• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soil application

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Selection of Optimal Application Condition of Corn Waste Biochar for Improvement of Corn Growth and Soil Fertility

  • Kang, Se-Won;Kim, Seong-Heon;Park, Jong-Hwan;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.452-461
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to select an optimal approach to corn waste biochar (BC) application, and to evaluate the effects of combined application of BC and inorganic fertilizer (IF) on corn growth and soil chemical properties in a pot experiment. Corn growth differed with BC application timing and BC application levels. Based on the characteristics of corn growth in pot-based experiments, the selected optimal application conditions of BC were application of $500kg\;10a^{-1}$ at 20 days before sowing. Also, the chemical properties of the tested soil with BC after corn harvesting were significantly improved than those in the other treatments. In particular, soil pH and CEC regardless of application conditions were markedly increased by 0.04~0.19 units and $0.08{\sim}2.58coml_c\;kg^{-1}$ in BC treatments than without BC treatments. Additionally, combined application of BC and IF had greater effects on corn growth than single application of BC. Therefore, the results suggest using properly BC application conditions and a combination of BC and IF for effective corn cultivation in an upland field.

Physical, Chemical Properties and Microbial Population of Soil as Affected by Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Swine Manure Fermented with Sawdust on Cheju Brown Volcanic Ash Pasture Soil

  • Moon-Chul Kim;Hae-Nam Hyun;Sung-Cheol Lee
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2000
  • A trial was carried out to investigate the effect of fermented saw-dust pig manure (FSP) and N fertilizer application on physical, chemical properties and microbial population of soil on Cheju brown volcanic ash pasture during the period from September, 1997 to January, 1999. Average soil N contents during 3 different periods, August and October, 1998, and January, 1999 were 0.39, 0.41 and 0.39% for fertilizer N level 0, 150 and 300kg/ha, respectively. Soil N contents determined in January, 1999, was significantly increased by an increase of fertilizer N. Nitrogen contents in the soil applied with 0, 3, 6 and 12 tons 1 ha of FSP were 0.43, 0.40, 0.38 and 0.38%, respectively, showing decreasing tendency of soil with increasing levels of FSP application. Soil N contents determined in August, 1998 and January, 1999, were significantly decreased by increasing levels of FSP application. Organic matter contents of the soil applied with N 0, 150 and 300 kg/ha was 8.04, 8.37, and 9.08%. Soil organic matters determined on the 1st and 2nd period trended to increase with increasing level of fertilizer N. FSP application significantly decreased organic matter contents of pasture soil, (9.14, 8.79, 8.28 and 7.78% OM in soil applied with FSP 0, 3, 6 and 12 tonlha of FSP), respectively. Soil OM determined in October, 1998, also showed a significant decrease with increasing level of FSP. Soil pH, available phosphorus, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and Na in soil studied were not influenced by fertilizer N or FSP application during all three periods. N application tended to increase soil bacteria count, ($27.0\;{\times}\;10^4\;cfu/g,\;29.4\;{\times}\;1-^4\;cfu/g$ and $53.6\;10^4\;cfu/g$ in the soil applied with 0, 150 and 300 kg N/ha, respectively). The number of colonies of soil bacteria and fungi determined in June and October, 1998 was not increased remarkably by FSP application, but the number of colonies of bacteria determined in March, 1998 showed a significant increase with increasing level of FSP application. In conclusion, N contents and OM of soil increased with increasing level of N application, but decreased with increasing level of FSP application.

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Effect of Food Waste Compost on Crop Productivity and Soil Chemical Properties under Rice and Pepper Cultivation

  • Lee, Chang Hoon;Ko, Byong-Gu;Kim, Myung-Sook;Park, Seong-Jin;Yun, Sun-Gang;Oh, Taek-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.682-688
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    • 2016
  • Food waste has recognized one of useful sources for potentially agricultural application to supply organic matter and nutrients in arable soil. However, there was little information on application of food waste compost related to the maturity and NaCl content in arable soil. This study evaluated the effect of food waste compost application on yield and fertility in soil under flooding and upland condition. The yields in rice and pepper cultivation decreased with increasing the rate of food waste compost application in soil (p<0.05). Maximum yields of rice ($49.0g\;plant^{-1}$) and pepper ($204g\;plant^{-1}$) were shown at 10 and $30Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of food waste compost application, respectively. The N, P, and K contents in grain and plant residues increased by the application of food waste compost, there was no difference on Na/K ratio in plant tissue among the treatments. Application of food waste compost resulted in the increase of pH, EC, TC, available P contents in soil after crop harvest, especially, which was shown the increase of the CEC and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) contents in irrespective of water condition. In conclusion, application of food waste compost in soil was effective on the supply of the organic matter and nutrient. However, it might need caution to apply food waste compost for sustainable productivity in arable soil because of potential Na accumulation.

Effect of Soil Respiration on Light Fraction-C and N Availability in Soil Applied with Organic Matter

  • Ko, Byong-Gu;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Park, Seong-Jin;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.510-516
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    • 2016
  • Soil respiration has been recognized as a key factor of the change of organic matter and fertility due to the carbon and nitrogen mineralization. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil respiration on the light fraction-C and inorganic N content depending on temperature in soil applied with organic matter. Soil respiration was calculated by using total $CO_2$ flux released from soil applied with $2Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of rice straw compost and rye for 8 weeks incubation at 15, 25, $35^{\circ}C$ under incubation test. After incubation test, light fraction and inorganic N content were investigated. Rye application dramatically increased soil respiration with increasing temperature. $Q_{10}$ value of rye application was 1.69, which was higher 27% than that of rice straw compost application. Light-C and $NO_3-N$ contents were negatively correlated to soil respiration. Light-C in rye application more decreased than that in rice straw compost with temperature levels. These results indicate that temperature sensitivity of soil respiration could affect soil organic mater content and N availability in soil due to carbon availability. Also, light fraction would be useful indicator to evaluate decomposition rate of organic matter in soil under a short-term test.

Evaluate Changes in Soil Chemical Properties Following FGD-Gypsum Application

  • Lee, Yong-Bok;Bigham, Jerry M.;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.294-299
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    • 2007
  • Natural gypsum has been used as a soil amendment in the United States. However, flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum has not traditionally been used for agricultural purpose although it has potential benefit as a soil amendment. To expand use of FGD-gypsum for agricultural purpose, the effect of FGD-gypsum on soil chemical properties was investigated in the field scales. Application rates for this study were 0 (control), 1.1, and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of FGD-gypsum. After two year application, the soil samples were taken to 110 cm depth and sub-sampled at 10 cm intervals. The heavy metal contents in FGD-gypsum were lower than ceiling levels allowed by regulations for land-applied biosolids. Soil pH was not largely affected by FGD-gypsum application. Although degree of calcium (Ca) saturation in surface horizons increases only slightly with respect to the control, there is a clear decrease in exchangeable aluminum (Al). FGD-gypsum clearly increases the soil electrical conductivity (EC) with increasing application rate. Water-soluble Ca and sulfate is increased with FGD-gypsum application and these ions moved to a depth of at least 80 cm after only 2 years. We conclude that surface application of FGD-gypsum can mitigate toxicity of Al and deficiency of Ca in subsoil of acid soil.

Effects of Boron Applications on Flower Spike Dieback of Statice (Limonium spp.)

  • Choi, Chang-Hak;Jeong, Dong-Chun;Lee, Jin-Jae;Song, Young-Ju;Ahn, Byung-Koo;Lee, Jin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of boron treatments on flower spike dieback of Statice (Limonium spp.) grown in soilless hydroponic and soil cultures under rain shelter system. The growth of Statice was gradually improved with increasing boron applications in the hydroponics, but not in soil culture with boron treatment as foliar spray or soil application. The degree of flower spike dieback in 6 levels (0, no dieback incidence to 5, very severe dieback incidence) ranged between 0.5 with boron application and 4.4 with no boron treatment. The content of boron in Statice flower spike increased with increasing rates of boron applications in the hydroponics, but the contents of P, Mg, and N were not affected by the boron application. However, K content was highest with no boron treatment. In soil culture, incidence of flower spike dieback decreased with foliar spray or soil application of boron. Therefore, boron application was effective in reducing flower spike dieback and improving cut-flower productivity and its quality, and the recommended rates of boron application were $50{\sim}80{\mu}gL^{-1}$ for hydroponics culture whereas 0.2% borex or ${\geq}0.4kg\;10a^{-1}$ boric acid by foliar spray application for soil culture.

Effects of Organic Materials on Soil Chemical Properties (유기물(有機物)의 시용(施用)이 토양(土壤)의 화학적(化學的) 성질(性質)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Oh, Wang-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.161-174
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    • 1979
  • A review was made on the effect of organic matter application on the chemical characteristics of soils such as pH, solubilities of minerals, and cation exchange capacity mainly at flooded rice soils. The review can be summarized as follows: 1. Application of organic material such as rice straw and compost in flooded rice soil leads to a temporary lowering of soil pH at the earlier stage of soil reduction, due to the production of various organic acids and carbonic acid. This temporary lowered pH is replaced with the production of alkaline substances such as ammonia as the reduction of soil proceeds. 2. Incorporation of organic materials intensifies the ferrous iron, dissolving various minerals, virtually to the increase in electrical conductivity of soils. 3. Organic materials also play an important role in dissolving soil minerals through the production of various chelating agents. 4. Application of soil organic matter significantly increases cation exchange capacity of soils. 5. Continuous application of rice straw or compost leads to the increase in soil organic matter content to some extent, up to the level of equilibrium. In soils low in organic matter the equilibrium level is attained with five years continuous application of compost. 6. The manner of chemical fertilizer application influences the accumulation of organic matter applied in soils. Low levels of fertilization lowers the accumulation while high levels of fertilization accerelates the accumulation.

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Effects of the application of Sewage Sludge on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage(Brassica campestris L.) and Changes in Soil Chemical Properties. (불수 sludge 시용이 배추의 생육과 토양의 화학성 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 김수영;조경철;정순주
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sewage sludge application on the growth of chinese cabbage and the changes of chemical properties of soil. The experiment were set up with two different place and cultivated from Feb. 10 to June. 20 of 2000. Treatments are 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20kg/3.3$\m^2$ of sewage sludge applicated into the soil and recorded the growth characteristics. Chemical properties of soil were also analysed before and after treatment. The application of the sewage sludge resulted in increasing the content of EC, cations exchange capacity, available phosphate and organic matter. And increased the growth characteristics in terms of the number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weight regardless of crops experiments. Optimum amount of the sewage sludge depended on chemical properties of soil used. This results demonstrated that application of sewage sludge in the soil attribute to have play an important both improving soil chemical properties and promoting the crop growth. As lowering the soil pH(pH 6) heavy metal content increased compared with higher pH(pH 7). Feasibility was recognized in the application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer for the growth of chinese cabbage. Detrimental effects such as heavy metal in the soil and crop followed by the application of sewage sludge was not observed.

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Effect of Compost and Tillage on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Stability in Paddy Soil (논토양에서 퇴비시용 및 경운이 토양탄소 축적과 안정화에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Chang-Oh;Kang, Jum-Soon;Shin, Hyun-Moo;Cho, Jae-Hwan;Suh, Jeong-Min
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1509-1517
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    • 2013
  • So far, most studies associated with soil carbon sequestration have been focused on long term aspect. However, information regarding soil carbon sequestration in short term aspect is limited. This study was conducted to determine changes of soil organic carbon content and stability of carbon in response to compost application rate and tillage management during rice growing season(150 days) in short term aspect. Under pot experiment condition, compost was mixed with an arable soil at rates corresponding to 0, 6, 12, and 24 Mg/ha. To determine effect of tillage on soil carbon sequestration, till and no-till treatments were set up in soils amended with application rate of 12 Mg/ha. Compost application and tillage management did not significantly affect soil organic carbon(SOC) content in soil at harvest time. Bulk density of soil was not changed significantly with compost application and tillage management. These might result from short duration of experiment. While hot water extractable organic carbon(HWEOC) content decreased with compost application, humic substances(HS) increased. Below ground biomass of rice increased with application of compost and till operation. From the above results, continuos application of compost and reduce tillage might improve increase in soil organic carbon content and stability of carbon in long term aspect.

Effect of Soil Salinity Levels on Silage Barley Growth at Saemangeum Reclaimed Tidal Land

  • Lee, Sanghun;Bae, Hui-Soo;Lee, Soo-Hwan;Kang, Jong-Gook;Kim, Hong-Kyu;Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Park, Ki-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2013
  • Crop development and nutrient availability are strongly influenced by soil salinity levels. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice straw and nitrogen (N) fertilizer for silage barley under various soil salinity levels at Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land. Three levels of rice straw (0, 2.5, 5.0 ton rice straw $ha^{-1}$) and N (0, 150, 225 kg N $ha^{-1}$) were applied at 0.04, 0.23, 0.35% soil salinity levels. Biomass yield of silage barley was influenced by the interactions between rice straw application and N fertilization. Although there was no single effect of rice straw application on biomass yield, it was significantly increased with N application and a rice straw application of 5.0 ton $ha^{-1}$. Sodium content in silage barley was significantly lower at 0.04% salinity level, and but it was statistically increased with increasing soil salinity levels. Forage qualities such as total digestible nutrients and relative feed value of silage barley were significantly higher with N application at 0.04% salinity level, but there was no effect of rice straw application. Soil organic matter content was increased with N and rice straw application regardless of soil salinity level. The results of this study showed that the effect of rice straw and N fertilization on silage barley was influenced by soil salinity levels, which indicates that the management practice of silage barley at Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land should consider soil salinity levels.