• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soil standard

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The controversial points and a remedy on evaluation of heavy metal contamination in standard method for examination of soil in Korea. (국내 토양오염 공정시험방법중 중금속 관련 오염평가의 문제점과 개선책)

  • 오창환;유연희;이평구;박성원;이영엽
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.298-301
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    • 2000
  • Heavy metals are extracted from stream sediments, roadside soils and sediments and soils and tailings from mining area using partial extraction, acid digestion and HF-digestion. Compared to amounts of heavy metals extracted using partial extraction, those extracted using acid digestion are higher by 2.0∼220.9 times in Cu, 2.4∼2806.1 times in Pb, 1.3∼121 times in Cd, 14.1∼1300885 times in Fe, 1.2∼271.5 times in Mn, 1.3∼372.5 times in Zn, 2.2∼1734.5 times in Cr. Although partial extraction, which extracts less amounts of heavy metals from soil compared to acid digestion, is used in domestic standard method for examination of soil, domestic soil standard for heavy metals in non-agricultural and industrial areas is higher than soil standard in foreign countries which use acid digestion, For improvement of the domestic standard method for assessment of soil, it is suggested to lower the domestic soil standard for heavy metals or to change pretreatment method for extracting heavy metals from partial extraction to acid digestion with modifying the soil standard.

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Amplification Characteristics of Domestic and Overseas Intraplate Earthquake Ground Motions in Korean Soil and Standard Horizontal Design Spectrum for Soil Sites (국내외 판내부 지진기록을 사용한 국내 지반의 지반운동 증폭특성 규명 및 토사지반의 표준설계응답스펙트럼의 제안)

  • Lee, Jin Ho;Kim, Jung Han;Kim, Jae Kwan
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.391-399
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    • 2018
  • The site coefficients in the common requirements for seismic design codes, which were promulgated in 2017, were reevaluated and the standard design spectrum for soil sites were newly proposed in order to ensure the consistency of the standard design spectra for rock and soil sites specified in the common requirements. Using the 55 ground motions from domestic and overseas intraplate earthquakes, which were used to derive the standard design spectrum for rock sites, as rock outcropping motions, site response analyses of Korean soil were performed and its ground-motion-amplification was characterized. Then, the site coefficients for soil sites were reevaluated. Compared with the existing site coefficients, the newly proposed short-period site coefficient $F_a$ increased and the long-period site coefficient $F_v$ decreased overall. A new standard design spectrum for soil sites was proposed using the reevaluated site coefficients. When compared with the existing design spectrum, it could be seen that the proposed site coefficients and the standard design spectrum for soil sites were reasonably derived. They reflected the short-period characteristics of earthquake and soil in Korea.

Analysis on Monitoring Results of Korean Soil Monitoring Network (토양측정망 운영 결과 분석 연구)

  • Jeong, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2010
  • Usability of soil quality monitoring network for ascertaining soil quality changes was evaluated by analysing soil quality monitoring results. Tolerance limits of soil quality monitoring results from 1997 to 2007 were calculated and compared with Korean soil quality standards. This study determined that soil quality was changed if the upper 95% tolerance limit value was greater than the soil quality standard. Fluoride most frequently exceeded the soil quality standard and nickel, zinc, arsenic, copper, lead and cadmium were followed. Analysis on land use showed that tolerance limits of industrial land use most frequently exceeded the soil quality standards and residential, road and various land uses then frequently exceeded. Tolerance limits of land uses expecting high contaminant loads frequently exceeded the soil quality standards. This fact imply that the soil quality monitoring network generates reasonable data to represent change in Korean soil quality. This study also suggested that representative sampling from well identified points should be done to improve data reliability and accurately ascertain soil quality changes.

A Study on the Soil Contamination in the Heaped Soil Dredged from Bottom of the Storage Pond in Pohang Industrial Complex (포항 공단유수지 준설토의 문덕리 성토에 따른 토양오염 조사)

  • Jang, Won;Kim, Dong-Gil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.57-60
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    • 1999
  • Geochemical study was carried out to find out soil contamination at the heaped soil, moved from bottom of the storage pond in Pohang industrial complex, in Moondug, Chemical analysis showed that contents of heavy metals in the soil were higher than those of the ordinary soil. Contents of Cu and Cd in the soil exceeded Korean standard of soil contamination. Especially content of Cu exceeded Korean standard of soil contamination(50ppm) at the six points and at one point content of Cu was 113.3ppm. Contents of Be were so higher than U.S RCRA standard(0.2ppm) that they can affect soil environment. The followed research about relation between pollutant and soil and proper measures are required to prevent soil contamination from affecting environment of Moondug.

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Deriving Ecological Protective Concentration of Cadmium for Korean Soil Environment

  • Lee, Woo-Mi;Nam, Sun-Hwa;An, Youn-Joo
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2013
  • For effective and efficient environmental management, developed countries, such as the Netherlands, UK, Australia, Canada, and United States apply ecological risk assessment, and they have an autonomous risk assessment methodology to protect native receptors. In this study, soil ecological protective concentration (EPC) of cadmium in Korea was derived using Korean ecological risk assessment methodology. The soil EPC of cadmium was calculated using probabilistic ecological risk assessment based on species sensitivity distribution. The soil EPC was calculated according to land use for residential/agricultural and industrial/commercial purposes. The chronic soil EPCs for residential/agricultural and industrial/commercial lands were derived to be 1.58 and 9.60 mg/kg, respectively. These values were similar to soil EPC of European Commission, the Netherlands, UK, and Canada. However, these values were lower than the established Korean soil standard, because the current soil standard was based on human risk. Therefore, the impact on an ecosystem when establishing environmental standard should be considered.

Assessment of applicability on Solidification/Stabilization of Arsenic in contaminated Soil According to the Revised Korean Standard Leaching Test for Soil (개정 토양용출시험법에 따른 비소오염토양의 고형화/안정화 공법 국내 적용성 평가)

  • Hong, Seong-Hyeok;Park, Hye-Min;Choi, Won-Ho;Park, Joo-Yang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2011
  • Arsenic is one of the most abundant contaminant found in waste mine tailings and soil around refinery, Because of its carcinogenic property, the countries like United States of America and Europe have made stringent regulations which govern the concentration of arsenic in soil. The study focuses on solidification/stabilization for removal of arsenic from soil. Cement was used to solidify/stabilize the abandoned soil primarily contaminated with arsenic (up to 68.92 mg/kg) in and around refinery. Solidified/stabilized (s/s) forms in the range of cement contents 5-30 wt % were evaluated to determine the optimal binder content. Revised Korean standard leaching tests (KSLT), toxicity characteristic leaching procedures (TCLP), Old Korea standard leaching test and revised Korea standard leaching test were used for chemical characterization of the S/S forms. The addition of 10 % cement remarkably reduced the leachability of arsenic in contaminated soil. The concentration of As in leachate of TCLP, KSLT, and old KSLT for soil are below the standard. However that in leachate of revised KSLT is above the standard. Because of extraction fluid used in revised KSLT is very strong acid. It is arsenic in s/s with binder should be exhaustingly leached. Therefore S/S process would not be available for As treatment in soil in Korea.

Assessment for the Comparability between Korean Ministry of Environment Standard and ISO Standard for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Soil (토양 중금속 함량 측정에 대한 토양오염공정시험기준과 국제표준간의 적합성 평가)

  • Shin, Gun-Hwan;Lee, Goon-Teak;Lee, Won-Seok;Kim, Ji-In;Kim, Bo-Kyong;Park, Hyun-Jeong
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2012
  • According to the agreement on WTO/TBT, we are under the situation to adopt international standard (ISO standard) as a national standard if it exists. However, in case of environmental area, it is a domestic legal obligation to use Korean environmental standard method(KESM) for analyzing various contaminants. Therefore it is necessary to assess the comparability between KEM and ISO standard prior to apply ISO standard to soil conservation law in Korea. The main purpose of this study is to assess the comparability of both methods for analyzing heavy metals in soil. We looked over various aspects like pre-treatment, calibration curve range, detection wavelength, soil organic matter content and so on. Apparently, the procedure of both methods is almost same. However in details, both methods are different in stationary time before aqua-regia extraction using reflux system, calibration curve range for Cu, Pb, Ni and measuring wavelength for Pb. According to the results of comparison test, the results were significantly different when the different calibration range was used. In case that all the extracts independent of methods were reanalyzed with the same calibration range of each method, both methods showed statistically same results. Other conditions like different stationary time, measuring wavelength of AAS and soil organic matter content did not have any influence on the analytical result. Therefore, we suggest to extend the calibration curve range to 0~8 mg/L which is used in KS I ISO standard(Korean standard related with environment which is translation version of ISO standard without any technical change). In case of $Cr^{6+}$, the results showed no significant differences between two methods even though the pretreatment, instrumentation and other analysis conditions were different. In addition to UV/Visble spectrometry of KESM for soil contamination, we suggest to adopt ion chromatography of ISO 15192(US EPA method 7199) for analyzing $Cr^{6+}$ with the consideration of laboratory work efficiency.

Role and Contaminant Selection Methods of Soil Quality Standards in Developed Countries (선진국 토양오염 기준의 역할과 기준항목 설정방법)

  • Jeong, Seung-Woo;An, Youn-Joo;Kim, Tae-Seung
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 2009
  • Many countries have recently established legal regulations and soil quality standards for soil protection, This study investigated the role of soil quality standards in soil protection policy and methods of selecting standard substances from various types of chemicals. In most countries, soil quality standards act as guidance for further detail surveyor risk assessment from comparing soil concentration with the soil quality standards. Soil quality standards of Switzerland, Demark and Japan were used as enforcement tools. Priority substances for the standards were first selected from frequently detected chemicals in contaminated sites. Those substances were extensively evaluated for toxic effects, exposure potential and availability in chemical analysis.

Improvement of accuracy in quantitative TXRF analysis of soil sample by applying external standard method (외부표준법을 적용한 토양시료의TXRF 정량분석 정확도 개선)

  • Park, Jinkyu;Park, Ranhee;Han, Sun Ho;Lim, Sang Ho;Lee, Chi Gyu;Song, Kyuseok
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2016
  • TXRF is a powerful technique for the soil sample analysis due to its ability to conduct quantitative analysis of powder sample without complicated pre-treatment processes. The conventional internal standard method used for this technique suffers from relatively low accuracy because of varying matrix effects of soil. In order to improve the accuracy, external standard method was applied to analyze two types of soil samples; acid-dissolutionized soil solution and detergent-suspended soil powder. Individual ICP-AES/MS grade standards were mixed, diluted and measured to create standard curves, but applying these curves for analyzing the soil solution sample did not make any improvement in comparison with the internal standard method. On the other hand, standard curves were created with using standard soil powders for the analysis of soil powder samples, and we found that this method increased the accuracy significantly relative to the internal standard method. Especially, Al, Fe, K, Ca, Ti, Ba, Mn, Sr, Rb, Cu was measured with relatively high accuracy (relative error = ${\pm}20%$).

Water Saving Irrigation Standard of Tomato in Greenhouse

  • Eom, Ki-Cheol;Lee, Byung-Kook;Koh, Mun-Hwan;Eom, Ho-Yong;Sonn, Yeun-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.313-321
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    • 2013
  • The Average daily PET (Potential evapotranspiration), evaluated based on the last 30 years meteorological data and the lysimeter experiment carried out by RDA during 11 years, of 9 regions in Korea for the tomato cultivated in greenhouse, was $3.41mm\;day^{-1}$. Two kinds of water saving irrigation standard (WSIS), deficit irrigation standard (DIS) and partial root-zone drying irrigation standard (PRDIS) that include the irrigation interval and the amount of irrigation water according to the region, soil texture and growing stage, were established. According to the DIS and PRDIS, the cultivator can save water up to 29.2% and 53.7%, respectively, for tomato cultivation in greenhouse compared to the full irrigation standard (FIS) which established in 1999. WSIS can be used easily by the cultivator without complicate procedures such as soil sampling and measurement of soil water status by expensive sensors. But the cultivator should care about irrigation method such as PRDI (partial root-zone drying irrigation) without yield decrease.