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Comparison of Treatment Plans with Multileaf Collimators of different Leaf Width (Leaf width가 다른 다엽 콜리메터에 의한 치료계획 비교)

  • Kim Joo Young;Park Sung Yong;Lee Doo Hyun;Lee Seok Ho;Kim Tae Hyun;Cho Kwan Ho
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: To compare desimetrically intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment plans with commercially available multileaf collimators (MLCs) of different leaf width for intracranial lesions. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with intracranial lesions were treated with BrainLAB's micro-MLCs (mMLCs) and performed with the BrainSCAN ver. 5.2 planning software. They were replanned using the Varian 120 and 80 MLCs. These collimators have minimum leaf width of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm at isocenter, respectively. PTV was $3.3~339.2\textrm{cm}^3$ and the number of beams was 3~7. These three plans were compared with respect to the uniformity and the conformity indices, doses to critical organ and normal tissue. Results: For the uniformity index of the planning target volume (PTV), there were no statistically significant differences between mMLCs and 120 MLCs (p=0.057) and between 120 MLCs and 80 MLCs (p=0.388). However, there was a difference between mMLCs and 80 MLCs (p<0.001). Maximum target dose to the PTV showed no dependency with respect to the leaf width. On the contrary, there were statistically significant differences in the conformity indices between mMLCs and 120 MLCs (p=0.003), between mMLCs and 80 MLCs (p=0.003) and between 120 MLCs and 80 MLCs (p=0.003). The volume of brainstem irradiated to $\geq$70% dose and to $\geq$50% dose was increased as the leaf width of MLCs increased. In particular, the volume of normal tissue irradiated is obviously changed for different leaf width. Volumetric increments for MLCs with leaf widths of 5 mm and 10 mm were 6.3% and 23.2% to the normal tissue irradiated to $\geq$50% dose, and 8.7% and 32.7% to the normal tissue irradiated to $\geq$70% dose, respectively, compared to the volume for MLCs with leaf width of 3 mm. Conclusions: The uniformity index and maximum target dose to the PTV showed no dependency with respect to leaf width of MLCs. However, the conformity index was improved as the leaf width decreased. For the sparing of normal brain tissue, treatment plans with MLCs of 3 mm leaf width is more effective, compared to ones with MLCs of 5 mm and 10 mm leaf widths.

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THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY CONSISTENCY ON THE TRABECULAR BONE ARCHITECTURE IN GROWING MOUSE MANDIBULAR CONDYLE : A STUDY USING MICRO-CONFUTED TOMOGRAPHY (성장 중인 쥐에서 음식물의 경도가 하악 과두의 해면골에 미치는 영향 : 미세전산화 단층촬영을 이용한 연구)

  • Youn, Seok-Hee;Lee, Sang-Dae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Hahn, Se-Hyun;Kim, Chong-Chul
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.228-235
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    • 2004
  • The development and proliferation of the mandibular condyle can be altered by changes in the biomechanical environment of the temporomandibular joint. The biomechanical loads were varied by feeding diets of different consistencies. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether changes of masticatory forces by feeding a soft diet can alter the trabecular bone morphology of the growing mouse mandibular condyle, by means of micro-computed tomography. Thirty-six female, 21 days old, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups. Mice in the hard-diet control group were fed standard hard rodent pellets for 8 weeks. The soft-diet group mice were given soft ground diets for 8 weeks and their lower incisors were shortened by cutting with a wire cutter twice a week to reduce incision. After 8 weeks all animals were killed after they were weighed. Following sacrifice, the right mandibular condyle was removed. High spatial resolution tomography was done with a Skyscan Micro-CT 1072. Cross-sections were scanned and three-dimensional images were reconstructed from 2D sections. Morphometric and nonmetric parameters such as bone volume(BV), bone surface(BS), total volume(TV), bone volume fraction(BV/TV), surface to volume ratio(BS/BV), trabecular thickness(Tb. Th.), structure model index(SMI) and degree of anisotropy(DA) were directly determined by means of the software package at the micro-CT system. From directly determined indices the trabecular number(Tb. N.) and trabecular separation(Tb. Sp.) were calculated according to parallel plate model of Parfitt et al.. After micro-tomographic imaging, the samples were decalcified, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned for histological observation. The results were as follow: 1. The bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness(Tb. Th.) and trabecular number(Tb. N.) were significantly decreased in the soft-diet group compared with that of the control group (p<0.05). 2. The trabecular separation(Tb. Sp.) was significantly increased in the soft-diet group(p<0.05). 3. There was no significant differences in the surface to volume ratio(BS/BV), structure model index(SMI) and degree of anisotropy(DA) between the soft-diet group and hard-diet control group (p>0.05). 4. Histological sections showed that the thickness of the proliferative layer and total cartilage thickness were significantly reduced in the soft-diet group.

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Effect of Package Size and Pasteurization Temperature on the Quality of Sous Vide Processed Spinach (Sous Vide 가공 시금치의 품질에 미치는 포장단위 및 살균온도의 영향)

  • 장재덕;김기태;이동선
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2004
  • Microbial lethal value and nutrient retention of sous vide processed spinach were evaluated with mathematical model prediction and experimental trial for different package sizes and pasteurization temperatures. The package size covers 500 g, 1 kg and 2 kg, while the pasteurization temperature includes 80, 90 and 97$^{\circ}C$. The basic process scheme consists of filling blanched spinach into barrier plastic film pouch, sealing under vacuum, pasteurization in hot water with over pressure and final cooling to 3$^{\circ}C$. Pasteurization condition was designed based on attainment of 6 decimal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes at geometric center of the pouch package by heating cycle, which was determined by general method. Heat penetration property of the package and thermal destruction kinetics were combined to estimate the retention of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll. Smaller packages with shorter pasteurization time gave better nutrient retention, physical and chemical qualities. Larger package size was estimated and confirmed experimentally to give higher pasteurization value at center, lower ascorbic acid and chlorophyll contents caused by longer heat process time. Lower pasteurization temperature with longer process time was predicted to give lower pasteurization value at center and lower ascorbic acid, while chlorophyll content was affected little by the temperature. Experimental trial showed better retention of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll for smaller package and higher pasteurization temperature with shorter heating time. The beneficial effect of smaller package and higher pasteurization temperature was also observed in texture, color retention and drip production.

RGB Channel Selection Technique for Efficient Image Segmentation (효율적인 이미지 분할을 위한 RGB 채널 선택 기법)

  • 김현종;박영배
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.1332-1344
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    • 2004
  • Upon development of information super-highway and multimedia-related technoiogies in recent years, more efficient technologies to transmit, store and retrieve the multimedia data are required. Among such technologies, firstly, it is common that the semantic-based image retrieval is annotated separately in order to give certain meanings to the image data and the low-level property information that include information about color, texture, and shape Despite the fact that the semantic-based information retrieval has been made by utilizing such vocabulary dictionary as the key words that given, however it brings about a problem that has not yet freed from the limit of the existing keyword-based text information retrieval. The second problem is that it reveals a decreased retrieval performance in the content-based image retrieval system, and is difficult to separate the object from the image that has complex background, and also is difficult to extract an area due to excessive division of those regions. Further, it is difficult to separate the objects from the image that possesses multiple objects in complex scene. To solve the problems, in this paper, I established a content-based retrieval system that can be processed in 5 different steps. The most critical process of those 5 steps is that among RGB images, the one that has the largest and the smallest background are to be extracted. Particularly. I propose the method that extracts the subject as well as the background by using an Image, which has the largest background. Also, to solve the second problem, I propose the method in which multiple objects are separated using RGB channel selection techniques having optimized the excessive division of area by utilizing Watermerge's threshold value with the object separation using the method of RGB channels separation. The tests proved that the methods proposed by me were superior to the existing methods in terms of retrieval performances insomuch as to replace those methods that developed for the purpose of retrieving those complex objects that used to be difficult to retrieve up until now.

Development of Neural Network Based Cycle Length Design Model Minimizing Delay for Traffic Responsive Control (실시간 신호제어를 위한 신경망 적용 지체최소화 주기길이 설계모형 개발)

  • Lee, Jung-Youn;Kim, Jin-Tae;Chang, Myung-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.145-157
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    • 2004
  • The cycle length design model of the Korean traffic responsive signal control systems is devised to vary a cycle length as a response to changes in traffic demand in real time by utilizing parameters specified by a system operator and such field information as degrees of saturation of through phases. Since no explicit guideline is provided to a system operator, the system tends to include ambiguity in terms of the system optimization. In addition, the cycle lengths produced by the existing model have yet been verified if they are comparable to the ones minimizing delay. This paper presents the studies conducted (1) to find shortcomings embedded in the existing model by comparing the cycle lengths produced by the model against the ones minimizing delay and (2) to propose a new direction to design a cycle length minimizing delay and excluding such operator oriented parameters. It was found from the study that the cycle lengths from the existing model fail to minimize delay and promote intersection operational conditions to be unsatisfied when traffic volume is low, due to the feature of the changed target operational volume-to-capacity ratio embedded in the model. The 64 different neural network based cycle length design models were developed based on simulation data surrogating field data. The CORSIM optimal cycle lengths minimizing delay were found through the COST software developed for the study. COST searches for the CORSIM optimal cycle length minimizing delay with a heuristic searching method, a hybrid genetic algorithm. Among 64 models, the best one producing cycle lengths close enough to the optimal was selected through statistical tests. It was found from the verification test that the best model designs a cycle length as similar pattern to the ones minimizing delay. The cycle lengths from the proposed model are comparable to the ones from TRANSYT-7F.

Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM) Based Assessment of Gray Matter Loss in Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Comparison with FDG PET (화소기반 형태분석 방법을 이용한 내측측두엽 간질환자의 회백질 부피/농도 감소평가; FDG PET과의 비교)

  • Kang, Hye-Jin;Lee, Ho-Young;Lee, Jae-Sung;Kang, Eun-Joo;Lee, Sang-Gun;Chang, Kee-Hyun;Lee, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.30-40
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The aims of this study were to find brain regions in which gray matter volume was reduced and to show the capability of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for lateralizing epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The findings were compared with fluorodeoxyglucose positron omission tomography (FDG PET). Materials and Methods: MR T1-weighted images of 12 left mTLE and 11 right mTLE patients were compared with those of 37 normal controls. Images were transformed to standard MNI space and averaged in order to create study-specific brain template. Each image was normalized to this local template and brain tissues were segmented. Modulation VBM analysis was performed in order to observe gray matter volume change. Gray matter was smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. After these preprocessing, statistical analysis was peformed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). FDG PET images were compared with those of 22 normal controls using SPM. Results: Gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the left amygdala and hippocampus in left mTLE. In addition, volume of cerebellum, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyrus in both sides and left insula was reduced. In right mTLE, volume was reduced significantly in right hippocampus. In contrast, FDG uptake was decreased in broad areas of left or right temporal lobes in left TLE and right TLE, respectively. Conclusions: Gray matter loss was found in the ipsilateral hippocampus by modulation VBM analysis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. This VBM analysis might be useful in lateralizing the epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy, while SPM analysis of FDG PET disclosed hypometabolic epileptogenic zones.

Elementary School Teachers' Perception of Gifted Education (영재교육에 대한 초등학교 교사들의 인식)

  • Choi, Moon-Kyung;Park, Jung-Ok
    • Journal of Gifted/Talented Education
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.125-149
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study is to provide basic information on the current status of elementary school teachers' perception of gifted education. For this purpose, this study wi1l analyze elementary school teachers' perception of the gifted education (i.e., general perception of gifted education, characteristics of gifted children, identification of gifted children, programs for gifted education, and teachers of gifted education). A questionnaire survey was used for the purpose and research questions of this study. The questionnaire used in this study was constructed by taking into account the results of surveys conducted in previous studies and the literature on gifted education. Before conducting the research, a preliminary inquiry was made to identify problems that may occur while the subjects were participating in the survey, as well as to determine the appropriateness of the questionnaire and the amount of time needed. The preliminary inquiry was conducted with ten randomly selected elementary school teachers who did not participate as subjects in the actual research. The results were later used as initial data for the actual research. The subjects of this study were teachers who were teaching in8 elementary schools under each office of education in Seoul. This process was conducted for 180 elementary school teachers from April to May 2004. The results were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) Ver. 10.1, a software program for statistical research. After the data were analyzed, the following conclusions were arrived at: 1. The result of the genera1 perception of gifted education by elementary school teachers were positive and reasonably high. The level of their perception of detailed information or knowledge, however, was relatively low. 2. As for their perceptions of the emotional characteristics of gifted children, t11e results showed a low level of understanding of the characteristics of gifted children. 3. As for their perceptions of identification of gifted children, the results showed a high level of understanding of the appropriate time to provide special education to gifted children and of the methods to identify such. On the other hand, their understanding of the identification of gifted children in an actual class was poor. 4. The respondents' level of perceptions of programs for gifted education was very low since many subjects did not have any experiences with such programs. 5. The results showed a very positive response to receiving training on gifted education, though they were very reluctant to be assigned as teachers of gifted education because of the excessive work that is associated with such and their lack of capability in handling gifted children.

The Construction and Application of Planning Support System for the Sustainable Urban Development (지속가능한 도시개발을 위한 계획지원시스템의 구축과 활용에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hee-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.133-155
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    • 2007
  • The sustainable urban development has emerged as a new paradigm of urban studies in recent years. A review of the literature of land use and transport policies in relation to sustainable development reveals a consensus that the main objectives of sustainable strategy should decrease the numbers and length of journeys, and change the land use pattern towards mixed use and high density. However, there is a lack of empirical research as to what types of policies might influence effectively the reduction in the energy consumption and emission of $CO_2$. in order to sustain urban development. This paper tries to construct the conceptual structure of the PSS(planning support system), which is designed to the simulation of the probable effects of policies and planning of different kinds in cities, and evaluate the sustainablilty level according to construct the structure of the PSS(planning support system), which is designed to the simulation of the probable effects of policies and planning of different kinds in cities, and evaluate the sustainablilty level according to the alternative scenarios. The PSS is composed of three components (input-modeling-output). The core of PSS is integrating land use-transport-environment modeling. The advantages of integrating land use-transport-environment modeling are well known, but there are very few such integrated modeling packages in practice. So this paper tries to apply TRANUS software, which is an integrated land use and transport model. The TRANUS system was calibrated to city of Yongin for the base year. The purpose of the application of TRANUS to Yongin is to examine the operability of TRANUS system in Korea. From the outputs and results of operating the system, TRANUS may be effectively used to evaluate the effects of alternative sustainable urban development policies, since sustainablilty indicators can be extracted from several aspects such as land use consumption, total trips, distance and cost, energy consumption, ratio of transport split.

A Study on the Effects of the Breath Efficiency & Lung Capacity Improvement Using Recorder Playing Focused on Breath Training (리코더 연주를 통한 뇌졸중 노력성 폐활량과 호흡 효율성 향상 연구)

  • Choi, Sung Joo
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.31-46
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of the study was to improve the efficiency of Breath & Forced Vital Capacity(FVC) of Stroke Patients Using Record Playing Focused on Breath Training. The Training of Forced Vital Capacity(FVC) is focused on trunk muscles reinforce for Breathing. So the study tried to play Recorder for reinforcing FVC. The play included the two parts. One was for solo play, the other was play in concert base on solo play using Korea country song, Arirang. The Recorder play used abdominal breath, Pursed-lip & Paced methods. The course of play included Long Tone, Staccato, Crescendo, Decrescendo and throughout the course we tried to improve the efficiency & Quantity of breathe. Experiment performed at Social welfare institute for the old. They played & checked FVC, $FEV_1$, $FEV_1/FVC$ before & after breathe 19 times for 6 weeks using Spirovit SP-1, Schiller. After experiment we performed statical process(p<0.05) using statical Package software. The findings were as follows: Analysis for Experiment showed the numerical Value of increasing Of FVC, $FEV_1$, $FEV_1/FVC$. Increasing Percentage of Measured/Predicted FVC, $FEV_1$ (or calculated based on theory) ration was 25%, 13% and Quantity of FVC, $FEV_1$ 35%, 40%. Also $FEV_1/FVC$ Ratio(showed efficiency of breathe) raised 13%. And experiment data was confirmed by statical process. The experiment data was valuable under p<0.05. In Conclusion we think the results of experiment showed the efficiency of Music therapy for Breathe(FVC, $FEV_1$, $FEV_1/FVC$) reinforce.

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T-Cache: a Fast Cache Manager for Pipeline Time-Series Data (T-Cache: 시계열 배관 데이타를 위한 고성능 캐시 관리자)

  • Shin, Je-Yong;Lee, Jin-Soo;Kim, Won-Sik;Kim, Seon-Hyo;Yoon, Min-A;Han, Wook-Shin;Jung, Soon-Ki;Park, Se-Young
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2007
  • Intelligent pipeline inspection gauges (PIGs) are inspection vehicles that move along within a (gas or oil) pipeline and acquire signals (also called sensor data) from their surrounding rings of sensors. By analyzing the signals captured in intelligent PIGs, we can detect pipeline defects, such as holes and curvatures and other potential causes of gas explosions. There are two major data access patterns apparent when an analyzer accesses the pipeline signal data. The first is a sequential pattern where an analyst reads the sensor data one time only in a sequential fashion. The second is the repetitive pattern where an analyzer repeatedly reads the signal data within a fixed range; this is the dominant pattern in analyzing the signal data. The existing PIG software reads signal data directly from the server at every user#s request, requiring network transfer and disk access cost. It works well only for the sequential pattern, but not for the more dominant repetitive pattern. This problem becomes very serious in a client/server environment where several analysts analyze the signal data concurrently. To tackle this problem, we devise a fast in-memory cache manager, called T-Cache, by considering pipeline sensor data as multiple time-series data and by efficiently caching the time-series data at T-Cache. To the best of the authors# knowledge, this is the first research on caching pipeline signals on the client-side. We propose a new concept of the signal cache line as a caching unit, which is a set of time-series signal data for a fixed distance. We also provide the various data structures including smart cursors and algorithms used in T-Cache. Experimental results show that T-Cache performs much better for the repetitive pattern in terms of disk I/Os and the elapsed time. Even with the sequential pattern, T-Cache shows almost the same performance as a system that does not use any caching, indicating the caching overhead in T-Cache is negligible.