• Title/Summary/Keyword: Sodium

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The Effect of Dietary Sodium on Calcium Metabolism in Healthy Young Adult Women (한국 성인 여자에 있어서, 나트륨 섭취 수준이 체내 칼슘대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김양애
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.246-257
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    • 1987
  • The present study was conducted to examine the effect of an increased level of dietary sodium on calcium excretion in 8 health young adult Korean women on a controlled diet. After adaptation period of 2 days, each subject received 2811.8$\pm$68.1 mgNa(day during the initial period of 5 days (low sodium period) and 6417.1$\pm$248.6mgNa(day during the following period of 5 days (high sodium period). Calcium intake was 593.7$\pm$15.7 mg Ca/day during the low sodium period of 596.1$\pm$25.1 Ca/day duing the high sodium period. When the low sodium period is compared with the high soidum period, the results were as following. 1) Mean urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher during the high sodium period (5760.1$\pm$156.5mg0 than during the low sodium period (2272.2$\pm$108.6mg)(P<0.001). Fecal sodium excretion of the high sodium period was also significantly higher than that of the low sodium period(P<0.001). Mean value of sodium balance during the high sodium period was higher than that of the low sodium period . However, the difference was not significant. 2) Mean urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher during the high sodium period than during the low sodium period ; mean value of the low sodium period was 124.7$\pm$11.3mg and that of the high sodium period was 202.6$\pm$17.2mg)P<0.001). Fecal calcium excretion was higher during the high sodium period (284.9$\pm$31.0mg) than during the low sodium period (253.9$\pm$15.3mg0, but there was no significance. Mean value of calcium balance during the high sodium period was significantly lower than that of the low sodium period(P<0.001). The above results show that high sodium intake increases calcium excretion as well as sodium excretion.

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Calcium Status and Bone Mineral Density by the Level of Sodium Intake in Young Women (성인 여성의 나트륨 섭취수준과 칼슘 영양상태 및 골밀도)

  • Yoon, Jin-Sook;Lee, Mi Jung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2013
  • Previous studies have shown that sodium excretion is positively related to calcium excretion in the urine. As excessive sodium intake is a common nutritional problem in Korea, we intended to investigate associations among sodium intake levels and calcium status, evaluated by 24 hour recall method and urinary excretion, and bone status. We collected dietary information for non-consecutive three days from 139 young adult women 19~29 years. After classifying the subjects into 4 groups based on the dietary sodium levels by daily total sodium intake (mg) and sodium density (sodium intake per 1000 kcal energy intake), we compared the bone status, nutrient intakes, urinary calcium and sodium excretions. The results showed a positive association between total daily sodium intake and intake of other nutrients. However, no significant differences in nutrients intakes were observed among subject groups classified by sodium density levels. There were no significant differences of bone density among groups by total daily sodium intake as well as by sodium density. While total daily sodium intake showed significantly positive relationship with urinary sodium (p < 0.05) and calcium (p < 0.05), sodium density was not related to urinary excretion of calcium and sodium. Our results suggested that promoting balanced meals providing appropriate amounts of energy intake is the essential component of nutrition education for improving calcium status of young Korean women with excessive sodium intake.

Controlled Conversion of Sodium Metal From Nuclear Systems to Sodium Chloride

  • Herrmann, Steven;Zhao, Haiyan;Shi, Meng;Patterson, Michael
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.233-241
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    • 2021
  • A series of three bench-scale experiments was performed to investigate the conversion of sodium metal to sodium chloride via reactions with non-metal and metal chlorides. Specifically, batches of molten sodium metal were separately contacted with ammonium chloride and ferrous chloride to form sodium chloride in both cases along with iron in the latter case. Additional ferrous chloride was added to two of the three batches to form low melting point consolidated mixtures of sodium chloride and ferrous chloride, whereas consolidation of a sodium-chloride product was performed in a separate batch. Samples of the products were characterized via X-ray diffraction to identify attendant compounds. The reaction of sodium metal with metered ammonium chloride particulate feeds proceeded without reaction excursions and produced pure colorless sodium chloride. The reaction of sodium metal with ferrous chloride yielded occasional reaction excursions as evidenced by temperature spikes and fuming ferrous chloride, producing a dark salt-metal mixture. This investigation into a method for controlled conversion of sodium metal to sodium chloride is particularly applicable to sodium containing elevated levels of radioactivity-including bond sodium from nuclear fuels-in remote-handled inert-atmosphere environments.

Effects of Dietary Salt Restriction on the Development of Renal Failure in the Excision Remnant Kidney Model (식이 sodium 제한 및 식이 sodium 제한에 따른 항고혈압제의 투여가 만성신부전증의 진행에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim Kee-Hyuk;Kim Sang-Yun;Kang Yong-Joo;Maeng Won-Jae;Kim Kyo-Sun
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.170-179
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: To evaluate whether or not sodium restriction had its own beneficial effect and increased the efficiency of the anti-hypertensive drugs on the progression of renal failure. Methods: We studied using the excision remnant kidney model. Treatment groups were as follows: 5/6 nephrectomy and a 0.49% (normal-high) sodium diet (NN); 5/6 nephrectomy and a 0.25% (normal-low) sodium diet (LN); 5/6 nephrectomy, a 0.49% sodium diet and enalapril (NNE); 5/6 nephrectomy, a 0.49% sodium diet and nicardipine (NNN); 5/6 nephrectomy, a 0.25% sodium diet and enalapril (LNE); 5/6 nephrectomy, a 0.25% sodium diet and nicardipine (LNN). Both diets were isocaloric and had the same content of protein, phosphorus and calcium. Proteinuria, remnant kidney weight, mesangial expansion scores, and glomerular volume were assessed. Results: Blood pressure tended to be lower in LN compared to NN (P<0.05). NN developed progressive hypertension. LNE, LU, NNE, and NNN reduced blood pressure. LNE, LNN, NNE, NNN, and LN had significantly less proteinuria than NN at 16 weeks (P<0.05). At 24 weeks, LN developed proteinuria (82 mg/day), which were lessened in LNE (54 mg/day) and not lessened in LNN (76 mg/day). Mesangial expansion scores were significantly less in LN rats compared to those in NN rats. Glomerular volumes at 24 weeks in LN rats were significantly less compared to those at 16 weeks in NN rats. Mesangial expansion scores and glomerular volumes at 4, weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks were not different among LN, LNE, and LNN groups. Conclusion: Dietary salt restriction lessens renal damage, at least in part, by inhibiting compensatory renal growth and reducing blood pressure. Enalapril was particularly successful in reducing proteinuria and glomerular injury when combined with dietary salt restriction.

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Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomonas spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham

  • Oh, Mi-Hwa;Park, Beom-Young;Jo, Hyunji;Lee, Soomin;Lee, Heeyoung;Choi, Kyoung-Hee;Yoon, Yohan
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.591-596
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    • 2014
  • This study evaluated the effect of sodium diacetate and sodium lactate solutions for reducing the cell count of Pseudomonas spp. in frankfurters and hams. A mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCCP10338, NCCP10250, and NCCP11229), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KACC10323 and KACC10326) was inoculated on cooked frankfurters and ham. The inoculated samples were immersed into control (sterile distilled water), sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), sodium lactate (5 and 10%), 5% sodium diacetate + 5% sodium lactate, and 10% sodium diacetate + 10% sodium lactate for 0-10 min. Inoculated frankfurters and ham were also immersed into acidified (pH 3.0) solutions such as acidified sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), and acidified sodium lactate (5 and 10%) in addition to control (acidified distilled water) for 0-10 min. Total aerobic plate counts for Pseudomonas spp. were enumerated on Cetrimide agar. Significant reductions (ca. 2 Log CFU/g) in Pseudomonas spp. cells on frankfurters and ham were observed only for a combination treatment of 10% sodium lactate + 10% sodium diacetate. When the solutions were acidified to pH 3.0, the total reductions of Pseudomonas spp. were 1.5-4.0 Log CFU/g. The order of reduction amounts of Pseudomonas spp. cell counts was 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate ${\geq}$ 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for frankfurters, and 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate > 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for ham. The results suggest that using acidified food additive antimicrobials, as dipping solutions, should be useful in reducing Pseudomonas spp. on frankfurters and ham.

Development and application of the sodium index to estimate and assess sodium intake for Korean adults

  • Lee, Yeon-Kyung;Hyun, Taisun;Ro, Heekyong;Heo, Young-Ran;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.366-378
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    • 2022
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a sodium index, which is a tool for estimating and assessing sodium intake easily and quickly, to assist in the prevention of various diseases induced by excess sodium intake in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The 24-h urine collection and dietary behavior surveys were performed on 640 healthy people in 4 regions of South Korea, and an equation for the estimation of 24-h sodium intake was developed. The validity and reliability of the equation were verified with 200 adults. The sodium index was developed by converting the estimated sodium intake using the equation. Finally, the sodium intake status of 1,600 adults was assessed using the sodium index. RESULTS: The equation included sex, age, body mass index, eating habit and dietary behaviors related to sodium intake. In validity test of the equation, the mean bias between sodium intake using 24-h urine analysis and using the equation from the Bland-Altman plots was -1.5 mg/day. The sensitivity and specificity of the equation for estimation of sodium intake were 80.5% and 64.4%, respectively. In the reliability test of the equation, there was no significant difference between the first and second sodium intakes calculated using the equations, and Spearman's correlation coefficient between the 2 sodium intakes was 0.98. Sodium intake can be assessed as 'very moderate' for 75-100 on the sodium index, 'moderate' for 100-150, 'careful' for less than 75 or 150-200, and 'severe' for 250 or more. When sodium intake was assessed using the sodium index in 1,600 subjects, 54.3% and 24.3% of the subjects were assessed to be in the 'careful' and 'severe' categories, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using a simple questionnaire, the sodium index can be used to monitor and assess sodium intake status, assisting in nutrition education and counseling in a large population.

Fire Mitigation by Partitioning a Sodium Loop Building (화재완화를 위한 소듐 루프 건물의 구획화)

  • 김병호;권상운;정경채;김광락;황성태
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.32-44
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    • 1998
  • Analysis on the study for the sodium fire mitigation was carried out using the CONTAIN-LMR code. Sodium loop building was partitioned into the many cells, in which the safety venting systems were installed for the purpose of improving the sodium fire safety and minimizing its effect on the sodium loop building. The effects of sodium fire on sodium loop building partitioned into the many cells and not partitioned were investigated. The peak pressure and temperature of each cell accompanied by sodium fire in sodium loop building partitioned were lower than those of sodium loop building not partitioned. In the case of partitioning sodium loop building, the pressures, temperatures and aerosols into cells were transferred through propagation path of CONTAIN-LMR sodium fire model simulated by this study, and the effect of sodium spray fire on sodium loop building was mitigated by partitioning building. In addition, the excessive rise of pressure into cells was prevented by installing the over-pressure exhaust valve and under-pressure exhaust valve on the flow path between cells.

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A Study on the Shapness of the Sodium Alginate/Sodium carboxymethyl Cellulose Printing Paster (Sodium Alginate/Sodium carboxymethyl Cellulose 날염호의 첨예성에 관한 연구)

  • 김노수;박명수
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.42-50
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    • 1983
  • The sharpness of a pattern depends on the variation in flow properties of thickeners, which can be brought by mixing of the thickening agents. In the present study, sodium alginate and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were used as single or mixed thickening agent. The variation in flow properties of various thickeners was measured and analyzed through flow curve, structural viscosity index, thixotropy, spinnability and viscosity. Also the effect of the variation in flow properties on sharpness was measured and discussed. By mixing sodium alginate and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, the viscosity reduces rapidly and the yield value decreases to the half that of sodium caroxymethyl cellulose, The structural viscosity index of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 2% thickener shows the largest value among the thickeners used and those of 1/1 and 1/4 mixed thickener with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose are larger than that of sodium alginate alone. As for as the mixed thickeners are considered, the best sharpness is obtained when the mixed ratio of sodium alginate to sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is 1:4. The sharpness is improved proportionally to thixotropy.

Effects of Alkaline reagents on Textural and Sensory Properties of Ramyon (알카리제의 조성에 따른 라면의 조직감과 관능적 특성)

  • Jeong, Jae-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.261-266
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    • 1998
  • In an attempt to evaluate the effects of alkali agents on properties of Ramyon, cooking quality, textural and sensory properties were examined. The shear extrusion force of Ramyon made from sample A(potassium carbonate 64%, sodium carbonate 14%, sodium pyrophosphate 2% and sodium metaphosphate 20%), sample B(potassium carbonate 31%, sodium carbonate 39% , sodium pyrophosphate 1%, sodium metaphosphate 15%, sodium polyphosphate 8%, sodium phosphate monobasic 4% and sodium phosphate dibasic 2%), sample C(potassium carbonate 60%, sodium carbonate 33% and sodium pyrophosphate 7%), and sample D(potassium carbonate 44%, sodium carbonate 27%, sodium metaphosphate 27% and sodium polyphosphate 2%) were 12.80(kgf), 10.35(kgf), 9.05(kgf) and 8.45(kgf), respectively, but that of control I was 5.24(kgf). The hardness of Ramyon manufactured with sample A, B, C and D were 18.57(kgf), 16.48(kgf), 14.26(kgf) and 12.34(kgf), respectively, but that of control I was 11.23(kgf). At cooking quality examination of Ramyon made from several alkali agents, weight of cooked Ramyon was increased but volume was appeared in vice versa. Extraction amounts of Ramyon manufactured with several alkali agents during cooking were from 35% to 38%, but that of control I was 70%. These changes will provided many advantages in the preparation of Ramyon. The $I_2$ reaction value(${\alpha}-degree$ of noodle) of Ramyon manufactured with several alkali agents and control were shown to almost same values, from 2.10 to 2.20. Sensory properties of cooked Ramyon which was manufactured with several alkali agents showed quite acceptable.

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The Attitude towards, and Acceptance of Sodium-Reduced Products, and the Influences that Recognition of Sodium give to the Purchasing Intention of Sodium-Reduced Products - Focused on the Food Specialist - (나트륨 저감 제품에 대한 태도, 수용도 및 나트륨 인지가 나트륨 저감 식품 구매의도에 미치는 영향 - 식품전문가를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Bo-Na;Kim, Jin-woo
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2016
  • This research study aimed to examine the seriousness related to sodium over intakes that is becoming a global issue, evaluate how the recognition of sodium-reduced products and its acceptance can influence the intention of purchasing sodium-reduced products, and generate basic data for establishment of marketing strategy of campaigns such as reducing sodium intake and commercialization of sodium-reduced products. According to the results of the research, the acceptance of sodium-reduced products significantly influenced the purchasing intention of sodium-reduced products, while the attitude towards sodium and recognition of sodium did not significantly influence the purchasing intention of sodium-reduced products. Extension of these research findings to ordinary people and the analysis of main causes that affect the recognition of sodium-reduced products and purchasing intention provide a solid basis for efficient sodium-reduction publicity and development of directions for campaigns.