• Title/Summary/Keyword: Sol-gel growth

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Formation of Au Particles in Cu2-xICu2IIO3-δ (x ≈ 0.20; δ ≈ 0.10) Oxide Matrix by Sol-Gel Growth

  • Das, Bidhu Bhusan;Palanisamy, Kuppan;venugopal, Potu;Sandeep, Eesam;Kumar, Karrothu Varun
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 2017
  • Formation of Au particles in nonstoichiometric $Cu_{2-x}{^I}Cu{_2}^{II}O_{3-{\delta}}$ ($x{\approx}0.20$; ${\delta}{\approx}0.10$) oxide from aniline + hydrochloric acid mixtures and chloroauric acid in the ratios 30 : 1; 60 : 1; 90 : 1 (S1-S3) by volume and 0.01 mol of copper acetate, $Cu(OCOCH_3)_2.H_2O$, in each case is performed by sol-gel growth. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) results show Au particles are dispersed in tetragonal nonstoichiometric dicopper (I) dicopper (II) oxides, $Cu_{2-x}{^I}Cu{_2}^{II}O_{3-{\delta}}$ ($x{\approx}0.20$; ${\delta}{\approx}0.10$). Average crystallite sizes of Au particles determined using Scherrer equation are found to be in the approximate ranges ${\sim}85-140{\AA}$, ${\sim}85-150{\AA}$ and ${\sim}80-150{\AA}$ in S1-S3, respectively which indicate the formation of Au nano-micro size particles in $Cu_{2-x}{^I}Cu{_2}^{II}O_{3-{\delta}}$ ($x{\approx}0.20$; ${\delta}{\approx}0.10$) oxides. Hysteresis behaviour at 300 K having low loop areas and magnetic susceptibility values ${\sim}5.835{\times}10^{-6}-9.889{\times}10^{-6}emu/gG$ in S1-S3 show weakly ferromagnetic nature of the samples. Broad and isotropic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshapes of S1-S4 at 300, 77 and 8 K having $g_{iso}$-values ${\sim}2.053{\pm}0.008-2.304{\pm}0.008$ show rapid spin-lattice relaxation process in magnetic $Cu^{2+}$ ($3d^9$) sites as well as delocalized electrons in Au ($6s^1$) nano-micro size particles in the $Cu_{2-x}{^I}Cu{_2}^{II}O_{3-{\delta}}$ ($x{\approx}0.20$; ${\delta}{\approx}0.10$) oxides. Broad and weak UV-Vis diffuse reflectance optical absorption band ~725 nm is assigned to $^2B_{1g}{\rightarrow}^2A_{1g}$ transitions, and the weak band ~470 nm is due to $^2B_{1g}{\rightarrow}^2E_g$ transitions from the ground state $^2B_{1g}$(${\mid}d_{x^2-y^2}$>) of $Cu^{2+}$ ($3d^9$) ions in octahedral coordination having tetragonal distortion.

A Sol-Gel Growth of Oxide Buffer Layer for Coated Conductor (솔젤법에 의한 coated conductor용 산화물 완충층의 성장)

  • 김영국;유재무;고재웅;허순영
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Applied Superconductivity and Cryogenics Conference
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    • 2003.02a
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    • pp.98-100
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    • 2003
  • PbTiO$_3$ films applicable to buffer layers for YBCO coated conductor have been successfully fabricated by sol-gel process. Crystallinity of grown films are heavily dependent on processing parameters such as annealing atmosphere and number of dipping. (100) oreinted PbTiO$_3$ films grown on (200) oriented Ni substrates exhibit uniform surface with small grain size(200~300nm).

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Nano-Silica effect on the physicomechanical properties of geopolymer composites

  • Khater, H.M.
    • Advances in nano research
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.181-195
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    • 2016
  • Addition of nano-$SiO_2$ (NS) to geopolymer composites has been studied through measurement of compressive strengths, FTIR and XRD analysis. Alumino-silicate materials are coarse aggregate included waste concrete and demolished walls with its cementing binder, cement kiln dust (CKD) used and can possess a pronouncing activation for the geopolymer reaction resulting from the high alkali contents within. Materials prepared at water/binder ratios in a range of 0.30: 0.40 under curing of $40^{\circ}C$ and 100% Relative Humidity (R.H.), while the used activator is sodium hydroxide in the ratio of 2 wt. %. First, CKD is added in the ratio from 10 up to 50 wt., %, and the demolished walls was varied depending on the used CKD content, while using constant ratio of waste concrete (40 wt., %). Second step, depending on the optimum CKD ratio resulted from the first one (40 wt. %), so the control geopolymer mix composed of cement kiln dust, demolished walls and waste concrete in the ratio (40:20:40, wt %). Nano-silica partially replaced waste concrete by 1 up to 8%. Results indicated that, compressive strengths of geopolymer mixes incorporating nano-silica were obviously higher than those control one, especially at early ages and specially with 3%NS.

The highly sensitive NO2 gas sensor using ZnO nanorods grown by the sol-gel method (졸-겔법으로 증착된 ZnO 나노막대를 이용한 고감도 이산화질소 가스 센서 제작 및 특성 연구)

  • Park, S.J.;Kwak, J.H.;Park, J.;Lee, H.Y.;Moon, S.E.;Park, K.H.;Kim, J.;Kim, G.T.
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.147-150
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    • 2008
  • Multiple ZnO nanorod device detecting $NO_2$ gas was fabricated by sol-gel growth method and gas response characteristics were measured as a chemical gas sensor. The device is mainly composed of sensing electrode and sensing nano material. To acquire high sensitivity of the device for $NO_2$ gas it was heated by a heat chuck up to $400^{\circ}C$ The sensing part was easily made using the CMOS compatible process, for example, the large area and low temperature nano material growth process, etc. The sensors were successfully demonstrated and showed high sensitive response for $NO_2$ gas sensing.

Growth behavior on initial layer of ZnO:P layers grown by magnetron sputtering with controlled by $O_2$ partial pressure

  • Kim, Yeong-Lee;An, Cheol-Hyeon;Bae, Yeong-Suk;Kim, Dong-Chan;Jo, Hyeong-Gyun
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • 2009.05a
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    • pp.28.1-28.1
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    • 2009
  • The superior properties of ZnO such as high exciton binding energy, high thermal and chemical stability, low growth temperature and possibility of wet etching process in ZnO have great interest for applications ranging from optoelectronics to chemical sensor. Particularly, vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorods on large areas with good optical and structural properties are of special interest for the fabrication of electronic and optical nanodevices. Currently, low-dimensional ZnO is synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), thermal evaporation, and sol.gel growth. Recently, our group has been reported about achievement the growth of Ga-doped ZnO nanorods using ZnO seed layer on p-type Si substrate by RF magnetron sputtering system at high rf power and high growth temperature. However, the crystallinity of nanorods deteriorates due to lattice mismatch between nanorods and Si substrate. Also, in the growth of oxide using sputtering, the oxygen flow ratio relative to argon gas flow is an important growth parameter and significantly affects the structural properties. In this study, Phosphorus (P) doped ZnO nanorods were grown on c-sapphire substrates without seed layer by radio frequency magnetron sputtering with various argon/oxygen gas ratios. The layer change films into nanorods with decreasing oxygen partial pressure. The diameter and length of vertically well-aligned on the c-sapphire substrate are in the range of 51-103 nm and about 725 nm, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra of the nanorods are dominated by intense near band-edge emission with weak deep-level emission.

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Sol-gel growth and structural, electrical, and optical properties of vanadium-based oxide thin films (바나듐 옥사이드 박막의 성장 및 그 구조적, 전기적, 광학적 특성)

  • Park, Young-Ran;Kim, Kwang-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.534-540
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    • 2006
  • Thin films of $V_2O_3$, $VO_2$, and $V_2O_5$ were obtained from a single precursor solution through post-annealing processes under different annealing conditions. As annealed in air, the deposited films became $V_2O_5$ with orthorhombic crystal structure, while they were $V_2O_3$ and $VO_2$ with rhombohedral and monoclinic crystal structure as annealed in vacuums with base pressure of $1{\times}10^{-6}$ Torr and with 10 mTorr $O_2$ pressure, respectively. Electrical and optical measurements indicated that the $V_2O_5$ and $VO_2$ films are semiconducting, while the $V_2O_3$ films are metallic at room temperature. Chromium doping in $VO_2$ resulted in a decrease of the resistivity and changed the conduction type from n-type to p-type. 10% Cr-doped $VO_2$ films were found to have orthorhombic crystal structure, which is different from that of the undoped $VO_2$. Spectral features in the optical absorption spectra of all the films were interpreted as the transitions involving O 2p and V 3d bands. The crystal-field splittings between $t_{2g}$ and $e_g$ states of the V 3d bands are estimated to be about 1.5 and 1.0 eV for $V_2O_5$ and $VO_2$, respectively.