• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soil salinity

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Managing Soil Organic Matter and Salinity by Crop Cultivation in Saemangeum Reclaimed Tidal Land

  • Bae, Hui Su;Jang, Hyeonsoo;Hwang, Jae Bok;Park, Tae Seon;Lee, Kyo Suk;Lee, Dong Sung;Chung, Doug Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.50-60
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    • 2018
  • This study was to evaluate the effect of organic amendments incorporation on soil properties and plant growth under two different soil salinity levels and various cultivated crops at Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land for three years from 2012 to 2014. The soil texture of the experimental site was sandy loam. Four different crops, sesbania (Sesbania grandiflora), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor-Sorghum sudanense), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) were cultivated at low (< $1dS\;m^{-1}$) and high (> $4dS\;m^{-1}$) soil salinity levels. The soil salinity was significantly lowered at the rice cultivation site compared to continuous upland crops cultivation site in high soil salinity level. But the soil salinity was increased as cultivating sesbania coutinuously in low soil salinity level. The soil organic matter content was increased with the incorporation of straw at the continuous site of rice and barley, and the average of soil organic matter was increased by $0.9g\;kg^{-1}$ per year which was effective in soil aggregate formation. The highest biomass yield plot was found in barley (high salinity level) and sesbania (low salinity level) cultivation site, respectively. Our research indicates that rice cultivation in paddy field with high salinity level was effective in lowering soil salinity and sesbania cultivation was useful to biomass production at upland with low salinity. In conclusion, soil salinity and organic matter content should be considered for multiple land use in newly reclaimed tidal land.

Salinity affects microbial community structure in saemangeum reclaimed land

  • Kim, Kiyoon;Samaddar, Sandipan;Ahmed, Shamim;Roy, Choudhury Aritra;Sa, Tongmin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.364-364
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    • 2017
  • Saemangeum reclaimed land is a part of Saemangeum Development Project. Most of the persistent problems of Saemangeum reclaimed land remain to be related to soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major abiotic factor related to microbial community structure and also fungi have been reported to be more sensitive to salinity stress than bacteria. The aim of this study was conducted to investigate the effect of soil salinity levels on the microbial communities in Saemangeum reclaimed land using 454 pyrosequencing analysis. Soil samples was collected from 12 sites of in Saemangeum reclaimed land. For pyrosequencing, 27F/518R (bacteria) and ITS3/ITS4 (fungi) primers were used containing the Roche 454 pyrosequencing adaptor-key-linker (underlined) and unique barcodes (X). Pyrosequencing was performed by Chun's Lab (Seoul, Korea) using the standard shotgun sequencing reagents and a 454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing System (Roche, Inc.). In the soil samples, Proteobacteria (bacteria) and Ascomycota (fungi) shows the highest relative abundance in all the soil sample sites. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Plantomycetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Parcubacteria were shown to have significantly higher abundance in high salinity level soils than low salinity level soils, while Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae has significantly higher relative abundance in low salinity level soils. The abundance of fungal, Ascomycota has the highest relative abundance in soil samples, followed by Basidiomycota, Chlorophyta, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota and Cerozoa were show significantly higher relative abundance in low salinity level soils. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and correlation analysis shown to salinity-related soil parameters such as ECe, Na+, SAR and EPS were affected to bacterial and fungal community structure. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Plantomycetes exhibited significantly positive correlation with soil salinity, while Acidobacteria exhibited significantly negative correlation. In the case of fungal community, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota were seen show significantly negative correlation with salinity related soil parameters. These results suggest that provide understanding effect of soil salinity on microbial community structure and correlation of microbial community with soil parameters in Saemangeum reclaimed land.

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Studies on the Root Development of the Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) in Accordance with Salt- diminution at the Saline Paddy Field (간척지의 숙답화에 따른 수도근군형성에 관한 연구)

  • 정원일
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 1983
  • It has been ascertained by a few researchers that soil conditions under which the rice plants were cultivated have some effects upon the root formation of the rice plants. But, much is not known about the root formation of the rice plants cultivated in the saline paddy fields. The goal of the present investigation is to study morphological effects of the soil salinity on the development of the rice root system. The following results were obtained: 1. Under the conditions of higher soil salinity, root systems developed well at surface soil, however, root systems developed well and distributed evenly through surface and sub-soil at the saline fields where soil salinity was lower. 2. The rice plants cultivated in the higher soil salinity form less crown roots than the rice plants which cultivated at the lower soil salinity. 3. As for the formation of the stunted roots, it was found out that relatively rice plant cultivated in higher soil salinity forms more stunted roots than the rice plants cultivated in lower soil salinity. 4. The crown root cultivated in the higher soil salinity forms more lateral roots per unit langth than the root cultivated in lower soil salinity. 5. As for the root hair formation, the crown root cultivated in higher soil salinity bears less haired epidermis and shorter root hairs than the root cultivated in lower soil salinity.

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Effect of Soil Salinity Levels on Silage Barley Growth at Saemangeum Reclaimed Tidal Land

  • Lee, Sanghun;Bae, Hui-Soo;Lee, Soo-Hwan;Kang, Jong-Gook;Kim, Hong-Kyu;Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Park, Ki-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2013
  • Crop development and nutrient availability are strongly influenced by soil salinity levels. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice straw and nitrogen (N) fertilizer for silage barley under various soil salinity levels at Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land. Three levels of rice straw (0, 2.5, 5.0 ton rice straw $ha^{-1}$) and N (0, 150, 225 kg N $ha^{-1}$) were applied at 0.04, 0.23, 0.35% soil salinity levels. Biomass yield of silage barley was influenced by the interactions between rice straw application and N fertilization. Although there was no single effect of rice straw application on biomass yield, it was significantly increased with N application and a rice straw application of 5.0 ton $ha^{-1}$. Sodium content in silage barley was significantly lower at 0.04% salinity level, and but it was statistically increased with increasing soil salinity levels. Forage qualities such as total digestible nutrients and relative feed value of silage barley were significantly higher with N application at 0.04% salinity level, but there was no effect of rice straw application. Soil organic matter content was increased with N and rice straw application regardless of soil salinity level. The results of this study showed that the effect of rice straw and N fertilization on silage barley was influenced by soil salinity levels, which indicates that the management practice of silage barley at Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land should consider soil salinity levels.

Critical Saline Concentration of Soil and Water for Rice Cultivation on a Reclaimed Saline Soil (간척지 벼 재배시 토양 및 관개수 염의 안전 한계농도)

  • 최원영;이규성;고종철;최송열;최돈향
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.238-242
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    • 2003
  • Reclaimed tidal areas for rice cultivation are irrigated with salt mixed water when there is severe drought. Therefore, we identified the critical concentration of saline water for rice growth on a reclaimed saline soil in Korea. The experiment was conducted at the Kyehwado substation of the National Honam Agricultural Experiment Station (NHAES) during 2001-2002. Two experimental fields with 0.1-0.2% for low soil salinity and 0.3-0.4% for medium soil salinity levels were used. The experiment involved four levels of salt solution mixed with sea water (at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7%) compared with a control using tap water in a split-plot design with three replicates. Saline solution was applied only two times at seedling stage (10 DAT and 25 DAT) for 5 days. Gyehwabyeo and dongjinbyeo, japonica rice varieties, were used in this experiment. Plant height and number of tillers sharply decreased in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity level and 0.1% in medium soil salinity level. For yield components, panicle number per unit area and percentage of ripened grain dramatically decreased in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity and 0.1% in medium soil salinity level. But 1,000-grain weight of brown rice decreased sharply in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity and 0.3% in medium soil salinity, indicating that this component was not much affected unlike other yield components. Milled rice yield decreased significantly with saline water level in both low and medium soil salinity. In the 0.7% low saline soil, the yield index was only 36% compared with the control. In medium soil salinity, even the control plot showed only 62% yield index compared with the control in the low soil salinity treatment. Results indicated that the critical concentration of saline water for rice growth in terms of economical income of rice production was 0.5% in low soil salinity and tap water in medium soil salinity.

Soil salinity shifts the community structure and diversity of seed bacterial endophytes of salt-sensitive and tolerant rice cultivars

  • Walitang, Denver I.;Ahmed, Shamim;Jeon, Sunyoung;Pyo, Chaeeun;Sa, Tongmin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.244-244
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    • 2017
  • Soil salinity due to accumulation of salts particularly sodium chloride affects agricultural lands and their vegetation. Generally, rice is a moderately sensitive plant with some cultivars with varying tolerance to salinity. Though there are physiological differences between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars, both are still affected especially during high salinity and prolonged exposure. This also ultimately affects their indigenous bacterial endophytes particularly those that inhabit the rice seed endosphere. This study investigates the dynamic structure of seed bacterial endophytes of salt-sensitive and tolerant rice cultivars grown in different levels of soil salinity. Endophytic bacterial diversity was studied Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Results revealed a very interesting pattern of diversity and shifts in community structure of bacterial endophytes in the rice seeds. There is a general decrease in diversity for the salt-sensitive rice cultivar, IR29 as soil salinity increases. For the salt-tolerant cultivars, IC32 and IC37, diversity interestingly increased at moderate salinity then decreased at high soil salinity. The patterns of community structure is also strikingly different for the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars. IR29 has a more even distribution of abundance, but under soil salinity, the community shifted where Curtobacterium, Pantoea, Flavobacterium and Microbacterium become the more dominant bacterial communities. For IC32 and IC37, the dominant bacterial groups under normal stress conditions were also the dominant bacterial groups during salt stress conditions. Their seed bacterial community is dominated by endophytes belonging to Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Pantoea, Kosakonia and Enterobacter. Stenotrophomonas and Xanthomonas have not changed in terms of abundance under different salinity stress level in the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars. This study showed that soil salinity greatly influenced the seed bacterial communities of rice seeds irrespective of their physiological tolerance to salinity.

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Classification of Soil Desalination Areas Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land

  • Lee, Kyung-Do;Baek, Shin-Chul;Hong, Suk-Young;Kim, Yi-Hyun;Na, Sang-Il;Lee, Kyeong-Bo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.426-433
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    • 2013
  • This study was aimed to classify soil desalination area for cultivation using NDVI (Normalized difference vegetation index) of high-resolution satellite image because the soil salinity affects the change of plant community in reclaimed lands. We measured the soil salinity and NDVI at 28 sites in the Saemangeum reclaimed land in June 2013. In halophyte and non-vegetation sites, no relation was found between NDVI and soil salinity. In glycophyte sites, however, we found that the soil salinity was below 0.1% and NDVI ranged from 0.11 to 0.57 which was greater than the other sites. So, we could distinguish the glycophyte sites from the halophyte sites and non-vegetation, and classify the area that soil salinty was below 0.1%. This technique could save the time and labor to measure the soil salinity in large area for agricultural utilization.

Characteristics of the soil loss and soil salinity of upland soil in saemangeum reclaimed land in western South Korea

  • Kim, Young Joo;Lee, Su Hwan;Ryu, Jin Hee;Oh, Yang Yeol;Lee, Jeong Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.316-316
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study is to estimate quantitatively soil salinity and soil loss at upland soils in agriculture land region in Saemangeum reclaimed land on the south Korea coasts. Soil loss and soil salinity are the most critical problem at reclaimed tidal saline soil in Korea. The several thematic maps of research area such as land cover map, topographic and soil maps, together with tabular precipitation data used for soil erosion and soil salinity calculation. Meteorological data were measured directly as air temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, and precipitation. The experiment was conducted 2% sloped lysimeter ($5.0m{\times}20.0m$) with 14 treatments and it were separated by low salinity division (LSD) and high salinity division (HSD) install. The cation content in ground water increased during time course, but in the case of land surface water the content was variable, and $K^+$ was lower than that of $Na^+$ and $Mg^{2+}$. At the LSD under rainproof condition, the salinity was directly proportional to soil water content, but at the HSD the tendency was no reversed. In condition of rainproof, the amount of soil salinity was higher at the HSD than at the LSD. Positive correlation was obtained between the soil water content and available phosphorous content at the rainfall division, but there was no significance at the surface soil of the rainproof division. Sodium adsorption ratio and anion contents in soil were repressed in the order of vinyl-mulching > non-mulching > bare field. According to the result of analyzing soil loss, soil loss occurred in a vinyl-mulching, a non-mulching and a bare field in size order, and also approximately 11.2 ton/ha soil loss happened on the reclaimed land area. The average soil loss amount by the unit area takes place in a non-mulching and bare field a lot. Our results indicate that soluble salt control and soil erosion are critical at reclaimed tidal saline soil and the results can provide some useful information for deciding management plans to reduce soil loss and salt damage for stable crop production and diverse utilization or cultivation could be one of the management options to alleviate salt damage at reclaimed tidal saline soil in Korea.

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Effects of Ozone and Soil Salinity, Singly and in Combination, on Growth, Yield and Leaf Gas Exchange Rates of Two Bangladeshi Wheat Cultivars

  • Kamal, Mohammed Zia Uddin;Yamaguchi, Masahiro;Azuchi, Fumika;Kinose, Yoshiyuki;Wada, Yoshiharu;Funada, Ryo;Izuta, Takeshi
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.173-186
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    • 2015
  • In Bangladesh, increases in the tropospheric ozone ($O_3$) concentration and in soil salinization may lead to crop damage. To clarify the effects of $O_3$ and/or soil salinity on Bangladeshi wheat cultivars, BAW1059 (salt-tolerant) and Shatabdi (salt-sensitive) were exposed to 70-day treatments with $O_3$ (charcoal-filtered air (CF), $1.0{\times}O_3$, and $1.5{\times}O_3$) and different levels of soil salinity (0, 4, and $8dS\;m^{-1}$). In both cultivars, the whole-plant dry mass and grain yield were significantly reduced by exposure to $O_3$. Increased soil salinity caused significant reductions in whole-plant growth and yield in Shatabdi, but the reductions were negligible in BAW1059. No significant interactions between $O_3$ and salinity were detected for growth, yield, and leaf gas exchange parameters in both cultivars. We concluded that the effects of $O_3$ are not ameliorated by soil salinity in two Bangladeshi wheat cultivars, regardless of their salinity tolerance.

Estimation of Dilution Factor between Two Soil Salinity Analysis Methods (두 가지 토양 염도 측정법간의 환산계수 추정)

  • Lee, Seung-Heon;Hong, Byeong-Deok;An, Yeul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.405-408
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    • 2002
  • The electrical conductivity, EC is a major indicator of soil salinity. Measuring EC of saturation-paste extract of soil, ECe, is the standard way to evaluate soil salinity. However much of the data on soil salinity have been obtained by measuring the EC of the 1:5 soil-to-water extract, EC(1:5) or salts contents(%) which multiplied by conversion factor. And, thus we attempted to collect and analysis 90 soil samples at 9 reclaimed tidelands in Korea and to derive a relationship between ECe and dilution factor at ECe and EC(1:5), $DF_{1:5}$ of 3 soil textural conditions and 6 salinity conditions. Regression equations between ECe and $DF_{1:5}$ were obtained $ECe=1.4701ln(DF_{1:5})+5.0974(r^2=0.97^{**})$ in case of more than 50% silt contents, $ECe=2.1399ln(DF_{1:5})+5.3462 (r^2=0.99^{***})$ in case of below 50% silt contents, and $ECe=1.5927ln(DF_{1:5})+5.2486 (r^2=0.98^{***})$ in all cases, and then we suggested the $DF_{1:5}\;and\;DF_%$ of 3 soil textural conditions and 6 salinity conditions.

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