• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid

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Evaluation of Organic Sudangrass for Feed Value, Silage Quality and Palatability in Korea (유기 수단그라스의 사료가치, 사일리지 품질 및 기호성 평가)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Shim, Keum-Seob;Joo, Jong-Cheol;Lee, Hyun-Jiun;Jeon, Gyeong-Hyeop;Youn, Young-You;Oh, Eung-Yong;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2011
  • The main nutritional problem of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor${\times}$Sorghum sudanese) silage is low quality and palatability. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether organic com grain and crushed rice addition of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage increases forage quality of the silage. The sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages with added com grain and crushed rice were similar to conventional com silage in moisture content. However organic sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage had low pH values. Silage added with gain and byproduct had higher crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents than control com silages, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) showed the opposite results. Lactic acid, butyric acid and lactic percentage of total organic acid (L/T) of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages were higher than those of com silage, but acetic acid was higher than control. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of com silage was higher than other sorghum silages. Feed intake of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage added with crushed rice was highest among silages. Therefore, these data indicate that crushed rice and com grain added sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing silage quality and palatability.

Growth, Forage Production and Quality of Sorghum, Sorghum X Sudangrass and Sudangrass Hybrids at Paddy Field in Middle Region of Korea (중부지역 논에서 수수류 품종의 생육특성, 생산성 및 품질비교)

  • Ji, Hee-Chung;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Kim, Won-Ho;Lim, Young-Chul
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was carried out to know adaptability and forage production and quality of sorghum and sorghum $\times$ sudangrass and sudangrass hybrids at paddy field from 2007 to 2008 at Chungnam province. Among growth characters, 'Sordan 79' hybrid was somewhat strong for waterlogging, and higher sugar content and good at the 2nd regrowth, disease and insect resistance. Fresh yield of 'Sordan 79' hybrid was the highest as 92,492 kg per ha among 10 Sorghum and Sorghum $\times$ Sudangrass hybrids. The dry yield of 'Sordan 79' hybrid was also the highest as 21,090kg per ha. The result of this study showed that 'Sordan79' hybrid had good growth characters and forage productivity and crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) at paddy field in middle region of South Korea.

The Effect of Organic Manure on Dry Matter Yield, Feed Value and Stock Carrying Capacity of Sorghum${\times}$Sudangrass Hybrid in Arable Land (유기질 퇴비의 시용이 수수${\times}$수단그라스 교잡종의 생산성, 사료가치 및 가축사육능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sang-Soo;Noh, Jin-Hwan;Park, Jun-Hyuk;Yoon, Ki-Yong;Lee, Ju-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2012
  • This experiments was conducted to investigate the influence on the growth of Sorghum ${\times}$ Sudangrass hybrid by use of various organic fertilizer and investigated their productivity, feed value and stock carrying capacity. In the results, the application of fermented poultry manure showed 93.6ton/ha, 19.6ton/ha, 1.12ton/ha, 11.31ton/ha of fresh yield, dry matter yield, crude protein (CP) yield and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yield but there were no significant differences with the application of poultry by-product compost (poultry manure with sawdust) and swine by-product compost (swine manure with sawdust). And the average value of $K_{CP}$ and $K_{TDN}$ showed the highest one as 9.45head/ha/yr in the application of fermented poultry manure. However, organic matter content of fermented poultry manure to the lower portion of 32.1% compared to other organic fertilizers could imagine that mineralization of fermented poultry manure was fairly advanced and plant used most of nitrogen in fermented poultry manure, so productivity of Sorghum ${\times}$ Sudangrass hybrid was shown more than other organic fertilizers. If other organic fertilizers use continuous, this difference can be considered to be reduced further. As a result, fermented poultry manure is better than other organic fertilizers in productivity, feed value and stock carrying capacity due to the higher content of mineralizable matters. In addition, mixing poultry manure with cow and swine manure is better choice because cow and swine manure will meet a low organic matter in poultry manure.

Growth, Forage Production and Quality of Sorghum, Sorghum × Sudangrass and Sudangrass Hybrids at Paddy Field in Southern Region of Korea (남부지역 논에서 수수류 품종의 생육특성, 생산성 및 품질 비교)

  • Ji, Hee-Chung;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Kwon, Oh-Doo;Choi, Gi-Jun;Kim, Won-Ho;Kim, Ki-Young;Lim, Young-Chul
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was carried out to know adaptability and forage production and quality of sorghum and sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass and sudangrass hybrids at paddy field from 2007 to 2008 at Chonnam province. Among growth characters of six Hybrids, 'SX17' hybrid was somewhat strong for waterlogging, and higher sugar content and very good at the 2nd regrowth and disease resistance. Fresh yield of 'SX17' hybrid was the highest as 89,192kg per ha among 6 Sorghum and Sorghum ${\times}$ Sudangrass and Sudangrass hybrids. The dry matter yield of 'SX17' hybrid was also the highest as 21,038 kg per ha. The result of this study showed that 'SX17' hybrid had good growth characters and forage productivity and crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD).

Copper and Zinc Uptake Capacity of a Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrid Selected for in situ Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted by Heavy Metals (식물정화를 위한 중금속 내성 작물의 선발과 수수-수단그라스 교잡종의 구리와 아연 흡수능력)

  • Oh, Soon-Ja;Koh, Seok-Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1501-1511
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    • 2015
  • As essential trace elements, copper and zinc play important roles in many physiological events in plants. In excess, however, these elements can limit plant growth. This study selected a heavy metal-tolerant plant by analyzing seed germination and biomass of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), canola (Brassica campestris subsp. napus var. nippo-oleifera), Chinese corn (Setaria italica), and a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor ${\times}$ S. sudanense), and determined heavy metal uptake capacity by analyzing biomass, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and heavy metal contents under high external copper or zinc levels. The seed germination rate and biomass of the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid were higher under copper or zinc stress compared to the other three plants. The plant biomass and photosynthetic pigment contents of the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid seedlings were less vulnerable under low levels of heavy metals (${\leq}50ppm$ copper or ${\leq}400ppm$ zinc). The maximum quantum yield of PSII ($F_v/F_m$) and the maximum primary yield of PSII ($F_v/F_o$) decreased with increasing copper or zinc levels. Under high copper levels, the decline in $F_v/F_m$ was caused only by the decline in $F_m$, and was accompanied by an increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). The $F_v/F_m$ declined under high levels of zinc due to both a decrease in the maximum fluorescence ($F_m$) and an increase in the initial fluorescence ($F_o$), and this was accompanied by a marked decrease in photochemical quenching (qP), but not by an increase in NPQ. Accumulations of copper and zinc were found in both aboveand below-ground parts of plants, but were greater in the below-ground parts. The uptake capacity of the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid for copper and zinc reached 4459.1 mg/kg under 400 ppm copper and 9028.5 mg/kg under 1600 ppm zinc. Our results indicate that the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid contributes to the in situ phytoremediation of copper or zinc polluted soils due to its high biomass yield.

Effects of Mixed Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Liquid Swine Manure on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Sorghum × Sudangrass Hybrid for Silage in Paddy Field Cultivation

  • Hwang, Joo Hwan;Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of the mixed application of chemical fertilizer (CF) and liquid swine manure (LSM) on the agronomic characteristics, dry matter yield, amino acids, minerals, and free sugars in cultivating Sorghum ${\times}$ Sudangrass hybrid (SSH) on paddy soil. The field experiment was designed in a randomized block design with three replications and consisted of CF 100% (C), CF 70% + LSM 30% (T1), CF 50% + LSM 50% (T2), CF 30% + LSM 70% (T3), and LSM 100% treatment (T4). The application of LSM was based solely on the nitrogen. Plant length, leaf length, leaf width and number of leaf were significantly higher in T4 (p<0.05), but stem diameter did not show significant differences among treatments. Stem hardness increased significantly (p<0.05) as the LSM application rate decreased, but sugar degree decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the LSM application rate decreased. Fresh yield, dry matter yield and TDN yield were the highest in T4, whereas the lowest in T2 (p<0.05). Crude protein, crude fat and crude ash were the highest in C, T4 and T2, respectively (p<0.05). However, NDF and ADF did not show significant difference among treatments. Crude fiber decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the LSM application rate increased. The total mineral content was decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the LSM application rate increased. Total amino acid content was higher in the order of T1> C> T3> T4> T2 (p<0.05). Free sugar content increased significantly (p<0.05) as the LSM application rate increased. The analysis of all the above results suggests that the application of liquid swine manure is very effective, considering the yield performance and the content of sugar degree and free sugar. In addition, liquid swine manure may be possible to grow Sorghum ${\times}$ Sudangrass hybrid without chemical fertilizer.

Effect of Pre-wilting on the Forage Quality of Organic Sorghum$\times$Sudangrass Silage (예건이 수수$\times$수단그라스 교잡종 유기 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Jong-Duk;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jeon, Kyeong-Hup;Yang, Ka-Young;Kwon, Chan-Ho;Yoon, Sei-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.519-527
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    • 2009
  • The main nutritional problem of sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage is low quality and dry matter (DM) contents. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether field pre-wilting treatment of sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage increases DM content and forage quality of the silage. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were consisted of five different wilting days: 0 day (direct cut silage), 0.5 day, 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage with pre-wilting showed low 4.00 pH values, however direct cut silage (control) showed a 4.30 value because of its high moisture content. The DM content of sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage with pre-wilting was high above 25.1% after 1 days, however that of direct cut silage had 17.6%. And the effluent of wilted silage was decreased with prolonged wilting period, but that of direct cut silage produced effluent of 183 mL/kg. Crude protein and ether extract with wilted silage were decreased, however crude ash was increased with prolonged wilting period. Silage with pre-wilting had higher acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents than control silages, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) showed the opposite results. Lactic acid and total organic acid were increased with prolonged wilting period. For the palatability of dairy goat, silage with 2 days wilting was highest among silages. The experiment results indicate that wilted sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage could be recommended as effective method for reducing effluent, increasing pH and forage quality more than direct cut silage. Optimum pre-wilting day of sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage may be 1 days.

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Effect of Heading and BMR types on the Agronomic Characteristics, Forage Yield and Quality of Sorghum × Sudangrass Hybrid (출수형태와 BMR이 수수×수단그라스 교잡종의 생육특성, 생산성 및 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Ko, Ki-Hwan;Kwon, Chan-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2012
  • This experiment was carried out to compare the agronomic characteristics, forage yield and quality of sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid at two locations (Sungju and Cheonan) in 2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The eight recommended hybrids used in this experiment were 'Sordan 79', 'SX17', 'Honey chew', 'Honey grazer', 'G7', 'Jumbo', 'Green star' and 'GT56' hybrids. The heading of four hybrids were headed at both region, Sungju and Cheonan. There are no big differences in general agronomic characteristics among hybrids, but brix scale of heading and BMR (brown mid rib) types were higher than those of other hybrids. Dry matter (DM) and plant height of heading type hybrids were higher than those of headless types. The fresh, DM and TDN (total digestible nutrients) yields of heading type hybrids were also higher than those of headless types, and BMR types were lower than others. The crude protein and crude ash contents of headless hybrids were higher than those of heading hybrids, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) content showed the opposite results. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and NFC contents of BMR types were lower than others. The results of this experiment indicates that heading hybrids were more higher than headless hybrids in the agronomics and forage yield of sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass. However heading types were lower headless types in quality of sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass. And BMR hybrids were also high quality of sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid because of higher brix content and lower ADF content among tested hybrids.

Growth, Photosynthesis and Zinc Elimination Capacity of a Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrid under Zinc Stress (고농도 아연 조건에서 수수-수단그라스 교잡종의 생장, 광합성 및 아연 제거능)

  • Oh, Soonja;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1143-1153
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    • 2016
  • Plant biomass, photosystem II (PSII) photochemical activity, photosynthetic function, and zinc (Zn) accumulation were investigated in a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor ${\times}$ S. sudanense) exposed to various Zn concentrations to determine the elimination capacity of Zn from soils. Plant growth and biomass of the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid decreased with increasing Zn concentration. Symptoms of Zn toxicity, i.e., withering and discoloration of old leaves, were found at Zn concentrations over 800 ppm. PSII photochemical activity, as indicated by the values of $F_v/F_m$ and $F_v/F_o$, decreased significantly three days after exposure to Zn concentrations of 800 ppm or more. Photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation rate (A) was high between Zn concentrations of 100-200 ppm ($22.5{\mu}mol$ $CO_2{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$), but it declined as Zn concentration increased. At Zn concentrations of 800 and 1600 ppm, A was 14.1 and $1.8{\mu}mol$ $CO_2{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$, respectively. The patterns of stomatal conductance ($g_s$), transpiration rate (E), and water use efficiency (WUE) were all similar to that of photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation rate, except for dark respiration ($R_d$), which showed an opposite pattern. Zn was accumulated in both above- and below-ground parts of plants, but was more in the below-ground parts. Magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) concentrations were significantly low in the leaves of plants, and symptoms of Mg or Fe deficiency, such as a decrease in the SPAD value, were found when plants were treated with Zn concentrations above 800 ppm. These results suggest that the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid is able to accumulate Zn to high level in plant body and eliminate it with its rapid growth and high biomass yield.

Forage Yield and Quality of Summer Grain Legumes and Forage Grasses in Cheju Island

  • Kang, Young-Kil;Cho, Nam-Ki;Yook, Wan-Bang;Kang, Min-Su
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.245-249
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    • 1998
  • Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.), mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilcz.], cowpea [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp.], adzuki bean [V. angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi], maize [Zea mays L.], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], sorghum $\times$ sudangrass [So bicolor intraspecific hybrid], and Japanese millet [Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentacea (Link) W.F. Wight] were grown at two planting dates (18 June and 15 July) at Cheju in 1997 to select the best forage legumes adapted to Cheju Island for grass-legume forage rotation. Averaged across planting dates and cultivars, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and total digestible nutrient (TDN) yields were 5,646, 1,056, and 3,637 kg/ha for soybean, 4,458, 676, and 2,661 kg/ha for mungbean, 3,289, 553, and 2,055 kg/ha for cowpea, 3,931, 674, and 2,489 kg/ha for adzuki bean, 12,695, 969, and 7,642 kg/ha for maize, 17,071, 1,260, and 8,857 kg/ha for sorghum, 16,355, 1,163, and 8,543 kg/ha for sorghum $\times$ sudangrass hybrid, and 8,288, 929, and 4,091 kg/ha for Japanese millet. Soybean was higher in CP, ether extract (EE), and TON content but was lower in nitrogen free extract content compared with the three other legumes. The legumes had much higher CP (13.7 to 21.9%), EE (2.42 to 6.23%), and TDN (58.7 to 69.9%) content but lower in crude fiber (CF) content (17.3 to 25.3%) than did the grasses tested except maize which had relatively lower CF content but higher TDN content. These results suggest that soybean could be the best forage legume for grass-legume forage rotation in the Cheju region.

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