• Title, Summary, Keyword: Somatic Cell Count

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A General Review of Relation between Bovine Mastitis and Somatic Cell Count in Milk (우의 유방염과 Somatic Cell Count 관계의 문헌적 고찰 (하))

  • Sohn Bong Whan
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.456-462
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    • 1985
  • It was carried out to a general review of relation between bovine mastitis and somatic cell count in milk. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The term 'Somatic' means derived from body. Since both leukocytes and epithelial cell are body cell, tota

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Study on the Relationship between Udder and Teat Characteristics and Somatic Cell Count (유방과 유두의 형태와 체세포수에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-Chi;Lee, Chai-Yong
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.172-176
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between udder and teat characteristics and somatic cell count (SCC). A total of 749 (73.1%) milk samples from 1,024 quarters of 259 Holstein cows contained less than 200,000 somatic cells/ml, while 132 (12.9%) quarters contained more than 500,000 somatic cells/ml. Prior to data analysis, somatic cell counts were transformed to natural logarithm. The mean SCS {$log_e(SCS/10^3)$} of milk samples from the front quarters was lower than milk samples from the rear quarters. The highest SCS was observed from cows with the step-shaped udder and the pear-shaped teats, respectively. Increased SCS was observed from cows with large teat diameter, short teat length, short distance between the teat tip to floor (p<0.05) and with increase in parity, respectively.

Comparison of Fossomatic and Coulter Counter Methods for Somatic Cell Count in Raw Milk (원유내 체세포수 측정을 위한 Fossomatic과 Coulter Counter 방법의 비교)

  • 이정구;손봉환;이정길;고홍범
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1993
  • Samples of bulk herd milk, foremilk, last milk (stripping) and individual cow sample were collected and their somatic cell number were counted with Fossomatic counter (FCC), Coulter counter(CC), direct microscopic somatic cell count(DMSCC) and Califormia mastitis test (CMT), The results were compared and summarized as follows : 1. Mean somatic cell counts of 120 bulk herd milk samples obtained by DMSCC, FCC and CC were 433,203, 481,213 and 676,245 respectively. 2. Mean somatic cell counts of 116 foremilk samples obtained by DMSCC, FCC and CC were 515,035, 611,845 and 725,051 respectively 3. Mean somatic cell counts of 87 last milk samples obtained by DMSCC, FCC and CC were 718,506, 839,874 and 1,041,160 respectively. 4. Mean somatic cell counts of 57 individual cow samples obtained by DMSCC, FCC and CC were 449,258, 491,018 and 521,315 respectively. 5. Mean somatic cell counts of all samples increased with the increasing CMT score, and the cell counts were higher by CC than by FCC. 6. The correlation coefficients between the somatic cell counts by CMT and CC were 0.926 in bulk herd milk, 0.707 in foremilk 0.688 in last milk and 0.675 in individual cow sample, respectively 7. The correlation coefficients between the somatic cell counts by CMT and FCC were 0. 945 in bulk herd milk, 0.705 in foremilk 0.694 in last milk and 0.727 in individual cow sample, respectively. 8. The correlation coefficients between the somatic cell counts by CC and FCC were 0.978 in bulk herd milk, 0.997 in foremilk 0.983 in last milk and 0.985 in individual cow sample, respectively.

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Somatic Cell Counts in Milk of Buffaloes Administered Oxytocin During Early Lactation

  • Prasad, Jyotsna;Singh, Mahendra
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.684-692
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    • 2001
  • To find out the effect of oxytocin on somatic cell count and milk production, 12 primiparous and multiparous Murrah buffaloes were selected, immediately after the parturition, from the Institute's buffalo herd. These were divided into two groups of 6 each. Buffaloes of group I did not receive oxytocin injection (control); whereas, buffaloes of group II were administered oxytocin during early lactation (av. 42.50 days). The oxytocin injection was given in doses of 2.5 IU i.m. before the start of milking, to let down the milk, for a period of 5 days. Samples of milk from individual buffaloes were collected for 5 days before (Period I), during (Period II) and after (Period III) from both the group of buffaloes. Milk samples of A. M. and P. M. milking were composited in proposition to milk yields for analysis of milk constituents. Normal values of somatic cell counts in group I of buffaloes varied from 0.54 to $0.75{\times}10^{5}cells/ml$. Mean cytoplasmic particles and epithelial cells varied from 3.68 to $7.19{\times}10^{5}cells/ml$ and 0.13 to $0.54{\times}10^{5}cells/ml$. On percentage basis the epithelial and the total leucocyte count were 60 and 40. Total leucocyte count, in the study varied from 0.17 to $0.69{\times}10^{5}cells/ml$. The differential cell count of milk indicated presence of lymphocytes (16.50 to $61.16{\times}1000$), neutrophil (0.00 to $2.00{\times}1000$) and monocyte (0.00 to $18.16{\times}1000$). Somatic cell count (p<0.01) and epithelial cells (p<0.05) varied between buffaloes and between periods of study. Total leucocyte counts of milk were also significantly varied between periods (p<0.05). The change in fat, lactose, chloride, EC and NEFA concentrations during different periods of study, were highly significant, indicated diurnal variations in different buffaloes during different days of experiment. Administration of oxytocin resulted in increase in somatic cell counts of milk (p<0.01) due to the increases in total leucocyte count (p<0.01) during the treatment period. The differential cell count indicated that oxytocin administration increased lymphocyte number significantly (p<0.01). However, secretion of neutrophil, monocyte and cytoplasmic particles were not affected by oxytocin. Eosinophil and basophil cell, though present in few samples, remain unaffected by oxytocin administration. There was no effect of oxytocin on milk production, composition, pH, EC and NEFA concentration.

The Effects of the Somatic Cell Count on Yield, Composition and Coagulating Properties of Mediterranean Buffalo Milk

  • Tripaldi, C.;Terramoccia, S.;Bartocci, S.;Angelucci, M.;Danese, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.738-742
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    • 2003
  • The monitoring was carried out for one year on 20 farms of Mediterranean buffalo situated in central Italy. The milk yield, the somatic cell count, the coagulating properties and some components were determined. The average value of somatic cells was $21.28n{\times}10^3/ml$. Milk production decreased when somatic cell numbers increased. The rennet clotting time increased significantly when somatic cells were higher than $300.00n{\times}10^3/ml$, the curd firming time was significantly higher when somatic cells were more than $1,000.00n{\times}10^3/ml$ and the curd firmness increased up to $200.00n{\times}10^3$/ml, then gradually decreased. Protein and casein decreased when somatic cells increased and the same trend was shown by casein/protein ratio. Both for these components and the coagulating properties the threshold limit of somatic cells to obtain better results was $200.00n{\times}10^3/ml$. The somatic cell number did not show a trend which was strictly influenced by the lactation stage, contrary to what happened in the other species.

Association between PCR-RFLP Polymorphisms of Five Gene Loci and Milk Traits in Chinese Holstein

  • Zhang, R.F.;Chen, H.;Lei, C.Z.;Fang, X.T.;Zhang, Y.D.;Hu, S.R.;Su, L.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.166-171
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this study was to assess the association of polymorphisms in ${\kappa}$-cn, ${\beta}$-lg, ${\beta}$-lg 5′ flanking region, CSN1S2, and IGFBP-3 genes with milk production traits and mastitis-related traits in Chinese Holstein. Traits analyzed were 305 day standard milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, the ratio of fat percentage and protein percentage, pre-somatic cell count, somatic cell count, and somatic cell score, respectively. CSN1S2 locus was uninformative because only one genotype BB was found in Chinese Holstein. Allele frequencies of A and B in IGFBP-3 gene were 0.5738 and 0.4262 in Chinese Holstein population, which was different from reported Qinchuan cattle population. The genotypes of animals at IGFBP-3 locus significantly affected 305 day standard milk yield, protein percentage, and somatic cell score. The ${\beta}$-lg genotypes had a significant effect on protein percentage and the ratio of fat percentage and protein percentage. Polymorphism in ${\beta}$-lg 5′ flanking region was associated with 305 day standard milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, pre-somatic cell count, and somatic cell count. No significant associations of the polymorphism in ${\kappa}$-cn gene were observed for any trait.

Characteristics of Goat Milk - Milk Fat, Somatic Cell Count, and Goaty Flavor - (산양유의 특성 - 유지방, 체세포, 그리고 산양취 -)

  • Jeong, Seok-Geun;Lee, Seung-Gyu;Kim, Dong-Hun;Ham, Jun-Sang
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2008
  • Since goat milk infant formula has been increased, it is expected that goat milk consumption would be increased. This review summarizes the characteristics of goat milk especially, milk fat, somatic cell count, and goaty flavor. Average milk fat content for one year of twelve goat milk farms was 3.6%, but $2.9{\sim}3.1%$ in summer, which means summer goat milk could not meet the 'Processing and Ingredient Standard for Animal Products'. More than 3.2% for goat milk fat content in 'Processing and Ingredient Standard for Animal Products' should be amended. In addition to, hygienic standard for goat milk should be newly established because goat milk has naturally higher somatic cell count with noninfectious factors. It is thought that 6-trans nonenal and some branched fatty acids are responsible for the goaty flavor. It is necessary to minimize goaty flavor from farm to table because goaty flavor is the most important factor for the promotion of goat milk industry.

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Genetic Evaluation of Somatic Cell Counts of Holstein Cattle in Zimbabwe

  • Mangwiro, F.K.;Mhlanga, F.N.;Dzama, K.;Makuza, S.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1347-1352
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    • 2000
  • The objectives of the study were to examine non-genetic factors that influence somatic cell counts in dairy cattle and to estimate the genetic parameters of somatic cell counts. A total of 34, 097-test day somatic cell count records were obtained from the Zimbabwe Dairy Services Association (ZDSA). The data were from 5, 615 Holstein daughters of 390 sires and 2, 541 dams tested between May 1994 and December 1998. First lactation cows contributed 22, 147 records to the data set, while 11, 950 records were from second and later parity cows. The model for analysis included fixed effects of month of calving, year of calving, stage of lactation, calving interval and test date. Milk yield and age on test day were fitted in the model as covariates. The additive genetic effects pertaining to cows, sires and dams and the residual error were the random effects. The Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood algorithm was used for analysis. The heritability of somatic cell scores was low at $0.027{\pm}0.013$ for parity one cows and $0.087{\pm}0.031$ for parity two and above. Repeatability estimates were $0.22{\pm}0.01$ and $0.30{\pm}0.01$ for the two lactation groups, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the somatic cell scores and test day milk production were small and negative. It seems that there is no genetic link between somatic cell counts and milk yield in Holstein cattle in Zimbabwe. The results also seem to indicate that somatic cell count is a trait that is mainly governed by environmental factors.

Prevalence and Comparing of Some Microbiological Properties, Somatic Cell Count and Antibiotic Residue of Organic and Conventional Raw Milk Produced in Turkey

  • Urkek, Bayram;Sengul, Mustafa;Erkaya, Tuba;Aksakal, Vecihi
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.264-273
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of production systems and milk collection periods on the somatic cell count (SCC), some microbiological properties, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), coliform, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), yeast and mould) and antibiotic residue of milk; in Turkey. Milk samples were collected from 9 conventional farms and 9 organic farms during one year time, at six different months (December 2013 to October 2014), and all farms were selected from the same geographical locations. All organically managed farms had organic production certificates given by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. The count of TAMB, coliform, and coagulase positive S. aureus were affected by production systems at the level of p<0.01; yeast and mold, and somatic cell count (SCC) were affected at the level of p<0.05. But, differences according to months were statistically significant only on TAMB (p<0.01) and coliform (p<0.05) counts. The general means of TAMB, coliform and yeast and mould counts of the organic milk (OM) were significantly lower (p<0.05), while the general means of SCC and coagulase positive S. aureus count of the OM was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to conventional milk (CM). Antibiotic residue was determined in one of the CM sample and in two of the OM samples. Our study is the first research that compared conventional and organic milk in Turkey. This study indicated that the microbiological quality of OM was the higher in terms of TAMB, coliform and yeast and mould, whereas was the lower in relation to SCC and coagulase positive S. aureus counts. But, the quality of both milk types should be improved.

Redefining Mastitis Based on Somatic Cell Count (체세포 수에 의한 유방염의 재 정의)

  • 손봉환
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.232-238
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    • 2001
  • 체세포 수(SCC = somatic cell count)는 유방염과 밀접한 관계가 있는 생리적 반응의 표시이다. 그래서 유질과 유방염의 관리에 대단히 중요한 영향인자로 중요하게 사용된다. 현재 그 수에 의한 세계적인 평가는 나날이 연구의 성과가 보고되고 있다. 우리는 체세포 수로 많은 애로를 가지고 있으면서도 감소대책과 수에 대한 국제적 흐름에 민감하지 못한 것이 현실로 보인다. 이상과 같은 것을 감안하여 근래의 체세포 수와 유방염에 관한 정보를 제공하려고 한다.

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