• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid

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Studies of Organic Forage Production System for Animal Production in Korea (한국의 가축 생산성 향상을 위한 유기조사료 생산체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Kim, Jong-Kwan;Kwon, Chan-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2014
  • Organic forage production system is one of the most important aspects in organic livestock production. Animals in the organic farming system are also essential for manure to be used for organic forage production. Both organic forage and animals are essential to maintain the cycle of organic agriculture system. In this paper we introduce the organic forage production system in Korea. Summer and winter crops are getting popular in Korea because of their high forage yield and cultivation in double cropping systems. Common cropping system for forage production in Korea is the double cropping system with legume and grass mixture. Forage sorghum and sudangrass are the most popular ones of annual summer forage corps because of their high production with low cost in the double cropping systems. In the mixture of forage crops, inter cropping is more suitable in the corn and sorghum cropping system because of high lodging resistance and forage yield, and low weed population. Forage sorghum and sudangrass are difficult to preserve as direct-cut silage due to the fact that its high moisture content causes excessive fermentation during ensiling. Corn grain addition to sorghum silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing quality and reducing production cost. It is recommended that corn grain could be added up to 10% of total amount of silage. And agriculture by-products also can be added at the time of ensiling to minimize losses of effluent and have the additional advantage of increasing quality. Agriculture by-products as silage supplements increased DM content and quality, and decreased the production cost of sorghum silage. Field pre-wilting treatment of forage crops also increased DM content and quality of the silage. Wilting sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid before ensiling was the effective method for reducing effluent and increasing pH and forage quality more than direct cut silage. Optimum prewilting period of sudangrass silage was 1 or 2 days. In organic forage, the most important factor is the enhancement of organic forage sufficiency in relation to the environmental-friendly and organic livestock. Consequently, there are many possibilities for animal production and organic forage production in Korea. No forages no cattle concept should be emphasized in organic farming system.

A Comparative Studies on the growth Characteristics and Feed Components of Sorghum × Sudangrass hybrids at Paddy Field Cultivation (수수×수단그라스 교잡종 논토양 재배시 품종별 생육특성 및 사료가치 비교 연구)

  • Jeon, Byong-Tae;Moon, Sang-Ho;Lee, Sang-Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to compare the agronomic characteristics, forage yield, and feed value of nine sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrids at paddy field cultivation. The nine recommended sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrids used in this study were P877F, Cow pow, Turbo gold, Maxi graze, Jumbo, G7, Sweet home, Honey chew BMR and Green star. Plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, and stem hardness were higher in Jumbo than other varieties (P<0.01). Sugar content (brix) was higher in order of P877F > Sweet home > maxi graze > Green star > Cow pow > G7 (P<0.01). Fresh (86,199kg/ha) and dry matter yield (16,206 kg/ha) of Jumbo were higher than other varieties (P<0.01). Crude protein was the highest in Maxi graze (6.5%), but crude fat was the highest in Honey chew BMR as 2.1% (P<0.01). NDF and ADF of Jumbo and G7 were higher than other varieties (P<0.01). TDN was higher in order of Maxi graze > Sweet home > P877F > Honey chew BMR > Green star, but no significant differences were found among the varieties. Minerals were the highest in Cow pow (15,020.5 mg/kg), and Sweet home (6,222.6 mg/kg) was the lowest as compared to other varieties (P<0.01). Total amino acids were higher in order of Maxi graze > Sweet home > Turbo gold > Honey chew BMR > Jumbo (P<0.01). Crude protein yield and crude fat yield were the highest in Turbo gold (814.6 kg/ha) and Honey chew BMR (309.8kg/ha), respectively (P<0.01). Mineral yield was the highest in Cow pow as 207.6 kg/ha (P<0.01). Amino acid yield (592.2 kg/ha) and TDN yield (10,194 kg/ha) were the highest in Sweet home. Based on the above results, sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid varieties should be selected on the basis of the purpose of use. Because, each varieties showed various growth characteristics and nutrition yield (protein, fat, mineral, amino acid, TDN).

Effects of Nitrogen Level on Intercropping Cultivation of Sorghum $\times$ Sudangrass Hybrid and Soybean (질소시비 수준이 수수 $\times$ 수단그라스 교잡종과 대두와의 간작재배에 미치는 영향)

  • 이상무;육완방;전병태
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 1997
  • A field experiment was conducted in Chungiu and Jungwon to evaluate growth characteristics, root development, dry matter yield, crude protein yield and palatability according to nitrogen fertilizer level at intercropping cultivation of sorghum $\times$ sudangrass hybrid(hereinafier referred as SSH) and soybean. Nitrogen level was six treatment of Okg, 30kg 60kg, 90kg 120kg, and 150kg per hectare, and cutting date (sorghum $\times$ sudangrass and soybean) was july 28. 1. In the SSH, plant length was increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer from 0kg/ha to 120kg/ha, but 150kgha treatment was decreased cornpared to 120kg/ha treatment. In the soybean, plant length did not show difference among 0kg, 30kg 60kg, and 90kg per hectare, but 120kg and 150kgfha treatment was on the contrary short. In the SSH, leaf length, leaf width and leaf number were the highest in 120kg/ha treatment, but soybean showed multifarious. 2. Stem diameter of SSH was increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer. But soybean was thick from 0kg/ha treatment to 60kg/ha treatment, while above 90kg/ha treatment was on the contrary thin. Stem of SSH was hard with increasing nitrogen fertilizer, but soybean was soft with increasing nitrogen fertilizer. Root weight (Dry matter) of SSH was increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer. On the contrary, soybean was decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer. 3. In the dairy cattle and Korean native cattle, palatability according to nitrogen fertilizer was the highest at 90kgha treatment, while 120kgha treatment and 150kgha treatment was the lowest. But in the deer, 30kg/ha treatment of low nitrogen fertilizer was the highest in palatability. 4. Nitrogen content of root of SSH was increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer(P<0.01). But in soybean, 30kg and 60kg/ha treatment were higher than 0kg, 90kg, 120kg and 150kg/ha treatment(P<0.01). Total niwogen content of soil were high at 90kg 120kg 150kgha trea~ment(P<0.01). 5. Dry matter yield was high at the 90kg 120kg and 150kgha treatment as range from 15, 262kg/ha to 15, 614kg/ha without significant difference among those, but Okgha treatment was the lowest as 11, 183kg/ha (PC 0.05). Protein content of SSH was the highest at 90kg/ha treatment as 8.3 percentage. Soybean was highest at 60kgha treatment as 22.9 percentage. Protein yield was the highest at 90kg/ha treatment as 1, 547.6kg/ha, but Okgha treatment was the lowest as 1, 022.8kg/ha (P<0.01).

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Effects of Drainage Depths on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Sorghum × Sudangrass Hybrid for Silage in the Paddy Field of Lowland (저지대 논 토양에서 배수로 깊이가 사일리지용 수수×수단그라스 교잡종의 생육특성, 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to investigate the growth characteristics, yield and feed value of Sorghum${\times}$Sudangrass hybrid for silage according to the drainage depths in the paddy field of lowland. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and three replication. The drainage depths of four treatments were 0cm, 20cm, 40cm and 60cm, respectively. Plant length, leaf length and leaf number were not significantly different, but leaf width increased as the higher the drainage depth(p<0.05). The number of dead leaf was higher in the order of $60cm>0cm{\geq}40cm{\geq}20cm$ treatment(p<0.05). Green degree was higher in the order of 20cm > 40cm > 0cm > 60cm treatment(p<0.05). Stem diameter and stem hardness increased significantly as drainage depth increased from 0cm to 60cm(p<0.05). Also, fresh yield, dry matter yield and TDN yield increased as the higher the drainage depth(p<0.05). Crude protein and TDN content were the highest in 40cm treatment(p<0.05). Crude ash was higher in the order of 20cm > 40cm > 0cm > 60cm treatment(p<0.05). ADF and NDF content were the highest in 0cm treatment(p<0.05). Total mineral content was higher in the order of 20cm > 0cm > 40cm > 60cm(p<0.05). Free sugar content(fructose, glucose and sucrose) was the highest in 0cm treatment(p<0.05). Total amino acid(EAA+NEAA) was higher in 40cm than the other treatments(p<0.05). There is a difference in the content of ingredients(crude protein, TDN, mineral, free sugar and amino acid) according to the treatments. But considering dry matter yield and TDN yield, Sorghum${\times}$Sudangrass hybrid cultivation is advantageous to set the drainage depth of about 60cm in the paddy field of lowland.

Evaluation of Bioethanol Productivity from Sorghum × Sudangrass Hybrid for Cellulosic Feedstocks (셀룰로오스계 원료작물로서 수수-수단그래스 교잡종의 바이오에탄올 생산량 평가)

  • Cha, Young-Lok;Moon, Youn-Ho;Koo, Bon-Cheol;Ahn, Jong-Woong;Yoon, Young Mi;Nam, Sang-Sik;Kim, Jung Kon;An, Gi Hong;Park, Kwang-Geun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2013
  • The world demand of renewable bioenergy as an alternative transportation fuel is greatly increasing. Research for bioethanol production is currently being progressed intensively throughout the world. Therefore it will be necessary to develop bioethanol production with cellulosic materials. In this study, the yield of ethanol production was evaluated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using sodium hydroxide pretreated sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrids. Composition analysis of 11 varieties of sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrids was performed for selection of excellent variety to efficiently produce bioethanol. The content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ash of these varieties were 32~39%, 19~24%, 17~22% and 6~11%, respectively. Among these varieties, 4 varieties of sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrids were selected for the evaluation of ethanol yield and those were pretreated with 1 M NaOH solution at $150^{\circ}C$ for 30 min using high temperature explosion system. After pretreatment, samples were neutralized with tap water. It contained 52~57% of cellulose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was carried out for 48 h at $33^{\circ}C$ by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 using Green star variety. The yield of ethanol was 92.4% and the amount of ethanol production was estimated at 6206 L/ha.

Effect of Pig Slurry Application on the Forage Yield of Sorghum X Sudangrass Hybrid and Leaching of NO3-N in Volcanic Ash Soil (제주 화산회토양에서 돈분액비 시용이 수수 X 수단그라스의 생산성 및 NO3-N의 용탈에 미치는 영향)

  • 박남건;고서봉;이종언;황경준;김문철;송상택
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to determine the effect of pig slurry applications on the forage yield of Sorghum${\times}$Sudangrass hybrid and leaching of $NO_3$-N in volcanic ash soil in Jeju. It was arranged as a randomized block design with seven treatments: chemical fertilizer ($N-P_2$$O_{5}$ $-K_2$O=200-l50-150kg/ha), pig slurry 200kg N/ha, pig slurry 300kg N/ha, pig slurry 400kg N/ha, pig slurry 100kg N/ha+chemical fertilizer 100kg N/ha, pig slurry 150kg N/ha+chemical fertilizer 100kg N/ha, pig slurry 200kg N/ha+chemical fertilizer 100kg N/ha. The mean dry matter yield of Sorghum${\times}$Sudan grass hybrid per ha for 4 years(1998 to 2001) was higher(p<0.05) in pig slurry 300kg N/ha(l7,279kg) and pig slurry 400kg N/ha(17,817kg) treatments than those of other treatments. The $NO_3$-N concentrations of leaching water at soil depth 30cm in all treatments were excess the standard of WHO with level of $10.0mg/\ell$ on 20 days of the seeding, but this $NO_3$-N concentrations found to be below $5.0mg/\ell$ on August.

Effects of Livestock Manure Application on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Sorghum-sudangrass Hybrid and NO3-N Leaching in Paddy Field (논에서 수수 X 수단그라스 교잡종 재배시 가축분뇨 이용이 생육특성, 수량, 사료가치 및 NO3-N의 용탈에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Young-Chul;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Kim, Won-Ho;Kim, Jong-Geun;Shin, Jae-Soon;Jung, Min-Woong;Seo, Sung;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2006
  • The experimental work was conducted to determine the growth characteristics, yield and feed value of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and $NO_{3^-}N$ leaching by application of various types of livestock manure (LM) at National Livestock Research Institute, Suwon, for 3years (2003-3005). The growth characteristics in chemical fertilizer (CF) was better than others in general. The growth characteristic of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid by the various type of LM was good in order of composted swine manure (CSM) > liquid swine manure (LSM) > composted cattle manure (CSM), whereas the growth characteristics by application level of LM was good in order of LM 100%+CF 25%>LM 75%+CF 25%>LM 100%. Dry matter(DM) yield in LSM and CSM increased by 23% and 18% respectively while DM yield in CCM decreased 24% as compared to CF. Moreover total digestible nutrients (TDN) in LSM and CSM increased by 24% and 18% respectively while TDN in CCM decreased 12% as compared to CF. Crude protein and relative feed value in LM decreased compared to those in CF. $NO_{3^-}N$ leaching by application level of LM showed that there was an increase in order of LM 100%+ CF 25%>LM 75%+CF 25%>LM 100%. Also the high concentration of $NO_{3^-}N$ occurred shortly after application of LM.

Effect of Different Seeding Dates on Agronomic Characteristics and Productivity of Sudangrass hybrid and Oat in Cropping After Corn for Silage in Kyeongbuk (경북지역에서 옥수수 후작 수단그라스간 교잡종 및 귀리의 파종시기가 생육특성 및 수량성에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Chung Nam;Ko, Ki Hwan;Kim, Jong Duk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different seeding dates on agronomic characteristics, forage quality, dry matter (DM) and dry matter digestible (DDM) yields of sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor(L.) Moench) and oat (Avena sativaL.) at Seongju in Kyeongbuk from 2012 to 2013. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Sudangrass was seeded five times seeding dates of 10 days interval ranging from $1^{th}$ August to $10^{th}$ September in 2012 and 2013. Oat was seeded three times seeding dates of 10 days interval ranging from $20^{th}$ August to $10^{th}$ September in 2013. Sudangrass was harvested on $26^{th}$ October, 2012 and $2^{nd}$ November, 2013. Plant length and DM content decreased with delaying seeing date. The DM and DDM yields of sudangrass were higher (P<0.05) in first seeding date than all other seeding dates and decreased with delaying seeding dates (P<0.05). The DM and DDM yields of oat were higher (P<0.05) in first and second seeding dates than third seeding date. The results of this study indicated that early seeding of sudangrass would be a recommended than late seeding after $20^{th}$ of August, and late seeding of oat after $30^{th}$ August would be recommened for DM and DDM yields in the Southern Korea.

A Study on the Nutrient Production of Sudangrass , Pioneer 931 and Pioneer 988 during the First Growth and the Regrowth (Sudangrass , Pioneer 931 및 Pioneer 988의 예취차별 영양소 생산량에 관한 연구)

  • 윤재인;윤익석;정승헌
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 1983
  • The production of dry matter, general composition, hemicelluose and cell contents and in vitro digestible dry matter, cellulose and crude protein production were investigated in the Sudangrass and the hybrid of Sudangrass x sorghum, Pioneer 931 and Pioneer 958 during the first growth and the regrowth. 1. Dry matter yield of Sudangrass showed the highest value among the cultivars tested, being 1,638kgper 10a, those of the Pioneer 988 and Pioneer 931 showed 1,404kg and 1,282kg respectively. The effect of the first growth and the regrowth on the dry matter production of Sudangrass and Pioneer 988 was relatively small. 2. The in vitro digestibility of cellulose and the estimated digestible energy value per kg had a trend to be lower in order of Pioneer 931, Pioneer 988 and Sudangrass. But the production of digestible energy per 10a was decreased in order of Sudangrass, Pioneer 958 and Pioneer 931, which produced 4,623, 4,170 and 3,970 Mcal, respectively. 3. The cultivars did not affect on the in vitro digestibility of dry matter, while the yields of digestible dry matter were decreased in the order of Sudangrass, Pioneer 988 and Pioneer 931, which showed 1,068, 939 and 893kg per 10a, respectively. The yields of digestible protein lowered in order of Pioneer 931, Sudangrass and Pioneer 988, which were 134, 130 and 102kg per 10a, respectively.

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Effects of soil Moisture Levels on Growth and Dry Matter Accumulation of Sorghum and Corn II. Changes of dry matter accumulation and chemical composition (토양수분함량이 수수속작물과 옥수수의 생육 및 건물합성에 미치는 영향 II. 건물축적 및 성분함량의 변화)

  • 한흥전;한민수;안수봉
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.152-161
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    • 1985
  • To examine the effects of different levels of soil moisture on dry matter production and chemical compositions of sorghum cv. Pioneer 931, sorghum-sudangrass hybrid cv. Pioneer 988, sudangrass cv. Piper, and corn cv. Suweon 19. Soil moisture contents were maintained with approximately 100, 80 and 40% of field moisture capacity. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The highest dry matter yields per plant were found at 60% soil moisture level with 176.2g, 180.8g and 164.0g for pioneer 931, Pioneer 988 and corn, respectively. 2. Dry matter accumulation in accordance with soil moisture levels and growth stages of all crops except sudangrass were in the order of 60>40>80>100% soil moisture level. 3. The highest absolute growth rate (AGR) of sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and corn was shown at 60% soil moisture level, that of sudangrass was shown at 80% soil moisture level. The relative growth rate (RGR) of all crops was high in the early growing stage and was low at maturity. The highest net assimilation rate (NAR) of all crops was found at 60% soil moisture level with $72-467g/m^2/day$ from June 29 to July 5. 4. The higher crude fiber content in leaf of Pioneer 931 was shown at 100% and 80% soil moisture levels with 28.6-28.8%, that of corn had no significant difference among soil moisture levels. The crude protein content in leaf of all crops was 14.2-21.6% at 60% soil moisture level, 13.8-16.0% at 40% soil moisture level, and 7.3-13.9% at above 80% soil moisture levels, respectively. 5. The crude fiber content in stern of all crops and all soil moisture levels was 24.6-36.7%, and the crude protein content in stem was 2.5-5.3% in dry matter basis.

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