• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sorghum

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Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk with Different Amounts of Waxy Sorghum Flour (차수수가루 첨가량을 달리한 설기떡의 품질특성)

  • Chae, Kyung-Yeon;Hong, Jin-Sook
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.363-369
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study was to determine the optimum addition amount of waxy sorghum flour to rice flour in the preparation of Sulgidduk(waxy sorghum rice cake). The moisture content of Sulgidduk with added wary sorghum flour was $37{\sim}41%$. With increasing waxy sorghum (lour content over the range from 10% to 50%, the L-value decreased, whereas the a-and b-values increased. In the mechanical evaluation of waxy sorghum Sulgidduk, the hardness, gumminess and brittleness increased with increasing waxy sorghum flour content above 20%. The adhesiveness increased with increasing waxy sorghum flour content. The cohesiveness and springiness did not differ significantly with the addition of waxy sorghum flour. In the sensory evaluation of waxy sorghum Sulgidduk, the evaluation of the softness, moistness and chewiness was the best at 20% content. Sulgidduk made with the addition of 20% waxy sorghum flour to rice flour was found to be the best recipe in terms of overall acceptability and the sensory qualities of softness, moistness and chewiness.

Herbicidal activity and crop injury of aqueous extracts of sorghum leaves (수수 식물체 추출물의 제초활성 및 작물 선택성)

  • Won, Ok-Jae;Uddin, Md. Romij;Pyon, Jong-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2011
  • Herbicidal effects and crop selectivity of aqueous leaf extracts of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were evaluated against several weed species for developing sustainable weed management in organic farming. Aqueous sorghum leaf extracts were highly phytotoxic to different weed species. No broadleaf weeds were germinated in the concentration of 5 fold or higher concentrated sorghum leaf extracts and 90% of seed germination was inhibited within that range in grass species. Sorghum leaf extracts strongly inhibited the growth of different weeds by pre-emergence and foliar applications in greenhouse condition. Foliar application of sorghum leaf extracts had a higher inhibitory effect than the pre-emergence application. Broadleaf weed species were more susceptible than grasses to the application of sorghum leaf extract in foliar applications than grasses. Galium spurium, Erigeron candensis, and Rumex japonicus were completely killed at the highest concentrated sorghum leaf extract both in pre-emergence and foliar application. Most broadleaf weed species were inhibited more than 80% at pre-emergence application at 50 fold concentrated sorghum leaf extract. G. spurium, E. candensis, R. japonicus, Eclipta alba, Plantago asiatica and Portulaca oleraeea were most susceptible to sorghum leaf extract in foliar application. Growth of most broad leaf weed species was suppressed by greater than 90% at 50 fold concentrated sorghum leaf extract. Most crop species were tolerant to sorghum leaf extract but shoot growth was slightly reduced by the application of 40~50 fold concentrated extracts, Sorghum leaf extract may used to control weeds in organic fanning without affecting the growth of crop.

A Study on the Quality Improvement of Bread Using the Whole Waxy Sorghum Flours Prepared with Different Milling Methods (분쇄방법을 달리한 통곡 찰수수가루를 이용한 수수빵의 제조 및 품질 개선)

  • Ryu, Bog-Mi;Kim, Chang-Soon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.262-270
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the properties of bread making and quality improvement when wheat flour is replaced with whole waxy sorghum flour. Sorghum flour, which was prepared with two types of milling methods of pin mill and ultra fine pulverization, was used at different levels ranging from 10, 20 and 30%, respectively. The pasting properties of peak viscosity, setback viscosity and pasting temperature of the composite flour containing pin-milled sorghum flour were higher than those of ultra fine pulverized sorghum flour. The volumes of sorghum bread were lower than that of wheat bread; moreover, they gradually decreased with increasing amounts of sorghum flour, which has inferior dough properties and therefore collapses in the oven. The use of vital gluten (12% based on sorghum flour weight) and emulsifier (SSL; sodium stearoyl lactylate) increased the extensibility and resistance to the extension of the dough, thereby improving its rheological properties. Thus, the oven spring of bread containing sorghum was improved, demonstrating as loaf volume increase up to 15%. However, in the case of breads containing 30% sorghum flour, the loaf volumes were still unacceptably low. Therefore, the formula and the bread making process were further modified as follows: An increase of vital gluten ($12%{\rightarrow}18%$) and shortening ($3%{\rightarrow}6%$), a decrease of mixing time and dough fermentation temperature, and the addition of sorghum flour after gluten development during mixing. The above modifications resulted in the improvement of sorghum bread quality. Therefore, we suggest that pin-milled sorghum flour is more appropriate than ultra fine pulverized sorghum flour for making bread.

Evaluation of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) as Replacent for Maize in the Diet of Growing Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

  • Muriu, J.I.;Njoka-Njiru, E.N.;Tuitoek, J.K.;Nanua, J.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.565-569
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    • 2002
  • Thirty six young New Zealand white rabbits were used in a randomised complete block (RCB) design with a $3{\times}2$ factorial treatment experiment to study the suitability of sorghum as substitute for maize in the diet of growing rabbits in Kenya. Six different diets were formulated to contain 35% of one of the three different types of grain (maize, white sorghum or brown sorghum) and one of the two different levels of crude protein (CP) 16 or 18.5% and fed to growing rabbits for a period of six weeks. The tannin content of the grains was 0.05, 0.52 and 5.6% chatechin equivalents for maize, white and brown sorghum respectively. Weaning weight at 35 days of age was used as the blocking criterion at the beginning of the experiment. Results of feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, feed digestibility, as well as the blood parameters, indicated that white sorghum was not significantly different from maize. Animals fed on diets containing brown sorghum had a lower average daily gain (ADG) and a poorer feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (p<0.01) in comparison with those fed on diets containing maize or white sorghum. The 18.5% CP level gave a better FCE (p<0.05) compared with the 16% CP level. However, increasing the level of CP did not improve the utilisation of any of the grains. It was concluded that white sorghum could effectively substitute maize in the diet of growing rabbits. On the other hand, the use of brown sorghum in the diets of growing rabbits may compromise their growth rate. This may be due to the high concentration of tannins in the brown sorghum.

Processing Procedures and Feeding Systems for Sorghum-based Diets Given to Lactating Sows

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Kim, J.H.;Kennedy, G.A.;Hines, R.H.;Behnke, K.C.;Nichols, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1186-1190
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    • 2002
  • One hundred and twenty nine primiparous sows were used to determine the effects of alternative processing procedures and feeding systems on the nutritional value of sorghum grain-based diets for lactating sows. Treatments were a ground sorghum control, steam-flaked sorghum and extruded sorghum fed in meal form and the ground sorghum control given as pellets or gruel (1:1 ratio of water and feed on a volume:volume basis). Average daily feed intake was greater for sows fed pelleted and gruel diet forms than sow fed the diets with steam-flaked and extruded sorghum (p<0.04). However, no differences occurred in sow weight or backfat losses among the treatments (p>0.14). Number of pigs weaned and livability rates were similar among treatments except that steam-flaked sorghum supported greater litter weight gains than extruded sorghum (p<0.02). Apparent digestibilities of DM, N and GE in sows fed steam-flaked and extruded sorghum were greater (p<0.001) than in sows fed pelleted or gruel diets. Of the various treatments, sows fed extruded sorghum tended to have the highest digestibilities of DM, N and GE, and lowest excretions of DM and N in the faeces. Severity of ulceration was not significantly affected by treatments (p>0.35), but keratinization was greatest for sows fed extruded sorghum (p<0.01). In conclusion, the alternative processing methods (steam-flaking and extrusion) and feeding system (pellets and gruel) had little effect on sow and litter performance. However, nutrient digestibilities were improved for all treatments that involved heating (steam flaking, extrusion and pelleting) and, thus, these treatments resulted in less fecal excretion of DM and N.

Molecular Structure of Sorghum and Waxy Sorghum Starches

  • Han, Young-Joo;Park, Jong-Tae;Le, Quang Tri;Shim, Jae-Hoon;Nguyen, Van Dao;Kim, Yong-Ro;Park, Kwan-Hwa
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.176-179
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    • 2008
  • Amylose contents and amylopectin chain architecture of sorghmn and waxy sorghum starches were determined and compared with those of other common cereal and tuber starches. Also, in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch was estimated using a novel methodology. The absolute amylose content of sorghum starch was similar to that of com and wheat starches. The side chain length distribution patterns for sorghum and waxy sorghum amylopectin were very similar to those of com and waxy com, respectively. The $k_{cat}/K_m$ values for sorghum and potato amylopectin did not show a significant difference. The kinetic parameters could be used as novel indicators for starch digestibility.

Effects of Sorghum Tannins, a Tannin Binder (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) and Sorghum Inclusion Level on the Performance of Broiler Chicks

  • Ambula, M.K.;Oduho, G.W.;Tuitoek, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1276-1281
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    • 2001
  • The feeding values of four indigenous Kenyan sorghum cultivars and the effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the utilization of high tannin sorghum by broiler chicks were studied in two 3-week feeding trials. In Experiment 1, one hundred and five broiler chicks (initial average weight 97 g) were randomly assigned to each one of the seven grain-soybean meal diets. The diets consisted of maize [diet 1; no assayable tannin], white sorghum [diet 2; 0.59% catechin equivalents (CE)], cream sorghum [diet 3; 0.94% CE], light brown sorghum [diet 4; 2.71% CE] and dark brown sorghum [diet 5; 3.54% CE]. Diets 6 and 7 were included to test the possibility of overcoming the detrimental effects of sorghum tannins by adding PVP at 0.25% and 0.5% to dark brown sorghum, which resulted in dietary tannin levels of 3.46% and 3.38% CE respectively. In Experiment 2, the effects of tannin on dry matter digestibility (DMD) and nitrogen (N) retention were studied in a 3-week substitution assay in which high tannin sorghum (5% CE) was substituted for white maize at different inclusion levels. Ninety broiler chicks aged 7 days (initial average weight 102 g) were randomly assigned to each one of the six diets. The diets consisted of corn gluten meal and fishmeal as protein sources plus maize [diet 1] and high tannin sorghum at different inclusion levels [diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6], resulting in dietary tannin levels of 0, 1.25%, 1.66%, 2.08%, 2.5% and 3.2% CE respectively. Feed intake, feed efficiency and body weight gain were measured weekly. In Experiment 2, tannin absorption, DMD and N retention were measured on days 19, 20 and 21. The results of Experiment 1 showed that feed intake, feed efficiency and body weight gain were all affected by treatment (p<0.05). Diets 1, 2 and 3 gave similar body weight gains and all were better than diets 4 and 5 (i.e. 504, 517, 473 g, vs. 256, 267 g). Similarly, feed efficiencies were higher (p<0.05) for diets 1, 2 and 3 compared to diets 4 and 5 (0.4, 0.42, 0.39 vs. 0.21, 0.23). When 0.25% PVP was added to the dark brown sorghum (diet 6) there was no significant improvement in chick performance (p>0.05). However, addition of 0.5% PVP (diet 7) resulted in significant improvement (p<0.05) in body weight gain compared to the untreated dark brown sorghum. Overall, PVP did not completely overcome the deleterious effects of tannins. The results of Experiment 2 indicate that sorghum inclusion level and subsequent tannin level had no effect on feed intake, feed efficiency, weight gain, DMD and N retention. The above results suggest that tannin level should be limited to below 2.71% CE in broiler chick diets containing 20% CP and 0.4% methionine. However, in diets with 23% CP and 0.8% methionine tannin level of up to 3.2% will not affect performance. Consequently high tannin sorghum (5% CE) can be used to substitute for white maize by up to 100% in broiler chick diets.

Effect of Sorghum Flour Addition on the Quality Characteristics of Muffin (수수가루 첨가가 머핀의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Im, Jung-Gyo;Kim, Yong-Sik;Ha, Tae-Youl
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1158-1162
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    • 1998
  • Effects of addition of sorghum flour on the quality properties of wheat flour muffin were investigated. Initial pasting temperature and peak viscosity on amylograph increased with the concentrations of sorghum flour added, but final viscosity decreased. The lightness values decreased with the increase of sorghum flour contents in muffin, but redness values increased. The sorghum flour addition at 10% level did not affect the volume of muffin, but the volume of muffin containing 30% sorghum flour was significantly decreased compared to that of control. Most of texture parameters such as hardness, adhesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were not affected by the addition of sorghum flour up to 20% level. As results of sensory evaluation, appearance and flavor of muffins by addition of sorghum flour differed significantly from the control, but there were no differences among the muffins containing sorghum flour at 10, 20, and 30% levels. Texture of 10% sorghum flour muffin was similar to that of the control, but there was a significant difference in texture by 30% sorghum flour addition. However, taste and overall acceptability did not differ significantly up to 30% level.

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Changes of Soil Physical Properties by Manured Sorghum Residues Incorporation

  • Jung, Ki-Yuol;Yun, Eul-Soo;Park, Chang-Young;Hwang, Jae-Bok;Choi, Young-Dae;Oh, In-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 2013
  • Although sorghum residue production was estimated to be $8{\sim}10Mg\;ha^{-1}$, most sorghum straw was used to be burnt or removed after harvest. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of manured sorghum residues on soil physical properties from 2010 to 2012 in the converted paddy field. Five treatment with 3 replication consisted of control, inorganic fertilizer (NPK), manured residues, sorghum stover and sawdust manure. The incorporation level of organic source was $10Mg\;ha^{-1}$ without inorganic fertilizer NPK. The investigated physical parameters were bulk density (BD), porosity, water stability aggregate (WSA), water infiltration rater (WIR), penetration resistance (PR) and soil water retention characteristics (WRC) with soil depth. The incorporation of manured sorghum residues improved WIR significantly over inorganic fertilizer (NPK), sorghum residues and sawdust manure. The BD by incorporating with manured residues on sorghum was reduced significantly with crop residue over plot of NPK and sawdust. Significant increase in WSA was observed with stubble incorporation alone or manured sorghum residues. Soil WRC were significantly enhanced with manured sorghum residue incorporated without NPK. The average PR at 0~15 cm was 0.54 MPa for manured sorghum residues. For sawdust manure plot it was 0.42 MPa, for Sawdust manure plot 0.39 MPa and for NPK plot 0.54 MPa.

Studies on Reserved Carbohydrates and Net Energy Latation ( NEL ) in Corn and Sorghum III. Weender components and net enery lactation (옥수수 및 Sorghum에 있어서 탄수화물과 NEL 축적에 관한 연구. III. Weender 성분 및 Net Energy Lactation)

  • ;G. Voigtlaender
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.180-186
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    • 1985
  • Field and phytotron experiments were conducted to determine the effect of morphological growth stage and environmental temperature on Weender components and net energy lactation (NEL) in corn cv. Blizzard and sorghum cv. Pioneer 931 and Sioux at Munich Technical University from 1978 to 1981. Various growth stages of maize and sorghum were grown for 42 days at 4 temperature regimes (30/25, 25/20, 28/18 and 18/8 degree C) and mid-summer sunlight over 13 hour days. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Accumulation of crude protein in maize and sorghum plants was associated with leaf weight ratio and leaf area ratio ($P{\leq}0.1%$). Crude protein in the plants were shown to have a greate synthesis rates at early growth stages. The highest concentration of crude protein were found at 3-leaf stage with 31.4% and 33.9% for maize and sorghum, respectively. 2. Synthesis of crude fiber was increased after growing point differentiation markedly and were shown the highest concentration at heading stage with 28.4% and 31.5% for maize and sorghum, respectively. During the maturities, the crude fiber contents in maize were, however decreased and shown a value of 19.5% at physiological maturity, while that of sorghum were increased continuously. 3. NEL value in maize and sorghum plants were declined as morphological development and shown the lowest at growing point differentiation with 5.82 MJ (maize) and 5.46 MJ/kg (sorghum). During the late maturity, the NEL value of maize were increased markedly and shown a value of 6.70 MJ and 6.94 MJ/kg for milkstage and maturity stage, respectively, while NEL value in sorghum were not increased markedly. 4. Net energy lactation in maize and sorghum plants were associated with synthesis rate of non-structural carbohydrates, especially mono- and disaccharose while cell-wall constituents and crude fiber lowerd NEL contents ($P{\leq}0.1%$). 5. NEL accumulation and starch value were decreased under temperature. The NEL concentration of 4-leaf sorghum under different environmental temperatures of 30/25, 25/20, and 18/8 degree C were 4.87 MJ, 5.46 MJ and 5.81 MJ/kg, respectively.

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