and pseudempodial seta, tympanic organ in abdominal sternum II, enlargement of sternal apophyses, and aedeagus with basal midventral keel in male genitalia. The morphological characteristics of this subfamily and species are described, and illustrations of examined species and the key characters for each subfamilies of the family Tineidae from Korea are provided.

CHANGES IN LIVE-WEIGHT GAIN, BLOOD CONSTITUENTS AND WORM EGG COUNTS IN THAI NATIVE AND CROSS-BRED GOATS RAISED IN VILLAGE ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTHERN THAILAND

  • Kochapakdee, S.;Pralomkarn, W.;Choldumrongkul, S.;Saithanoo, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 1995
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of internal parasites on growth rates of Thai Native (TN) and crossbred (75% TN $\times$ 25% Anglo-Nubian, AN and 50% TN $\times$ 50% AN) goats (undrenched, drenched every 3 weeks or at 9 weeks) in village environments in southern Thailand in a humid tropical climate. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in growth rate ($g/kg^{0.75}/d$) between the genotypes during unsupplemented grazing (0-64 days of the experimental period). However, during supplementary feeding (64-127 days) and throughout the period (0-127 days) TN goats had significantly (p < 0.01) lower growth rates compared with 75% TN $\times$ 25% AN and 50% TN $\times$ 50% AN goats. There was no (p > 0.05) significant difference in growth rates between 75% TN $\times$ 25% AN and 50% TN $\times$ 50 % AN goats. The growth rates of goats drenched every 3 weeks were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those undrenched or drenched at 9 weeks. The results of this study also indicate that drenching alone did not result in increased weight gain except when the nutritional status was also improved. Parasitic infection affected some blood constituents, such as pack cell volume, haemoglobin, total protein and albumin. This resulted in lower growth rates for control groups and goats drenched at 9 weeks compared to those of goats drenched every 3 weeks.

Comparison of bivalves of Family Pinnidae from Southern Vietnam: A morphometric approach

  • Silina, Alla V.
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.345-351
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    • 2011
  • Comparison of different morphological characteristics of bivalves is very useful for distinguishing species. Therefore, this study used a morphometric approach to document patterns of phenotypic change through the specimens of family Pinnidae inhabiting the bottom sediments at the coasts of An Thoi Archipelago (south-eastern Gulf of Thailand), in that way excluding intraspecific variations among different populations along a wide geographical range. It was revealed that individuals determined as Pinna trigonium separated from specimens of Pinna nigra and Atrina vexillum at high level, but P. nigra and A. vexillum were the single species A. vexillum, as it is assumed now. Also, it was found that both groups of P. trigonium individuals and A. vexillum specimens divided into tree subgroups unified the specimens with the similar morphometric parameters: small, medium and large within the populations, though there were no evident divisions into subgroups in the size distributions of the populations. In addition to the interspecific morphological variations, the species also showed significant intraspecific morphological variations even in the same population. Most probable reason for the appearance of the intraspecific morphological variations and division of all specimens into size-specific subgroups in the population is the fact that the growth of Pinnidae bivalves is not isometric.

A Research on the origin of Aquilariae Lignum based on its production area and trading status in history (침향(沈香)의 산지와 무역에 근거한 기원 연구)

  • Kim, Kwang-Min;Kim, In-Rak
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.163-168
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    • 2011
  • Objective : The purpose of this study is to determine the origin of Aquilariae Lignum. Method : Firstly identify the production areas of Aquilariae Lignum and its trading status with China in Chinese history through Chinese historical books such as Twenty-Five Histories(二十五史) and the records of the Chosun Dynasty and then, compare the distribution of the genus Aquilaria in the concerned areas. Result : Since the records in the NanfangCaomuZhuang(南方草木狀) written in 304 saying that Aquilariae Lignum was produced in Vietnam and had white flowers, Vietnam had led production and trading of Aquilariae Lignum until Qing Dynasty(淸代). Even though Thailand traded Aquilariae Lignum during Qing Dynasty, however, the volume was at a low level. Aquilariae Lignum from southern Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia was rated as low quality and low-priced because of its fishy smell and strong flavor. Conclusion : These results show that the origin of Aquilariae Lignum comes from Vietnam and this species is distinguished from the ones of Indodesia or Malaysia.

Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene in Bangkok, Thailand during April-August in 2007

  • Laowagul, Wanna;Garivait, Hathairatana;Limpaseni, Wongpun;Yoshizumi, Kunio
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.14-25
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    • 2008
  • Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and m-, p-, and o-xylene, the most influential aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were measured in Bangkok, Thailand, one of the most rapidly developing urban areas in Southern East Asia. The purpose of this study is to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to above mentioned aromatic compounds. The data were monitored in ten sites which cover roadside area, residential area and background area. Canister technique was used to obtain air sample at 24 hour interval per a month during April-August in 2007. GC/MS with three stage preconcentrator was used to analyze these samples. The average concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene m-, p-xylene and o-xylene are 5.8, 36.1, 4.1, 11.0 and $3.7{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. They were observed to be distributed in a log-normal form. Moreover, o-xylene and m, p-xylene exhibited a very good correlation (r=0.976). The slope of the regression equation between them was 3.07 which consisted with a previous reported value. The average ratio of toluene to benzene was 6.4 in April, May June and August. This value was comparable to the ones measured in other Asian cities. Two types of statistical analyses, cluster and factor analyses, were applied to the data in this study. Well characterization was made to understand the air quality of Bangkok area.

Effects of a School-based Intervention Program on Attitude and Knowledge of Household Members Towards a Smoke-free Home: a Cluster Controlled Trial

  • Intarut, Nirun;Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi;McNeil, Edward
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1235-1242
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    • 2016
  • Background: A school-based smoke free home (SFH) program is useful in empowering the mother and child to reduce secondhand smoke exposure but the effects of pretesting on knowledge and attitude has been largely ignored. We aimed to test whether such a program can be effective in Southern Thailand with an additional assessment of the net effect of the pretest. Materials and Methods: A Solomon four-group design was used. Twelve rural primary schools were assigned to one of the four conditions (each with 3 schools): intervention with and without a pretest, control with and without the same pretest. The intervention was performed in the classroom and home over a period of 1 month. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 3 months after the intervention on whether the home was smoke free and related knowledge and attitude. Results: The intervention could lead to a smoke-free home without statistical significance. Attitude, knowledge and self-confidence on creating a smoke-free home, and self-confidence in avoidance of secondhand smoke exposure and persuading smokers to not smoke in their home were significantly improved. No pretest effect was observed. Conclusions: Gain in attitude, knowledge and self-confidence among family members from the brief school-based education should be enhanced by other measures.

New records of flowering plants for the flora of Myanmar collected from southern Shan State

  • KANG, Dae-Hyun;KYAW, Naing Oo;JUNG, Eui-Kwon;SHIN, Jae-Seo;KIM, Young-Dong;ONG, Homervergel G.
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.218-229
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    • 2018
  • Myanmar's plant diversity is expected to be very high given the wide variety of climates and the diverse vegetation and geographical features of the country. Since the publication of Kress et al.'s plant checklist in 2003, new and unrecorded species have been constantly reported by various botanists, but much of Myanmar's flora requires more intensive examinations. We conducted joint floristic surveys of several Ywangan areas, including the Panlaung-Pyadalin Cave Wildlife Sanctuary in southern Shan State of Myanmar. The initial identification of seed plant specimens collected from three short floristic expeditions revealed that 23 species were newly recorded species in Myanmar. More than half of these were found to be geographically notable species, which are known to be endemic to neighboring countries such as China (4 spp.), Thailand (6 spp.), and India (2 spp.). A considerable number of these unrecorded species are distributed in the limestone areas of neighboring countries, reflecting the geological characteristics of the survey area. The results of this study reemphasize the need for intensive and continuous research on the flora of Myanmar for a more comprehensive understanding of the distribution patterns of flowering plants in Southeast Asia.

Quality evaluation of local brand rice in rice exporting countries

  • Kwak, Kang Su;Yoon, Mi Ra;Cho, Young Chan;Lee, Choon Ki;Choi, In Duck;Kim, Mi Jung;Kim, Sun Lim;Kim, Wook Han
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.254-254
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    • 2017
  • This study evaluated the grain quality of local brand rice from 6 major rice exporting countries which are anticipated to export their rice to Korea. Recently, with the end of the postponement of rice import tariffs in 2014, Korea is in a very easy environment to import foreign rice. Therefore, the quality evaluation of local brand rice in those countries is needed to secure the quality competitiveness of Korean rice, also to protect the rice industry in Korea. We provided total 38 local brand rice from USA(7), China(16), Australia(4), Thailand(3), Vietnam(5) and India(3), and 2 imported brand rice through MMA from USA and China to find out the status of the grain quality for each country. For the quality evaluation, we analyzed the physicochemical properties, milling and palatability-related characteristics. The amylose content on country average ranged from 24.4(India)~16.2%(Thailand). The protein content was 6.66% by overall average, and was higher in order of India(7.86), Australia(6.80), Vietnam(6.61), Thailand(6.59), China(6.28), USA(5.82). In Toyo glossiness value, it ranged from 75.7~45.2, and the figures in USA and China were the highest level. The head rice ratio ranged from 95.2~72.4%, and the figures in Thailand, USA and China were distinctly high. When we analyze the palatability of boiled brand rice with Chucheongbyeo as check variety by expert panelists, several rice brands from USA and China showed equal or better scores in shape, smell, taste, stickiness, texture and overall score, although most rice brands showed a tendency to decrease significantly in the taste characteristics compared with Chucheongbyeo. From the above results, it can be seen that the grain quality of USA and China rice is very competitive when imported into Korea. The results will provide basic information for the quality control of foreign rice which will be imported into Korea in the near future, also for the quality information which could be applied on the development of high-quality Korean rice varieties. Continuous monitoring about the foreign brand rice is advisable to improve the quality competitiveness of Korean rice.

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