• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soil chamber

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Sensitivity Study of the Flow-through Dynamic Flux Chamber Technique for the Soil NO Emissions

  • Kim Deug-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.21 no.E3
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2005
  • A mathematical sensitivity analysis of the flow-through dynamic flux chamber technique, which has been utilized usually for various trace gas flux measurement from soil and water surface, was performed in an effort to provide physical and mathematical understandings of parameters essential for the NO flux calculation. The mass balance equation including chemical reactions was analytically solved for the soil NO flux under the steady state condition. The equilibrium concentration inside the chamber, $C_{eq}$, was found to be determined mainly by the balance between the soil flux and dilution of the gas concentration inside the chamber by introducing the ambient air. Surface deposition NO occurs inside the chamber when the $C_{eq}$ is greater than the ambient NO concentration ($C_{0}$) introducing to the chamber; NO emission from the soil occurs when the $C_{eq}$ is less than the ambient NO concentration. A sensitivity analysis of the significance of the chemical reactions of NO with the reactive species (i.e. $HO_{2},/CH_{3}O_{2},/O_{3}$) on the NO flux from soils was performed. The result of the analysis suggests that the NO flux calculated in the absence of chemical reactions and wall loss could be in error ranges from 40 to $85\%$ to the total flux.

Net Ecosystem Productivity Determined by Continuous Measurement Using Automatic Sliding Canopy Chamber

  • Kim, Gun-Yeob;Lee, Seul-Bi;Lee, Jong-Sik;Choi, Eun-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1179-1186
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    • 2012
  • For better understanding of carbon cycle dynamics of an agro-ecosystem, an accurate assessment of seasonal and daily $CO_2$ flux is essential to understand the relationship between various environmental factors and crop productivity. We developed the automatic sliding canopy chamber (ASCC) system that measured continuous net ecosystem productivity (NEP) over whole growing season under the natural meteorological rhythm. The ASCC was composed of two main parts which were sliding part for measuring NEP, and automatic opening and closing chamber (AOCC) for measuring soil respiration (SR) on the soil surface. The ASCC was developed by using open flow method for measuring soil $CO_2$ efflux. The disturbance of natural meteorological condition was minimized by opening the base frames. In the field test with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), NEP was calculated at $140mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}h^{-1}$ on a clear day using continuous data and eliminated the possibility of overestimate about 16% using one hour data during the day time. Unlike other small scale chamber system, installation on cropping-field made it possible to take any modifications which might be caused by natural environmental condition.

The Relevance of Soil N2O Emissions Measured by a Closed Chamber Technique on the Physico-chemical Soil Parameters (Closed chamber를 이용한 토양 N2O 배출량과 주요 토양 인자들과의 상관성)

  • Kim Deug-Soo;Oh Jin Man
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.749-758
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    • 2004
  • Nitrous oxide ($N_2$O) has been known as an important trace gas due to the greenhouse gas and the major source of stratospheric oxide of nitrogen (NO). Soil is the major source of $N_2$O in nature. The physicochemical characteristics of soils affect the emission of $N_2$O from soil. These physicochemical parameters are soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil N content. Since these parameters are correlated to the flux of $N_2$O from soil individually and compositely, there still remain many unknowns in the mechanism to produce $N_2$O in soil and the roles of such physicochemical parameters which affect the soil $N_2$O emission. Soil $N_2$O fluxes were measured at different levels in water filled pore space (WFPS), soil temperature and soil N contents from the same amounts of soils which were sampled from agriculturally managed upland field in a depth of ~30 cm at Kunsan. The soil $N_2$O flux measurements were conducted in a laboratory with a closed flux chamber system. The optimum soil moisture and soil temperature were observed at 60% of WFPS and ~13$^{\circ}C$. The soil $N_2$O flux increased as soil N contents increases during the whole experimental hours (up to 48 hours). However, average $N_2$O flux decreased after ~30 hours when organic carbon was mixed with nitrogen in the sample soils. It is suggested that organic carbon could be important for the emission of $N_2$O, and that the ratio of N to C needs to be identified in the process of $N_2$O soil emission.

The Effect of the Formaldehyde Removal of Fore Temperate Ground Cover Plants (4가지 온대성 지피식물의 실내 포름알데이드 제거효과)

  • Ju, Jin-Hee;Bang, Kwang-Ja;Lee, Jin-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2007
  • This research was performed to investigate the effect of formaldehyde removal and confirm the utility of plants as indoor environment improvement systems. The plant materials used in this study were Fatsia japonica, Ardisia japonica, Ardisia pusilla and Davallia mariesii. Plants were placed in an airtight chamber under artificial formaldehyde. The initial formaldehyde concentration in the chamber was $500{\pm}30ppb$, and the conditions of $1,500{\sim}2,000lux$ light, $25{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ temperature and $80{\sim}90%$ humidity were maintained. Each chamber was treated as no plant, plant-only and Plant+soil. The total leaf number for Davallia mariesii, Ardisia japonica, Ardisia pusilla, and Fatsia japonica was 40.8, 48.6, 62.3, and 11.8 respectively. The total leaf space n of those plant materials were $2,385cm^2,\;1,252cm^2,\;2,468cm^2\;and\;1,262cm^2$ respectively. The formaldehyde concentration was reduced to $80{\sim}90%$ of the initial concentration in plant-only and Plant+Soil treatment chamber of all species in 12 hours. In the plant-only chamber, Fatsia japonica had removed formaldehyde density by 95% after 12 hours while Ardisia japonica had removed 90%. In the case of Ardisia pusilla, the early removal rate was higher in the plant-only treatment chamber than the Plant+Soil treatment chamber. The formaldehyde removal rate of Davallia mariesii was 98% after 12 hours. In the Plant+Soil treatment chamber, the amount of removal of formaldehyde per time of Davallia mariesii, Ardisia japonica, Ardisia pusilla, and Fatsia japonica was 20.42ppb/hr, 16.28ppb/hr, 2.5.42ppb/hr, 10.28ppb/hr respectively. In the plant-only, That was 22.50ppb/hr, 20.97ppb/hr, 20.83ppb/hr, 20.97ppb/hr respectively.

Analysis of Flow Character and Gas Measurement from Final Cover Soil of sanitary Landfill (쓰레기 매립지 최종 복토층에서 가스 측정방법과 유출특성 해석)

  • 이해승
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.75-86
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    • 1998
  • This paper is going to show the way we can sample the landfill gases flowing out to the air through final cover soil by using an closed chamber in the field for a short time. In addition, we came to the following results through the application of model with actual measurements. 1) Analyzing changes of concentration in the chamber(H: 10-30cm) every 5 minutes, considering analysis time of gas chromatograph for an half hour. 2) The proportion of $CE_4$to $CO_2$changes rapidly near the surface of final cover soil by the influence of methane oxidation reaction. 3) When flux of landfill gas is F=$10^{-5}$mol/$\textrm{m}^2$.s), methane oxidation reaction has an influence on composition of gases, however there is little influence when F=$10^{-6}$ mol/($\textrm{m}^2$.s).

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The Structual Restoration on Gyeongju-Style Piled Stone-Type Wooden Chamber Tombs (경주식 적석목곽묘의 구조복원 재고)

  • Gweon, Yong Dae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.66-87
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    • 2009
  • The definition of the structure of wooden chamber tomb(piled stone-type) is as follows. It is a tomb with wooden chamber, and stones were piled on top of the wooden chamber, and then a wooden structure was placed on top of the piled stones, and more stones were piled on top of the wooden structure, and sealed with clay. Of course this definition can vary according to periods, the buried, etc. Gyeongju-style piled stone type wooden chamber tombs have some distinguished characteristics compared to general definition of piled stone type wooden chamber tombs. Outside the wooden chamber, either stone embankments or filled-in stones were layed out, and pilet-in stones are positioned right above the wooden chamber, and almost every class used this type, and finally, it is exclusively found in Gyeongju area. First generations of this Gyeongju-style piled stone type wooden chamber tombs appeared in first half of 5th century. These tombs inherited characteristics like ground plan, wooden chamber, double chamber(inner chamber and outer chamber), piled stones, burial of the living with the dead, piled stones, from precedent wooden chamber tombs. However these tombs have explicit new characteristics which are not found in the precedent wooden chamber tombs such as stone embankments, wooden pillars, piled stones(above ground level), soil tumuluses. stone embankments and wooden pillars are exclusively found on great piled stone type above-ground level wooden chamber tombs such as the Hwangnamdaechong(皇南大塚). Stone embankments, wooden pillars, piled stones(above ground level) are all elements of building process of soil tumuluses. stone embankments support outer wall of above-ground level wooden chambers and disperse the weight of tumuluses. Wooden pillars functioned as auxiliary supports with wooden structures to prevent the collapse of stone embankments. Piled stones are consists of stones of regular size, placed on the wooden structure. And after the piled stones were sealed with clay, tumulus was built with soil. Piled stones are unique characteristics which reflects the environment of Gyeongju area. Piled stone type wooden chamber tombs are located on the vast and plain river basin of Hyeongsan river(兄山江). Which makes vast source of sands and pebbles. Therefore, tumulus of these tombs contains large amount of sands and are prone to collapse if soil tumulus was built directly on the wooden structure. Consequently, to maintain external shape of the tumulus and to prevent collapse of inner structure, piled stones and clay-sealing was made. In this way, they can prevent total collapse of the tombs even if the tumulus was washed away. The soil tumulus is a characteristic which emerges when a nation or political entity reaches certain growing stage. It can be said that after birth of a nation, growing stage follows and social structure will change, and a newly emerged ruling class starts building new tombs, instead of precedent wooden chamber tombs. In this process, soil tumulus was built and the size and structure of the tombs differ according to the ruling class. Ground plan, stone embankments, number of the persons buried alive with the dead, quantity and quality of artifacts reflect social status of the ruling class. In conclusion, Gyeongju-style piled stone type wooden chamber tombs emerged with different characteristics from the precedent wooden chamber tombs when Shilla reached growing stage.

Development of Large Calibration Chamber System (Large Calibration Chamber의 개발)

  • 정충열;김태준;김대규;이우진
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.673-678
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    • 2002
  • Laboratory calibration chamber tests for cone penetrometers, pressuremeters and dilatometers in cohesionless soil specimens have been conducted by numerous researchers. However, there have been only few applications to compacted or preconsolidated cohesive soils. Therefore, for the first time, Calibration Chamber System was developed in Korea University. This can be attributed to the extremely time consuming and laborious process involved in the preparation of large cohesive soil specimens in addition to other complexities involving instrumentation for pore pressure monitoring and the need for maintaing saturation by back pressure. Chamber System with similar principle as LSU Chamber System was made of more strengthen and complementary form by increasing system diameter(1.2m), carrying out 1st and 2nd consolidation process in one system for smooth and safe work, accurate Data Aquisition.

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Application of Bender Element Tests for the Estimation of Maximum shear Modulus in Calibration Chamber (모형 지반의 최대 전단탄성계수 평가를 위한 벤더 엘리먼트 시험의 적용)

  • Kwon, Hyung-Min;Ko, Young-Ju;Chung, Choong-Ki
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.1278-1284
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    • 2008
  • This study carried out bender element tests in a calibration chamber in order to estimate the characteristics of soil specimen prepared in a calibration chamber. Basically, the purpose of bender element test is to measure the shear wave velocity. Bender element test cannot only confirm the status of soil specimen deposited in a chamber, but also estimate the consolidation process indirectly. In order to carry out bender element test in a calibration chamber, a pair of bender elements was installed inside the chamber, using the 'ㄷ' shaped frame. For the sandy soils having various relative densities in various stress conditions, the maximum shear modulus was estimated. From the comparison with bender element test results in a triaxial testing device, testing device and procedure was validated.

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Soil Deformation Tracking in Model Chamber by Targetless Close-Range Photogrammetry (무타겟 사진측량 기반 모형 토조 내 지반 변위 측정)

  • Lee, Chang No;Oh, Jae Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.555-562
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    • 2019
  • This paper presents soil deformation measurement in model chamber based on photogrammetry. We created an aluminum framed acrylic model chamber with soil inside and applied photogrammetry to measure soil deformation caused by loading tests. The soil consists of 40% black and 60% regular sand to create image contrast in soil images. In preprocessing, the self camera calibration was carried out for IOPs (Interior Orientation Parameters), followed by the space resection to estimate EOPs (Exterior Orientation Parameters) using control points located along the aluminum frame. Image matching was applied to measure the soil displacement. We tested different matching window sizes and the effect of image smoothing. Experimental results showed that 65x65 pixels of window size produced better soil deformation map and the image smoothing was useful to suppress the matching outliers. In conclusion, photogrammetry was able to efficiently generated soil deformation map.

N2O and CH4 Emission from Upland Forest Soils using Chamber Methods (플럭스챔버에 의한 N2O와 CH4의 산림에서의 토양배출량 측정연구)

  • Kim, Deug-Soo;Kim, Soyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.789-800
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    • 2013
  • $N_2O$ and $CH_4$, Greenhouse gas emission, Forest soil, Closed chamber technique, Soil uptake $N_2O$ and $CH_4$ are important greenhouse gases (GHG) along with $CO_2$ influencing greatly on climate change. Their soil emission rates are highly affected by bio-geo-chemical processes in C and N through the land-atmosphere interface. The forest ecosystems are generally considered to be net emission for $N_2O$; however, net sinks for $CH_4$ by soil uptake. Soil $N_2O$ and $CH_4$ emissions were measured at Mt. Taewha in Gwangju, Kyeonggi, Korea. Closed chamber technique was used for surface gas emissions from forest soil during period from May to October 2012. Gas emission measurement was conducted mostly on daytime (from 09:00 to 18:00 LST) during field experiment period (total 25 days). The gas samples collected from chamber for $N_2O$ and $CH_4$ were analyzed by gas chromatography. Soil parameters were also measured at the sampling plot. GHG averages emissions during the experimental period were $3.11{\pm}16.26{\mu}g m^{-2}hr^{-1}$ for $N_2O$, $-1.36{\pm}11.3{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$ for $CH_4$, respectively. The results indicated that forest soil acted as a source of $N_2O$, while it acted like a sink of $CH_4$ on average. On monthly base, means of $N_2O$ and $CH_4$ flux during May (spring) were $8.38{\pm}48.7{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$, and $-3.21{\pm}31.39{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$, respectively. During August (summer) both GHG emissions were found to be positive (averages of $2.45{\pm}20.11{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$ for $N_2O$ and $1.36{\pm}9.09{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$ for $CH_4$); which they were generally released from soil. During September (fall) $N_2O$ and $CH_4$ soil uptakes were observed and their means were $-1.35{\pm}12.78{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$ and $-2.56{\pm}11.73{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$, respectively. $N_2O$ emission was relatively higher in spring rather than other seasons. This could be due to dry soil condition during spring experimental period. It seems that soil moisture and temperature mostly influence gas production and consumption, and then emission rate in subsoil environment. Other soil parameters like soil pH and chemical composition were also discussed with respect to GHG emissions.