• Title, Summary, Keyword: Smoking stages

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Smoking Stage Relations to Peer, School and Parental Factors among Secondary School Students in Kinta, Perak

  • Jeganathan, Premila Devi;Hairi, Noran N.;Al Sadat, Nabilla;Chinna, Karuthan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3483-3489
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    • 2013
  • Background: To identify the prevalence of different stages of smoking and differences in associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: Thos longitudinal study started in February 2011 and the subjects were 2552 form one students aged between twelve to thirteen years of from 15 government secondary schools of Kinta, Perak. Data on demographic, parental, school and peer factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We examined the effects of peer, school and parental factors on the five stages of smoking; never smokers, susceptible never smokers, experimenters, current smokers and ex-smokers, at baseline. Results: In the sample, 19.3% were susceptible never smokers, 5.5% were current smokers 6% were experimenters and 3.1% were ex-smokers. Gender, ethnicity, best friends' smoking status, high peer pressure, higher number of relatives who smoked and parental monitoring were found to be associated with smoking stages. Presence of parent-teen conflict was only associated with susceptible never smokers and experimenters whereas absence of home discussion on smoking hazards was associated with susceptible never smokers and current smokers. Conclusions: We identified variations in the factors associated with the different stages of smoking. Our results highlight that anti-smoking strategies should be tailored according to the different smoking stages.

Decisional Balances and the Process of Change in Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases

  • Son, Haeng-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1171-1177
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    • 2003
  • Purpose. Despite many smoking cessation programs, many patients with CAD continue to smoke or re-smoke. The processes of change and self-change for smoking cessation is emphasized. The purpose of present study was to investigate decisional balances and processes of change according to stages of change for smoking cessation in the patients with CAD. Methods. This descriptive study was performed using the self-reported questionnaires from 157 male patients with CAD who have smoking experiences. The questionnaires consisted of decisional balances toward smoking (pros/cons) and processes of change including 7 factors. Results. 45.2% of the subjects had myocardial infarction and 54.8% for angina pectoris. Major stages of change were maintenance, contemplation, and precontemplation in 62%, 14%, and 18% respectively. The mean score of pros smoking was 31.07 and cons smoking was 32.52. The mean scores of processes of change were high in all 7 factors, especially in self determination. The pros smoking in precontemplation stage was significantly higher than those in other stages. Between contemplation and precontemplation stages, processes of change showed significant differences in stimulus control, self determination, information management, and dramatic relief. Conclusion. This study suggests that decisional balances and processes of change are stage-specific. As this study, smoking cessation program in the patients with CAD must put priority on the patients group in pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, and stress self determination and dramatic relief.

Prospective Study on the Relating Factors to the Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation and Barriers in Coronary Artery Disease Patients* (관상동맥질환자의 금연변화단계와 관련된 요인 및 장애요인에 대한 전향적 연구)

  • Kim, Hwa-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to investigate that the stages of change in smoking cessation behavior among coronary artery disease patients for six months progressed following the stages of change suggested by the transtheoretical model. Method: Subjects for this descriptive survey were 59 coronary disease patients who were smoking or who had stopped smoking for less than six months. Result: In the baseline, the distribution of the subjects’ stages of change was as follows: pre-contemplation stage 25.4%, contemplation stage 25.4%, preparation stage 22%, and action stage 27.1%. After six months, more subjects in the contemplation(33.3%) and preparation stages(30.8%) progressed to the action stage than those of the pre-contemplation stage(0%). Eighty-one percent of the subjects in the action stage at baseline progressed to the maintenance stage. The relationship between the numbers of smoking cessation attempts for six months and stages of change at baseline was significant(p=.001). However, the relationships between self-efficacy and nicotine dependence at baseline and progression in stages of change after six months were not significant. Conclusion: Progression in the stages of change for six months among subjects corresponded to the stages of change suggested by the transtheoretical model. Hence, future development and evaluation of intervention programs should be tailored individually considering each patient's stage of change.

Changing Mechanisms Corresponding to The Changing Stages of Smoking Cessation (금연의 변화단계에 따른 변화기전)

  • 오현수;김영란
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.820-832
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    • 1996
  • The average smoking rate for Adults' in our country is 40.6% : It is 74.2% for men and 5.0% for women. Particularly, the smoking rate for men is reported higher than that of men in U.S.A. or Japan. Since the first report on the association between smoking and cancer appeared, 370 thousand smokers have succeeded in smoking cessation and over 90% of them have responded that they depended on a self-help smoking cessation approach. Despite this positive evidence about self- help approaches for smoking cessation, most studies on smoking cessation have focused on evaluation of formal treatment programs that are provided by clinics. Reports on the smoking cessation process used by smokers in our country could not be found. However, it is believed that the situation in our country would be quite similar to that in U.S.A. as far as approaches to successful smoking cessation are concerned. This study was conducted to classify the smoking stage to which they smoker belong and which changing mechanisms could be included at each changing stage (precontemplation stage, comtemplation stage, action stage) with a sample of 155 college students between 20 and 29 years old. And it also identified which variables related both to smoking pattern and to health, which ones were significantly discriminating in the changing stages. From the results of the data analysis it was found that Self-Determination is the most influential variable as one of the changning mechanisms which can discriminate three changing stages. And as the next significant mechanisms were Reinforcement, Dramatic Relief, Cognitive Restructuring, Helping Relationship, and Information Management in that order. Among variables related to the smoking pattern, years of regular smoking, whether smoking is continued or not even when they are sick, the number of attempts to stop smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and whether they have smoked over 100 cigarettes up to now, but not the time of the first cigarette after waking-up, were the significant factors to descriminate changing stages. It was confirmed that among variables related to health that, perceived control for health, confidence of health maintence ability, and self confidence in smoking cessation, were significant variables in determinating changing stages. The most influential variables among them was self-confidence in smoking cessation. Conclusively, it was shown that smoking cessation is the process of attempting to change smoking habits through the various changing processes. Also it can be shown that a few factors smoking habit, self-confidence of smoking cessation, and belief in self control of his /her health, were influential in discriminating the changing stages of the smoking habit.

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Predictors of Pre and Post Preparation in Stages of Change of Smoking for Adolescent Smokers and Adult Smokers (금연의 준비단계이전에서 준비단계로, 준비단계에서 준비단계이후로의 이행에 대한 예측변인: 청소년과 성인 비교)

  • Chang Sung-Ok;Kim Eun-Ju;Seomun Gyeong-Ae;Lee Su-Jeong;Cha Bo-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was done to identify predictors differentiating the preparation stage, which is the stage that the smoker is ready to quit smoking, between adolescent smokers and adult smokers. Method: A survey was conducted with 376 adolescent smokers in 4 high schools and 451 adult smokers in community settings in South Korea from August 2003 to April 2005. To identify the predictors before and after preparation in stages of change of smoking, logistic regression was done. Results: The predictors for before preparation in stages of change of smoking were process of change for smoking abstinence for adolescent smokers and depression for adult smokers. The predictors for after preparation in stages of change of smoking were self-efficacy for smoking abstinence for adolescent smoker and self-efficacy for smoking abstinence and smoking temptation for adult smokers. Conclusion: For each group, adolescent smokers and adult smokers, specific smoking intervention methods need to be developed based on the different ways individuals make the decision to quit smoking within their contexts.

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Stages and Processes of Smoking Cessation among High School Students in Rural Community (일 농촌지역 고등학생의 금연 변화단계 및 변화과정)

  • Kim, Mi-Young;Suh, Soon-Lim;Ham, Ok-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.431-440
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe stage distribution of current and former smokers and to analyze significant variables that used by adolescents at each stage using the Transtheoretical Model. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 145 students attended to five high schools in one rural area. The survey instruments included stages and processes of change. decisional balance, self-efficacy, and knowledge related to smoking. Results: Among the participants, 47.6% were in the precontemplation and contemplation stages, 20.7% were in the preparation stage, and the other 31.7% were in the action and maintenance stages. Analysis of variance tests revealed that behavioral processes, pros and cons of smoking, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with the stages of smoking cessation, while among 10 processes of change, self-reevaluation, self-liberation, and reinforcement management were significantly different by the stages. Conclusions: The study results suggest that smoking cessation programs should emphasize behavioral strategies, self-efficacy, and decisional balance to help students adopt and maintain smoking cessation.

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Incidence of Adverse Transition in Smoking Stages among Adolescents of Kinta, Perak

  • Jeganathan, Premila Devi;Hairi, Noran N.;Al Sadat, Nabilla;Chinna, Karuthan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6769-6773
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    • 2013
  • Background: Few local studies have explored the process of adverse transition of smoking stages among adolescents. The present investigation aimed to identify adverse transitions prospectively from the early stages till the escalation of the stages after one year. Materials and Methods: Data were collected in two waves from a cohort of 2,552 adolescents aged 12-13 years old studying in 15 secondary schools based in Kinta, Perak. A multistage sampling method was used to select the schools and a self-administered structured questionnaire was applied to help categorize the participants into five different smoking stages. Nonsmokers were divided into never smokers and susceptible never smokers. Ever-smokers were categorized as experimenters, current smokers or ex-smokers. Results: Among the participants 46.8% were Malay, 33.5% Chinese and 17.1% Indians. At baseline, we had 85.3% non-smokers and 14.6% ever smokers. Incidence of adverse transition among all our participants was 24.1%, with a higher value among male participants (16.8%). A higher proportion of susceptible never smokers and experimenters progressed to current smoking stage compared to never smokers. Conclusions: This study highlights the changes and patterns of adverse transition among adolescents. Male adolescents, those who are susceptible to smoking and those who had already tried experimenting with cigarettes have a higher chance of escalating to a higher smoking stage.

Stages of Smoking Cessation among Malaysian Adults - Findings from National Health Morbidity Survey 2006

  • Lim, Kuang Hock;Ibrahim, Normala;Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd;Kee, Chee Cheong;Lim, Kuang Kuay;Chan, Ying Ying;Teh, Chien Huey;Tee, Eng Ong;Lai, Wai Yee;Nik Mohamad, Mohd. Haniki;Sidek, Sherina Mohd
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.805-810
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    • 2013
  • Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.

Nicotine Dependence, Smoking-related Attitude, and Subjective Norms across the Stages of Change for Smoking Cessation among Adults Smokers in a Rural Area (일 농촌지역 성인흡연자의 금연변화단계별 니코틴의존도, 흡연태도, 및 주관적 규범)

  • Kim, Young-Hee;Seo, Nam-Sook;Kang, Hae-Young
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.1023-1032
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify nicotine dependence, smoking-related attitude, and subjective norms across the stages of change for smoking cessation among adult smokers in a rural area. Method: The subjects were 276 current smokers (male=243, female=33). There were 3 stages of change for smoking cessation: pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation stage. Data was collected by an interview or self-reporting from February 12th to March 5th 2004, and analyzed with frequency, percentage, $X^2-test$, Fisher's exact probability test, ANOVA, and Scheffe test using the SPSS-PC program. Result: According to the stages of change, 114(41.3%) current smokers were in pre-contemplation, 110(39.9%) in contemplation, and 52(18.8%) in the preparation stage. There was a higher percentage of males than females ($X^2-test$=8.99, p=.011) in the preparation stage. The mean score of the smoking-related attitude (F:7.43, p=.001) and subjective norm(F=27.41, p=.001) were both lowest in the pre-contemplation stage and increased positively during the stages of change for smoking cessation. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the authors recommend that community-based smoking cessation programs should be developed by considering the intention or motives of current smokers and should be initiated in the preparation stage and primarily for male groups.

Differences in Processes of Change, Decisional Balance, and Temptation Across the Stages of Change for Smoking Cessation (금연 변화 단계에 따른 변화 과정, 의사결정 균형, 흡연 유혹의 차이)

  • Son Haeng-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.904-913
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate smoking cessation behavior of male taxi drivers in Korea on the basis of the Transtheoretical model(TTM), and to validate the usefulness of TTM. Method: Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire including smoking history and major factors of TTM from 208 subjects who were current smokers or ex-smokers. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and ANOVA. Result: Most subjects ($85.1\%$) were current smokers. Stages of change were precontemplation ($44.7\%$) and contemplation ($27.4\%$). Subjects in precontemplation stages had the lowest mean score in processes of change and the highest mean scores in decisional balance(pros) and temptation(positive affective, habitual/craving). According to stages of change, there were statistically significant differences in processes of change, decisional balance, and temptation. Conclusion: This study supported the generalization of TTM. As this study showed that the subjects didn't have motivation in smoking cessation, applying tailored smoking cessation programs for taxi drivers is needed.