• Title/Summary/Keyword: Sorption

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Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition on Nitridation-Treated Catalyst of Mo-Al Mixed Oxide (Mo-Al 복합 산화물의 질화반응 처리된 촉매상에서 암모니아 촉매 분해반응)

  • Baek, Seo-Hyeon;Youn, Kyunghee;Shin, Chae-Ho
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2022
  • Catalytic activity in ammonia decomposition reaction was studied on Mo-Al nitride obtained through temperature programmed nitridation of calcined Mo-Al mixed oxide prepared by varying the MoO3 quantity in the range of 10-50 wt%. N2 sorption analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the physicochemical properties of the prepared catalyst were performed. After calcination at 600 ℃, the XRD of Mo-Al oxide showed γ-Al2O3 and Al2(MoO4)3 phases, and the nitride after nitridation showed an amorphous form. The specific surface area after nitridation by topotactic transformation of MoO3 to nitride was increased due to the formation of Mo nitride, and the Mo nitride was observed to be supported on γ-Al2O3. As for the catalytic activity in the ammonia decomposition reaction, 40 wt% MoO3 showed the best activity, and as the nitridation time increases, the activity increased, and thus the activation energy decreased.

Application of Nano Fe°-impregnated Biochar for the Stabilization of As-contaminated Soil (비소 오염토양의 안정화를 위한 나노 Fe° 담지 바이오차 적용 연구)

  • Choi, Yu-Lim;Angaru, Ganesh Kumar Reddy;Ahn, Hye-Young;Park, Kwang-Jin;Joo, Wan-Ho;Yang, Jae-Kyu;Chang, Yoon-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.350-362
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    • 2020
  • In this study, nano Fe°-impregnated biochar (INPBC) was prepared using pruning residues and one-pot synthetic method and evaluated its performance as an amendment agent for the stabilization of arsenic-contaminated soil. For the preparation of INPBC, the mixture of pruning residue and Fe (III) solution was heated to 220℃ for 3hr in a teflon-sealed autoclave followed by calcination at 600℃ under N2 atmosphere for 1hr. As-prepared INPBC was characterized using FT-IR, XRD, BET, SEM. For the stabilization test of as-prepared INPBC, As-contaminated soils (Soil-E and Soil-S) sampled from agricultural sites located respectively near E-abandoned mine and S-abandoned mine in South Korea were mixed with different of dosage of INPBC and cultivated for 4 weeks. After treatment, TCLP and SPLP tests were conducted to determine the stabilization efficiency of As in soil and showed that the stabilization efficiency was increased with increasing the INPBC dosage and the concentration of As in SPLP extractant of Soil-E was lower than the drinking water standard level of Ministry of Environment of South Korea. The sequential fractionation of As in the stabilized soils indicated that the fractions of As in the 1st and 2nd stages that correspond liable and known as bioavailable fraction were decreased and the fractions of As in 3rd and 4th stages that correspond relatively non-liable fraction were increased. Such a stabilization of As shows that the abundant nano Fe° on the surface of INPBC mixed with As-contaminated soils played the co-precipitation of As leaching from soil by surface complexation with iron. The results of this study may imply that INPBC as a promising amendments for the stabilization of As-contaminated soil play an important role.

Structural Study of Selenium Sorption Complex of Fully Dehydrated, Partially Ca2+-exchanged Zeolite A (완전히 탈수되고 부분적으로 칼슘 이온으로 교환된 제올라이트 A의 셀레늄 수착 화합물의 구조 연구)

  • Kim, Hu Sik;Park, Jong Sam;Lim, Woo Taik
    • Korean Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 2020
  • Single crystal of fully dehydrated and partially Ca2+-exchanged zeolites A (|Ca4Na4|[Si12Al12O48]-LTA) was brought into contact with Se in fine pyrex capillary at 523 K for 5 days. Crystal structure of Se-sorbed |Ca4Na4|[Si12Al12O48]-LTA has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques at 294 K in the cubic space group $Pm{\bar{3}}m$ (a = 12.2787(13) Å). The crystal structure of yellow |Ca4Na4Se4|[Si12Al12O48]-LTA has been refined to the final error indices of R1/wR2 = 0.0960/0.3483 with 327 reflections for which Fo > 4s(Fo). In this structure, 4 Na+ and 4 Ca2+ ions fill every 6-ring site: These ions are all found at three crystallographic positions, on 3-fold axes equipoints of opposite 6-rings. Selenium atoms are found at three crystallographically distinct positions: 2 Se atoms per unit cell at Se(1) are located opposite 6-rings in the sodalite cavity (Se(1)-Na(1) = 2.53(5) Å) and 1 at Se(2) opposite 4-rings (Se(2)-O(1) = 2.76(10) Å) and 1 at Se(3) opposite 6-rings in the large cavity (Se(3)-Na(1) = 2.48(5) Å). Two molecular of Se2 (Se(1)-Se(1) = 2.37(7) or 2.90(8) Å and Se(2)-Se(3) = 2.91(5) ) Å) are found in all sodalite cavity and large cavity. Other clusters such as Se4 and Se8 could be existed in large cavity. The inter-selenium distances turned out to be longer that of gases Se2 molecule.

Physicochemical Properties of Cross-linked Waxy Rice Starches and Its Application to Yukwa (가교화 찹쌀전분의 물리화학적 성질 및 유과제조 특성)

  • Yu, Chul;Choi, Hyun-Wook;Kim, Chong-Tai;Ahn, Soon-Cheol;Choi, Sung-Won;Kim, Byung-Yong;Baik, Moo-Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.534-540
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    • 2007
  • In this study, waxy rice starch was chemically modified using phosphorous oxychloride ($POCl_3$, 0.002-0.008%). Then the physicochemical properties of resulting cross-linked waxy rice starches were investigated in order to reduce the steeping time of Yukwa (a Korean oil-puffed rice snack) processing. The swelling powers of the cross-linked waxy rice starch samples were higher than the native waxy rice starch at temperatures above $60^{\circ}C$, and their increases were proportional to the $POCl_3$, concentration. The solubility of the cross-linked waxy rice starch was lower (1.6-3.4%) than the native waxy rice starch (2.7-6.1%). However, the moisture sorption isotherm of the cross-linked waxy rice starch was not significantly different from the native waxy rice starch. The rapid visco analyze. (RVA) pasting temperatures $(65.4-67^{\circ}C)$ of the cross-linked waxy rice starch were lower than those of the native starch $(67^{\circ}C)$. The RVA peak viscosities (287-337 RVU) of the cross-linked waxy rice starch were higher than that of native starch (179 rapid visco units (RVU)), and increased with increasing $POCl_3$ concentration. For the differential scornning calorimeter thermal characteristics, although Tc shifted toward higher temperatures with cross-linking, the To, Tp, and amylopectiin melting enthalpy of the cross-linked waxy rice starch showed no differences compared to the native waxy rice starch. The X-ray diffraction patterns of both the native and cross-linked waxy rice starches showed typical A-type crystal patterns, suggesting that cross-linking mainly occurs in the amorphous regions of starch granules. Therefore, the cross-linking reaction did not change the crystalline region, but altered the amorphous region of the waxy rice starch molecules, resulting in changes of solubility and RVA pasting properties in the cross-linked waxy rice starch. In summary, since cross-linked waxy rice starch has a high puffing efficiency and no browning reaction, it may be applicable for Yukwa processing without a long steeping process.

Simultaneous Removal of Cd & Cr(VI) by Fe-loaded Zeolite in Column System (Fe-loaded zeolite를 이용한 칼럼 실험에서의 Cd & Cr(VI) 동시제거 반응성 평가)

  • Lee Ah-Ra;Lee Seung-Hak;Park Jun-Boum
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.14-22
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    • 2006
  • Laboratory column experiment for simultaneous removal of Cd and Cr(VI) were conducted using newly developed material of Fe-loaded zeolite having both reduction ability and sorption capacity. The solution containing Cd and Cr(VI) was injected into the column and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) for the contaminants were observed at the effluent port. Cd breakthrough was not initialized until Cr(VI) breakthrough was completed. Therefore it could be concluded that overall efficiency of Fe-loaded zeolite should be determined by the reactivity for Cr(VI). The relative concentration of Cr(VI) BTC increased to the unit value while initial breakthrough was delayed and the propagation of breakthrough was slowed. In order to quantitatively describe the shape of Cr(VI) BTC, new parameters of ${\alpha}\;and\;{\beta}$ designated to be shape parameters, were defined and applied in contaminant transport concentration. These parameters were employed to represent the degree of initial breakthrough delay and the degree of breakthrough propagation, respectively. As initial contaminant concentration increased, ${\alpha}$ decreased, which indicated the delay of BTC's initiation. And as initial contaminant flow rate increased, ${\beta}$ decreased, which represented the faster propagation of the BTC. From these results, Fe-loaded zeolite was found to be an effective reactive material for PRBs against heavy metals having different ionic forms in groundwater. And it could be expected that as groundwater flows faster, the propagation of breakthrough would be faster and as contaminant concentration is higher, the initial point of breakthrough would appear earlier.

Effects of Solvent Extraction by Immersion on the Quality and Storage Stability of Rice (용매침지(溶媒浸漬)에 의한 탈지(脫脂)처리가 쌀의 품질(品質) 및 저장성(貯臧性)에 미치는 영향)

  • Cheigh, Hong-Sik;Kwon, Tai-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.271-275
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    • 1972
  • Effects of solvent extraction by immersion on the quality and storage stability of Korean rice were studied. Proportions of lipid extracted from whole grain of rice by immersing into two volumes(v/wt) of hexane and ethanol for 72 hours at room temperature were 0.41% and 0.38% respectively. Small changes of water content and hardness of rice were observed by solvent treatment. Cooking characteristics; that is, water-uptake ratio. extended volume, total solid, and starch-iodine blue test of rice was markedly changed by ethanol treatment, while little changes were observed by hexane treatment. No considerable differences in moisture sorption isotherm of rice were observed by both solvent treatments. Changes in TBA number and stale flavor appearance of rice treated with or without solvent immersion during storage at $60^{\circ}C$ showed that rice treated with hexane had best storage stability compared to ethanol treatment, while ethanol treatment of rice had better storage stability than no treatment. Similar results were noted in changes of the flavor score of cooked rice samples which were freeze dried.

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Three Crystal Structures of Dehydrated Partially $Co^{2+}-Exchanged$ Zeolite A Treated with Potassium Vapor (부분적으로 코발트 이온으로 치환한 제올라이트 A를 진공 탈수한 후 칼륨 증기로 반응시킨 3개의 결정구조)

  • Jeong Mi Suk;Jang Se Bok
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2004
  • Three crystal structures of dehydrated partially $Co^{2+}-exchanged$ zeolite A treated with 0.6 Torr of K at $300^{\circ}C$ (for 12 hrs, 6 hrs, and 2 hrs) vapor have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Pm3m at 21(1)$^{\circ}C(a=12.181(1)\;{\AA},\;a=12.184(1)\;{\AA},\;and\;a=12.215(1)\;{\AA})\;respectively)$. Their structures were refined to the final error indices, R(weight) of 0.090 with 10 reflections, 0.091 with 82 reflections, and 0.090 with 80 reflections, respectively, for which $1>\sigma(I)$. In each structure, all four $Co^{2+}$ and four $Na^+$ ions to be reduced by K atoms. The cobalt and sodium atoms produced are no longer found in the zeolite. K species are found at five different crystallographic sites: three $K^+$ ions lie at the planes of 8-rings, filling that position, ca. 11.5 K^+$ ions lie on threefold axes, ca. 4.0 in the large cavity and ca. 4.0 in the sodalite cavity, and ca. 0.5 $K^+$ ion is found near a 4-ring. ca. three $K^0$ atoms are found deep into the large cavity on threefold axes. In these structures, crystallographic results show that cationic tetrahedral $K_4$ (and/or triangular $K_3$) clusters have formed in the sodalites of zeolite A. The $K_4$ and/or $K_3$ clusters coordinate trigonally to three oxygens of a six-oxygen ring. The partially reduced ions of these clusters interact primarily with oxygen atoms of the zeolite structure rather than with each other. ca. 14.5K species are found per unit cell, more than the twelve $K^+$ ions needed to balance the anionic charge of zeolite framework, indicating that sorption of $K^0$ has occurred. The three $K^0$ atoms in the large cavity are closely associated with three out of four $K^+$ ions in the large cavity to form $K_7^{4+}$ clusters. The $K_7^{4+}$ cluster not interacts primarily with framework oxygens.

Phosphorous Removal in a Free Water Surface Wetland Constructed on the Gwangju Stream Floodplain (광주천 고수부지에 조성한 자유수면인공습지의 인 제거)

  • Yang, Hong-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 2012
  • Removal rates of $PO_4-P$ and TP in a free water surface wetland system were investigated. The system was established in 2008 on a floodplain in the middle reach of the Gwangju Stream flowing through Gwangju City. Its dimensions were 46 meters in length and 5 meters in width. Two year old Typha angustifloria L. growing in pots were planted on half of the area and Zizania latifolia Turcz on the other half in 2008. Stream water was funneled into the wetlands by gravity flow, and its effluent was discharged back into the stream. The influent volume was controlled by valves and water depth was adjusted by wires. Volume and water quality of inflow and outflow were analyzed from January to December in 2010. Inflow into the system averaged approximately $710m^3/day$ and hydraulic residence time was about 1.5 hours. Average influent and effluent $PO_4-P$ concentration were 0.144 and 0.103mg/L, respectively, and $PO_4-P$ abatement amounted to 28.6%. Influent and effluent TP concentration averaged 0.333 and 0.262mg/L, respectively, and TP retention reached to 20.7%.$PO_4-P$ removal rate(%) during plant growing season(31.448) was significantly high(p<0.001) when compared with that during plant non-growing season(25.829). TP abatement rate(%) during plant growing season(27.230) was also significantly high(p<0.001) when compared with that of the non-growing season(14.856). Major phosphorous removals in the system resulted from adsorption of phosphorous in the litter-soil layers; sedimentation of particulate phosphorous and Ca, Al, Fe bounded phosphates; and absorption of phosphorous by emergent plants. The adsorption and sedimentation occurred throughout the year, however, the absorption took place during plant growing season. This resulted in higher removals of $PO_4-P$ and TP during plant growing season.

Chemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Peat Moss and Its Different Humic Fractions (Humin, Humic Acid and Fulvic Acid) (피트모스에서 추출한 휴믹물질(휴믹산, 풀빅산, 휴민)의 화학적 및 분광학적 물질특성 규명)

  • Lee Chang-Hoon;Shin Hyun-Sang;Kang Ki-Hoon
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.42-51
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    • 2004
  • Peat humin(p-Humin), humic acid(p-HA) and fulvic acid(p-FA) were isolated from Canadian Sphagnum peat moss by dissolution in 0.1M NaOH followed by acid precipitation. After purification cycles, they are characterized for their elemental compositions and, acid/base properties. Functionalities and carbon structures of the humic fractions were also characterized using FT-IR and solid state $^{13}C$-NMR spectroscopy. Those results are compared with one another and with soil humic substances from literatures. Main purpose of this study was to present a chemical and spectroscopic characterization data of humic substance from peat moss needed to evaluate its environmental applicability. The relative proportions of the p-Humin, p-HA and p-FA in the peat moss was $76\%,\;18\%,\;and\;3\%$, respectively, based on the total organic matter content ($957{\pm}32\;g/kg$). Elemental composition of p-Humin were found to be $C_{1.00}H_{1.52}O_{0.79}N_{0.01}$ and had higher H/C and (N+O)/C ratio compared to those of p-HA($C_{1.00}H_{1.09}O_{0.51}N_{0.02}$) and p-FA($C_{1.00}H_{1.08}O_{0.65}N_{0.01}$). Based on the analysis of pH titration data, there are two different types of acidic functional groups in the peat moss and its humic fractions and their proton exchange capacities(PEC, meq/g) were in the order p-FA(4.91) >p-HA(4.09) >p-Humin(2.38). IR spectroscopic results showed that the functionalities of the peat moss humic molecules are similar to those of soil humic substances, and carboxylic acid(-COOH) is main function group providing metal binding sites for Cd(II) sorption. Spectral features obtained from $^{13}C$-NMR indicated that peat moss humic molecules have rather lower degree of humification, and that important structural differences exist between p-Humin and soluble humic fractions(p-HA and p-FA).

Distribution of Total Mercury in Korean Coastal Sediments (한반도 연안역 표층퇴적물 내 총 수은 분포 특성)

  • JOE, DONGJIN;CHOI, MANSIK;KIM, CHANKOOK
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.76-90
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    • 2018
  • To determine the distribution of mercury (Hg) in the coastal surface sediments around the Korean peninsula, the baseline concentration of Hg was estimated, the extent of contamination was assessed, and the factors controlling the distribution were discussed. The concentrations of Hg in surface sediments were significantly high in Jinhae-Masan Bay in the South Sea, Ulsan-Onsan Bay and Yeongil Bay in the East Sea, but Hg in other sediments showed a similar distribution to Cs and relatively very low concentration between 0.21 and $39.5{\mu}g/kg$ ($13.6{\pm}7.80{\mu}g/kg$). Compared to the sediment quality guidelines in Korea, 8 % of the surface sediments (n=282) analyzed in this study exceeded the values of the threshold effects level (TEL), and six sediments collected around Onsan Port were higher than the value of the probable effects level (PEL). The contamination levels of Hg were assessed by the enrichment factors using the baseline concentration (2.06Cs+1.75) based on the residual analysis from the linear regression line for Cs, and further, factors controlling the distribution of Hg were discussed by the comparison with geochemical substances depending upon the Hg enrichment level. Hg concentrations were correlated well with Cs concentration in the range of less than 1.69 of EF implying grain size control, while in the range of 1.69 and 4.03 Hg concentrations were correlated well with Fe oxyhyroxide and organic carbon contents, which indicates Hg was enriched by superior sorption capability. On the meanwhile, samples with higher EFs (4.03 to 74.9) showed fairly positive correlations with other metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) rather than geochemical substances. For samples in Youngil Bay and Ulsan-Onsan Bay (n=30), Hg concentrations were correlated only with other metals rather than geochemical substances implying simultaneous supply of metal particles from metal refineries. But samples at Gosung, Sokcho and Uljin coast were correlated well with organic carbon even though they had high EFs. In addition, samples in Jinhae-Masan Bay with high contents of S were enriched by relatively high sulfide formation.