• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soil organic carbon

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Comparing Organic Carbon Storage of Upper 15-cm Soils between Different Land Use Types in Korean Inland

  • Han, Kyung-Hwa;Cho, Hee-Rae;Lee, Jeong-Tae;Lee, Gye-Jun;Hong, Suk-Young;Zhang, Yong-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1314-1319
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate the surface soil organic carbon fractions affecting by different land use types, including needle-leaf forest (FN), broad-leaf forest (FB), pasture, annual upland cropping land (upland), and paddy rice land (paddy). We chose seven regions across Korean inland, considering sea level altitude, and measured soil organic carbon content and physico-chemical properties such as bulk density at a depth of 0~15 cm using core samples in April for the each land use type. In addition, labile organic carbon fractions in soil including light fraction and hot water extractable carbon were investigated. From this study, organic carbon storage (Mg C per ha) in the upper 15-cm soils was highest in FB (37.8), and decreased in the order of pasture (29.1), FN (28.8), paddy (21.9), and upland crop (19.9). In forest, more than 20% of soil organic carbon existed as light fraction, the free organic matter. Hot-water extractable carbon contents of soils in five land use types were lower than 7% of their soil organic carbon content.

Soil Organic Carbon Determination for Calcareous Soils (석회암 유래 토양의 토양유기탄소 분석법 연구)

  • Jung, Won-Kyo;Kim, Yoo-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.396-402
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    • 2006
  • Soil organic carbon has long been considered as the most critical factor to evaluate the soil quality, fertility, and fertilizer prescription. In addition, soil organic carbon may impact on greenhouse gas effects and global warming. Because of that, the management of soil organic carbon is increasingly important not only for improving soil quality but also for managing soil as a greenhouse gas source. Both wet and dry combustion have been used to determine soil organic carbon. Many benefits, such as automation and less labor, could the dry combustion method become more popular. Inorganic form of carbon could overestimate soil organic carbon when the dry combustion method was applied. Determination of soil inorganic carbon may contribute to the improved accuracy of soil organic carbon analysis using dry combustion method. Objectives of this research were 1) to develop soil inorganic carbon determination method using modified digital pressure calcimeter and 2) to evaluate soil organic carbon from calcareous soils using the dry and wet combustion method. Results showed that the significant linear relationship was found between soil inorganic carbon content and pressure calcimeter output. Inorganic carbon ranged from 22% to 28% of total carbon in the calcareous soil samples. Soil organic carbon content by dry combustion for calcareous soil was determined by subtracting inorganic carbon measured by the digital pressure calcimeter from total carbon. Soil organic carbon determined by dry combustion method was significantly correlated with that by wet combustion method. In conclusion, the digital pressure calcimeter may use to improve soil organic carbon determination for the calcareous soils by subtracting of soil inorganic carbon from total carbon determined by dry combustion method.

Effect of Winter Crop Cultivation on Soil Organic Carbon and Physico-chemical Properties Under Different Rice-forage Cropping Systems in Paddy Soil

  • Yun, Sun-Gang;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Ko, Byong-Gu;Park, Seong-Jin;Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Ki-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2016
  • Soil organic carbon plays an important role on soil physico-chemical properties and crop yields in paddy soil. However, there is little information on the soil organic carbon under different forage cultivation during winter season in rice paddy. In this study, we investigated the soil organic carbon and physico-chemical properties in 87 fields of paddy soil cultivated with Barley, rye, and Italian ryegrass (IRG) as animal feedstock during winter season. Organic carbon was 12.9, 14.3, and $16.9g\;C\;kg^{-1}$ in soil with barley, rye, and IRG cultivation, respectively. Among rice-forage cultivation systems, the rice+IRG cropping system was 19.5% higher than in the mono-rice cultivation. Bulk density ranged from 1.17 to $1.28g\;cm^{-3}$ irrespective of cropping systems, and had strongly negative correlation with the soil organic carbon in the rice+IRG cropping system. Carbon storage in rice+IRG cropping systems was average $29.6Mg\;ha^{-1}$ at 15 cm of soil depth, which was 20.4 and 10.3% higher than those of barley and rye cultivation. Increasing carbon storage in paddy soil contributed to the fertility for following rice cultivation. This results indicated that IRG cultivation during winter season could be an alternative and promising way to enhance soil organic carbon content and fertility of paddy soil.

Comparison of Organic Carbon Composition in Profile by Using Solid 13C CPNMR Spectroscopy in Volcanic Ash Soil

  • Sonn, Yeon Kyu;Kang, Seong Soo;Ha, Sang Keun;Kim, Yoo Hak;Lee, Chang Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.391-398
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    • 2013
  • Soil organic carbon (SOC) has the potential to promote the soil quality for sustainability and mitigation of global warming. There is little information on organic carbon composition despite of having resistance of carbon degradation in soil. In this study, to understand the effect of volcanic ash on organic carbon composition and quantity in soil, we investigated characteristics of volcanic soil and compared organic carbon composition of soil and humic extract by using $^{13}C$-CPMAS-NMR spectra under soil profiles of Namweon series in Jeju. SOC contents of inner soil profiles were 134.8, 101.3, and 27.4 g C $kg^{-1}$ at the layer of depth 10-20, 70-80 and 90-100 cm, respectively. These layers were significantly different to soil pH, oxalate Al contents, and soil moisture contents. Alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio in soil was higher than that of humic extracts, which was decreased below soil depth. Aromaticity of soil and humic extract was ranged from 29-38 and 24-32%, which was highest at the humic extract of 70-80 cm in soil depth. These results indicate that the changes of SOC in volcanic ash soil resulted from alteration of organic composition by pyrolysis and stability of organic carbon by allophane in volcanic ash soil.

Influence of Organic Matter and Temperature on the Sorption of Volatile Organic Compounds on Soil (토양 흡착에 대한 유기탄소와 온도의 영향)

  • 김희경
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.57-59
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    • 1998
  • The headspace method has been acknowledged as a cost-effective and convenient method to analyze volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in soil. The headspace analysis is based on equilibrium partitioning of VOCs among water, air and soil in a closed system. However, the headspace method cannot be applied to soils where most of the VOCs remain sorbed even at high temperature. In this study, it was investigated how the sorption characteristics of VOCs varied with soil with different organic carbon contents and temperature. This study showed that all the VOCs were volatilized, not sorved, only in the soil with 5% organic carbon at 45$^{\circ}C$ or higher. Some fraction of VOCs remained in soil with 8% organic carbon at $65^{\circ}C$ of higher. Most of the VOCs remained sorbed in soil with 12% organic content even at 95$^{\circ}C$. This result suggested that the headspace method can be applied only to soils with little organic carbon content (less than 5%). In this case, 45$^{\circ}C$ seems to be high enough to volatilize all the VOCs from soil. Large particles still showed a significant sorption capacity for VOCs from soil. Large Particles still showed a significant sorption capacity for VOCs despite of their low level of organic carbon content. It was also shown that the organic carbon sorption coefficients (Koc) of VOCs varied with soils with different organic carbon content. This suggests that not only the organic matter content of soil but also the property of the organic matter in soil influence the sorption of VOCs to soil.

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Budget and distribution of organic carbon in Taxus cuspidata forest in subalpine zone of Mt. Halla

  • Jang, Rae-Ha;Jeong, Heon-Mo;Lee, Eung-Pill;Cho, Kyu-Tae;You, Young-Han
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.19-28
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    • 2017
  • Background: In order to investigate organic carbon distribution, carbon budget, and cycling of the subalpine forest, we studied biomass, organic carbon distribution, litter production, forest floor litter, accumulated soil organic carbon, and soil respiration in Taxus cuspidata forest in Halla National Park from February 2012 to November 2013. Biomass was calculated by using allometric equation and the value was converted to $CO_2$ stocks. Results: The amount of plant organic carbon was $13.60ton\;C\;ha^{-1}year^{-1}$ in 2012 and $14.29ton\;C\;ha^{-1}year^{-1}$ in 2013. And average organic carbon introduced to forest floor through litter production was $0.71ton\;C\;ha^{-1}year^{-1}$. Organic carbon distributed in forest floor litter layer was $0.73ton\;C\;ha^{-1}year^{-1}$ on average and accumulated organic carbon in soil was $51.13ton\;C\;ha^{-1}year^{-1}$ on average. In 2012, Amount of released $CO_2$ from soil to atmosphere was 10.93 ton $CO_2ha^{-1}year^{-1}$. Conclusions: The net ecosystem production based on the difference between net primary production of organic carbon and soil respiration was $-1.74ton\;C\;ha^{-1}year^{-1}$ releasing more carbon than it absorbed.

Development of Soil Organic Carbon Storage Estimation Model Using Soil Characteristics (토양 특성을 이용한 토양유기탄소저장량 산정 모형 개발)

  • Lee, Taehwa;Kim, Sangwoo;Shin, Yongchul;Jung, Younghun;Lim, Kyoung-Jae;Yang, Jae E;Jang, Won Seok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2019
  • Carbon dioxide is one of the major driving forces causing climate changes, and many countries have been trying to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from various sources. Soil stores more carbon dioxide(two to three times) amounts than atmosphere indicating that soil organic carbon emission management are a pivotal issue. In this study, we developed a Soil Organic Carbon(SOC) storage estimation model to predict SOC storage amounts in soils. Also, SOC storage values were assessed based on the carbon emission price provided from Republic Of Korea(ROK). Here, the SOC model calculated the soil hydraulic properties based on the soil physical and chemical information. Base on the calculated the soil hydraulic properties and the soil physical chemical information, SOC storage amounts were estimated. In validation, the estimated SOC storage amounts were 486,696 tons($3.526kg/m^2$) in Jindo-gun and shown similarly compared to the previous literature review. These results supported the robustness of our SOC model in estimating SOC storage amounts. The total SOC storage amount in ROK was 305 Mt, and the SOC amount at Gyeongsangbuk-do were relatively higher than other regions. But the SOC storage amount(per unit) was highest in Jeju island indicating that volcanic ashes might influence on the relatively higher SOC amount. Based on these results, the SOC storage value was shown as 8.4 trillion won in ROK. Even though our SOC model was not fully validated due to lacks of measured SOC data, our approach can be useful for policy-makers in reducing soil organic carbon emission from soils against climate changes.

Estimation in a Model for Determining the Amount of Carbon in Soil and Measurement of the Influences of the Specific Factors (농경지 토양탄소량 결정모형 추정 및 요인별 영향력 계측)

  • Suh, Jeong-Min;Cho, Jae-Hwan;Son, Beung-Gu;Kang, Jum-Soon;Hong, Chang-Oh;Kim, Woon-Won;Park, Jeong-Ho;Lim, Woo-Taik;Jin, Kyung-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1827-1833
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    • 2014
  • This study has been carried out to present the valuation system of soil carbon sequestration potentials of soil in accordance with the new climate change scenarios(RCP). For that, by analyzing variation of soil carbon of the each type of agricultural land use, it aims to develop technology to increase the amount of carbon emissions and sequestration. Among the factors which affects the estimation of determining the soil carbon model and influence power after the measurement on soil organic carbon, under the center of a causal relationship between the explanatory variables this study were investigated. Chemical fertilizers (NPK) decreased with increasing the amount of soil organic carbon and as with the first experimental results, when cultivating rice than pepper, the fact that soil organic carbon content increased has been found out. The higher the carbon dioxide concentration, the higher the amount of organic carbon in the soil and this result is reliable under a 10% significance level. On the other hand, soil organic carbon, humus carbon and hot water extractable carbon has been found out that was not affected the soils depth, sames as the result of the first year. The higher concentration of carbon dioxide, the higher carbon content of humus and hot water extractable carbon content. According to IPCC 2006 Guidelines and the new climate change scenario RCP 4.5 and the measurement results of the total amount of soil organic carbon to the crops due to abnormal climate weather, 1% increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was found to be small when compared to the growing rate of increasing 0.01058% of organic carbon in the soil.

Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Korean Paddy Soils (우리나라 논 토양의 토양유기탄소 변동 특성)

  • Jung, Won-Kyo;Kim, Sun-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2007
  • Korean paddy soils have long been almost uniformly managed throughout the whole country with flooded, deep tillage, puddlling, transplanting, and uncovering after harvest. Management of soil organic carbon could be more important in the sources of green house gases. However, soil organic carbon dynamics were not been studied for Korean paddy soils. Therefore, we evaluated the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) of paddy soils between 1999 and 2003 at the same locations nationwide except islands. Soil organic carbon tends to increase in Inceptisols, which is predominant soil order for Korean paddy soils, from 1999 to 2003. Soil organic carbon increases in topographically plain paddy soils was greater than in valley soils, and was considerably high in predominant types of paddy soils (i.e., well adapted paddy soils, sandy paddy soils, and poorly drained paddy soils) but low and stable in the saline paddy soils. We also found that clay paddy soils are greater in soil organic carbon than sandy paddy soils. Through this study, we concluded that a proper management of paddy soils could contribute to soil organic carbon storage, which imply that the Korean paddy soils could help to enhance carbon dioxide sequestration via soil organic matter into the soil.

Observations of Variations in Soil Organic Carbon and Carbon Dioxide in the Constructed Wetland at Goheung Bay (고흥만 인공습지의 토양유기탄소와 이산화탄소 변동 관측)

  • Kang, Dong-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Soo;Kwon, Byung-Hyuk;Kim, Il-Kyu
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.58-67
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    • 2008
  • Seasonal variations in carbon dioxide in the air and soil organic carbon in the sediments were monitored at the constructed wetland formed by reclamation work at Goheung Bay. Sediment sampling in the constructed wetland and carbon dioxide measurement in the air were conducted on June 16 and August 23, 2007. Sediments in the constructed wetland were sampled at 11 different points (June 16) and 14 points (August 23), while carbon dioxide in the air was measured at 13 points (June 16) and 15 points (August 23). Water content and organic carbon in the sampled sediments were analyzed in the laboratory. Water content of the sediments was higher than that of general soil, and the variation between June and August was not evident. The amounts of organic carbons in the sediments sampled on August 23 were higher than those sampled on June 16. Also, there was more organic carbon in the sediments sampled at the field of reeds than in the pure wetland area. Daily maximum variation in carbon dioxide in the air was higher on June 16, but the amount of carbon dioxide in the air was greater on August 23. The results of the study suggest that organic carbon in the sediments and carbon dioxide in the air were greater in summer (August 23) than in spring season (June 16) in the constructed wetland at Goheung Bay.