• Title, Summary, Keyword: Southeast Asia

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Nature and Changes of Southeast Asian Maritime Trade in 15-16 Century: Focused on Portuguese Contact and Influences (15-16세기 동남아 해상무역의 특성과 변화: 포르투갈의 진출과 영향을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Dong-Yeob
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.1-41
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    • 2011
  • Southeast Asia developed maritime trade from the early period due to the suitable physical and cultural conditions. The land consists of peninsular and archipelago, and located at the junction of the two monsoons in South China Sea and India Ocean. The people inherit cultural openness to receive outer influences positively. When Portuguese came to Southeast Asia in 16th century, the region had already enjoyed certain level of commercial development and sociocultural dynamics through the long time experience of interactions with outer world. The Portuguese contact to Southeast Asia was more of participation and assimilation than of conquest and rule experienced in South America. It was due to the higher level of spiritual and material civilization existed in Southeast Asia. Portuguese brought several new elements into Southeast Asia such as colonization and new weapons, Cartaz system and commercial monopoly, and Catholic mission and Casado policy. These new elements, however, did not impact much on the existing Maritime trade that played an important role to change the sociocultural structure of Southeast Asia. Even though Portuguese contact itself did not make significant differences in Southeast Asia, it was meaningful in a sense that it opened a path and left a model case for the more powerful Europeans who came soon after her.

The Origin and Diffusion of 'Southeast Asian Phenomena' in Korea: Focusing on Human Movement (인간의 이동을 중심으로 본 한국 속 '동남아 현상')

  • Kim, Hong-koo
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.77-123
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    • 2011
  • Recently, Southeast Asian people, its food, natural sceneries and so on have been increasingly exposed to Korean people through mass media and multi-cultural events. At the same time, Koreans can frequently encounter Southeast Asians in their everyday lives. Thus, specific images and discourses of Southeast Asia has been established in our society, which creates a new social trend called 'Southeast Asia phenomena'. In short, 'Southeast Asia phenomena' means a totality of Korean people's experience of Southeast Asian and their perception on the region. On the one hand, 'Southeast Asia phenomena' is a result of inflow of Southeast Asians and their culture into Korea. On the other hand, it is also a consequence of Korean people's understanding of Southeast Asia from their trip to Southeast Asia or from their interactions with Southeast Asian people. This article aims to analyze the origin and diffusion of 'Southeast Asian Phenomena' in Korea in the context of Southeast Asia focusing on 4 topics, that is, migrant workers, overseas investments, retirement migration, study-abroad categorized as human movement. This article is also about a country-by-country comparative analysis both at the macro level and the micro level. At the macro level, overseas investments and trade, human exchanges, positive perception to Koreans which considered to be the structural causes become a strong mechanism playing a important bridge role between Korea and Southeast Asia. So these create the high probability of the emergence of 'Southeast Asian Phenomena' At the micro level which is more direct causes of 'Southeast Asian Phenomena', the economic cause is the most important common cause for 4 Southeast Asian Phenomena. Additionally, Korean wave is also remarkable common cause creating 'Southeast Asian Phenomena' even it is not the origin in the context of Southeast Asia. The diffusion of 'Southeast Asian Phenomena' is different by the topics and the elements contributing to create the favorable situation for the diffusion are not only overseas investments and trade, human exchanges at the macro level but also policy elements at the micro level. The relative differences of the causes of 'Southeast Asian Phenomena' in the country-by-country analysis are found. Regarding overseas investments in Vietnam and Cambodia, the economic degree of freedom in Cambodia is higher than in Vietnam. Even Korean Wave has had the longer history in Vietnam, but the favorable perspectives on Korean Wave are stronger in Cambodia. For migrant workers from Vietnam and Indonesia, the economic causes in Vietnam are more significant than in Indonesia. The impact of Korean Wave is stronger in Vietnam than in Indonesia. In case of study-abroad, the social-cultural elements and policy elements are more diverse in Malaysia than in Korea. For the Korean retirees who immigrate to the Philippines and Malaysia, the economic causes in the Philippines is more significant in Malaysia.

Southeast Asian Studies and Economics in Korea (한국의 동남아 지역연구와 경제학: 학술지 분석 및 방향성 모색을 중심으로)

  • RA, Hee-Ryang
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.43-93
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    • 2012
  • This paper examines the performances of economics for Southeast Asian studies and finds the relationship between economics and Southeast Asian studies in Korea. Based on this we try to find the direction and the way how economics contributes to Southeast Asian studies. First of all, we look into several journals on area studies, such as Review of Southeast Asia, and find out that economics researches on Southeast Asia are much fewer than expected. This shows that Korean economists are not much interested in the issue of Southeast Asia and reflects the academic differences as discipline in economics and interdisciplinary Southeast Asian studies. However, we could find the common area that economics and Southeast Asian studies can share. Also, we suggest some points that economics contributes to development of Southeast Asian studies toward a independent academic discipline. It includes the theory and methodology of international, and development economics. The rapid development of information and communication technology and the economic integration by globalization needs new and modified economic theory and methodology for research on Southeast Asia. Adopting the objective and statistical methodology of economics could level up Southeast Asian studies as social science. Also, Southeast Asian studies need to recruit more actively economics research topics and methodology. Economics could attribute to the development of Korean Southeast Asian studies.

Natural Rubber Economics between China and Southeast Asia: The Impact of China's Economic Slowdown

  • OKTORA, Siskarossa Ika;FIRDANI, Alfada Maghfiri
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2019
  • China has become the second largest economy since 2010. China's economy is supported by the rapid growth of its automobile industry. The rapid growth of the automobile and tire industry will increase the natural rubber (NR) demand as its primary raw materials. Although as a significant producer, China cannot fulfill the consumption by its domestic production. Thus China relies heavily on import from Southeast Asia countries as the primary producers of natural rubber in the world. China and Southeast Asia are dependent on their economy in terms of the availability of natural rubber as raw materials. But the economic slowdown in China since 2008 is expected to affect the international trading between China and Southeast Asia countries. This research aims to analyze the determinants of NR export from Southeast Asia to China using panel data analysis. The results show NR price, exchange rate, and China's economic slowdown significantly affect NR export to China, while Southeast Asian NR production has no significant effect. China as the main importer of NR from Southeast Asia has a big role in growing NR export in Southeast Asia. If China's economy doesn't improve soon, it will affect the economy in Southeast Asia.

Chinese Influence and Southeast Asian Response: An Interactive Approach (중국의 영향과 동남아의 대응: 상호적 접근시각)

  • Park, Sa-Myung
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.217-261
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    • 2011
  • This study is an attempt to construct a basic framework of analysis about China's political and economic influence on Southeast Asia through traditional Sinocentrism, anti-colonial nationalism, Cold War socialism and post-Cold War capitalism. As to the historical status of Southeast Asia vis-a-vis external forces such as India, China and the West, the colonial discourse tends to put excessive emphasis upon its dependence, and the posy-colonial discourse upon its autonomy. However, this study elucidates the political and economic interactions between China and Southeast Asia in a dynamic perspective, focusing on their reciprocal interactions beyond the essentially static dichotomy of autonomy and dependence. Chinese influence on Southeast asia can be divided into active and reactive one, with the former referring to direct and intended consequences and the latter to indirect and unintended consequences. In the historical process of active and reactive influence, both China and Southeast Asia were fundamentally proactive actors. Thus, the autonomy or dependence of Southeast Asia is just a question of relative one, with its actual extent and degree varying with specific spatial and temporal conditions.

A Study on Chinese Southeast Asian housing -Cases in Malaysia and Singapore- (중국계 동남아인(華人) 주거에 관한 연구 -말레이시아와 싱가포르 사례를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Yoon, In-Suk
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.65-84
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    • 2000
  • The region of Southeast Asia had already experienced rapid urbanization and cultural change before the East Asia region did. None the less, nowadays shophouses and rowhouses still form the major portion of streets in Chinese town in Southeast Asia countries. The purpose of this study is to examine the adaptation process of shophouse and rowhouse in the Southeast Asia region and the architectural characteristics between the middle of 18th and the early of 20th, which Chinese people of the region inherit and develop, for more thorough understanding of cultural adaptability and regionalism of Chinese architecture in Southeast Asia. The common fact found in the Southeast Asia region is that Chinese people in countries of this region gradually started to live densely as a group in a certain zone in city area since they got to play important roles in commerce, trade and service works related with cities, due to European countries' advance into Southeast Asia and their construction of colonial cities in the region. Chinese people in the region utilized residential rowhouse and special shophouse, which is a kind of shop adapted from rowhouses' sitting room or storage, for their commercial and industrial activities in urban areas, which had problems of limited space. They also realized high densities through vertical expansion of space in order to adjust to changing urban structure under execution of urban planning in cities of colonial area and rapid urbanization. Even though residence of Chinese in Southeast Asia was influenced by new political, social, economic and cultural rules of European colonies in Southeast Asia, it has continuously succeeded to the cultural tradition of China, their home country, in terms of planning principle which puts air well in the middle and hierarchial spacial construction method. Appearance of the open connected verandah, designed by Stamford Raffles, the founder of Singapore, can be regarded as one of the architectural characters. Hence, Chinese residence in cities of Southeast Asia can be understood as a new regional architectural culture in the context of European countries' urban planning and urbanization of colonial areas, Immigrants from southern China and their role, their adjustment to urban areas by utilizing mixed type houses of residence and business, cultural tradition of Chinese home country.

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Southeast Asian Studies in China: Progress and Problems (중국 동남아학의 발전과 과제)

  • Park, Sa-Myung
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.1-40
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    • 2010
  • China and Southeast Asia share intimate relationships based on close spatial, temporal and human conditions. Thus, Southeast Asian studies in China boast of a long lineage of 'traditional', 'embryonic', 'closed' and 'opened' Southeast Asian studies. In the modern period the 'embryonic Southeast Asian studies,' professing conservative nationalism based on traditional Sino-centric perspectives, accumulated elementary knowledges on the history of Sino-Southeast Asian relations and Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, 'closed Southeast Asian studies' standing for radical Communism suffered from chronic stagnation. After the Reform and Opening, 'opened Southeast Asian studies' recorded impressive progress in the restoration and development of Southeast Asian studies. Nevertheless, 'opened Southeast Asian studies' are faced with some serious problems such as biased perspectives, traditional methods, and national subjects. Most of all, it is urgent to overcome Sino-centric perspectives on Southeast Asia. Despite the opening of Southeast Asian studies to the diverse methods of modern social sciences, descriptive studies prevail over analytical ones. Regardless of the diversification of subjects, national questions such as the overseas Chinese and cross-border nationalities are prone to excessive nationalism.

Peasant Societies in Colonial East Asia: The Universality and Particularity of Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia (식민시대 동아시아의 소농사회: 동남아와 동북아의 보편성과 특수성)

  • Park, Sa-Myung
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.1-41
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    • 2012
  • The peasant societies of East Asia had been challenged by capitalist plantation since colonization and by socialist collectivization since decolonization. The former was decisively weakened due to the crisis of the capitalist system in the 1930s and the collapse of the colonial order in the 1940s; The latter was thoroughly discredited due to the reform of the socialist system in the 1980s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s. The failure of the two epochal challenges demonstrates the historical sustainability of peasant societies in East Asia. Their survival represents the universality of Northeast and Southeast Asia, which can be ascribed to the ecological environment and production process of wet-rice agriculture for their common staple food. In spite of their diverse differences, indeed, peasant societies in colonial East Asia shared profound similarities in their basic motivations (morality-rationality), central tendencies (involution - polarization), structural outcomes (dualism - pluralism), and future prospects (survival-extinction).

Southeast Asian Hindu Art from the 6th to the 7th Centuries (6-7세기의 동남아 힌두 미술 - 인도 힌두미술의 전파와 초기의 변용 -)

  • Kang, Heejung
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.263-297
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    • 2010
  • The relics of the Southeast Asian civilizations in the first phase are found with the relics from India, China, and even further West of Persia and Rome. These relics are the historic marks of the ancient interactions of various continents, mainly through the maritime trade. The traces of the indic culture, which appears in the historic age, are represented in the textual records and arts, regarded as the essence of the India itself. The ancient Hindu arts found in various locations of Southeast Asia were thought to be transplanted directly from India. However, Neither did the Gupta Hindu Art of India form the mainstream of the Gupta Art, nor did it play an influential role in the adjacent areas. The Indian culture was transmitted to Southeast Asia rather intermittently than consistently. If we thoroughly compare the early Hindu art of India and that of Southeast Asia, we can find that the latter was influenced by the former, but still sustained Southeast Asian originality. The reason that the earliest Southeast Asian Hindu art is discovered mostly in continental Southeast Asia is resulted from the fact that the earliest networks between India and the region were constructed in this region. Among the images of Hindu gods produced before the 7th century are Shiva, Vishnu, Harihara, and Skanda(the son of Shiva), and Ganesha(the god of wealth). The earliest example of Vishnu was sculpted according to the Kushan style. After that, most of the sculptures came to have robust figures and graceful proportions. There are a small number of images of Ganesha and Skanda. These images strictly follow the iconography of the Indian sculpture. This shows that Southeast Asians chose their own Hindu gods from the Hindu pantheon selectively and devoted their faiths to them. Their basic iconography obediently followed the Indian model, but they tried to transform parts of the images within the Southeast Asian contexts. However, it is very difficult to understand the process of the development of the Hindu faith and its contents in the ancient Southeast Asia. It is because there are very few undamaged Hindu temples left in Southeast Asia. It is also difficult to make sure that the Hindu religion of India, which was based on the complex rituals and the caste system, was transplanted to Southeast Asia, because there were no such strong basis of social structure and religion in the region. "Indianization" is an organized expansion of the Indian culture based on the sense of belonging to an Indian context. This can be defined through the process of transmission and progress of the Hindu or Buddhist religions, legends about purana, and the influx of various epic expression and its development. Such conditions are represented through the Sanskrit language and the art. It is the element of the Indian culture to fabricate an image of god as a devotional object. However, if we look into details of the iconography, style, and religious culture, these can be understood as a "selective reception of foreign religious culture." There were no sophisticated social structure yet to support the Indian culture to continue in Southeast Asia around the 7th century. Whether this phenomena was an "Indianization" or the "influx of elements of Indian culture," it was closely related to the matter of 'localization.' The regional character of each local region in Southeast Asia is partially shown after the 8th century. However it is not clear whether this culture was settled in each region as its dominant culture. The localization of the Indian culture in Southeast Asia which acted as a network connecting ports or cities was a part of the process of localization of Indian culture in pan-Southeast Asian region, and the process of the building of the basis for establishing an identity for each Southeast Asian region.