The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of motivational counseling program for improving knowledge and attitude of smoking cessation and smoking cessation behaviors of middle school students. The research design was nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design. The subjects were 42 third grade students of M and D middle school in G city (experiment group 21, control group 21). The treatment of this study, motivational counseling program was modified by author based on Lim(2010), developed by Valasquez(2001). The effects of this study were evaluated with the scales for smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, daily cigarette consumption, and the scales of stage of change. The data were analyzed with percentage and t-test using SPSS 21.0. The results of this study were summarized as follows: The experiment group who participated in the motivation counseling program had higher scores in knowledge(t=8.99, p=.000) and attitude(t=2.77, p=.008) of smoking cessation and stage of change(t=3.85, p=.000), and lesser daily cigarette consumption(t=-3.68, p=.001) than those of the control group. Based on these results, it was verified that the motivational counseling program may be effective in improving smoking cessation of middle school students. It is recommended that the motivational counseling program will be used as useful psychiatric nursing intervention for smoking prevention, smoking cessation, and mental health promotion for middle school students.
Purpose: In this study, the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing smoking cessation YOU-TURN program for adolescents was examined. The program was based on the self-determination theory. Methods: The study was carried out with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Participants in the present study were 136 high school students living in D city. The students were assigned to the experimental group (n=52) who participated in the motivational interviewing smoking cessation YOU-TURN program based on self-determination theory, or to the control group (n=84) who participated in a general smoking cessation program. Data were collected from September 1, 2013 through April 30, 2014. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS PC+ 21.0 with Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Repeated Measures ANOVA, and MANOVA-Wilk's Lambda. Results: The experimental group had a significant increase in basic psychological needs, and duration of quitting-smoking in comparison with the control group. The experimental group had a significant decrease in cigarettes smoked per day and cotinine in urine in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The motivational interviewing YOU-TURN program, when delivered to adolescents who smoked, was effective in discouraging smoking, and can be utilized as an effective nursing intervention for adolescents who smoke.
Objectives： This study was performed to develop a smoking prevention program for Korean high school students, and to evaluate the effects of the program. Methods： A smoking prevention program, composed of five-session curriculum, was developed by modifying several smoking prevention and cessation programs based on the Social Influence Model. The program was applied to the freshmen of a technical high school. We surveyed with a questionnaire one week before education, one week after education, and two months after education. The number of participants for data analysis were 282(181 males, 101 females). Among those, 162(97 males, 65 females) students were allocated to the education group, and the other 120(84 males, 36 females) students were allocated to the control group. The effect of education was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by potential confounders. Results： Among smokers, those who had education were more likely to quit smoking (OR＝2.99, 95% confidence interval(CI) 0.84-10.64), and to decrease smoking frequency(OR＝2.29, 95% CI 0.95-5.53) in borderline significance one week after education. However, the effect of education disappeared two months after education. The effect of education was significant(OR＝9.11, 95% CI 3.22-25.76) for the increase of smoking cessation intention one week after education, and it persisted until two months after education(OR＝2.94, 95% CI 1.18-7.35). Education was also a significant predictor(OR＝1.97, 95% CI 0.89-4.37) for the increase of smoking cessation stage one week after education and it persisted(OR＝6.39, 95% CI 2.42-16.86) after two months. Among non-smokers, those who had education were more likely to decrease smoking intention one week after education(OR＝4.71, 95% CI 1.63-13.58). However, the statistical significance of education disappeared two months after education. Conclusions： The results showed that the smoking prevention program developed in this study changed smoking behaviors immdeiately after education even though the effect did not persist. However, this program was successful in increasing smoking cessation intention and stage of smoking cessation among smokers.
This study was conducted to evaluate factors related to the recogniton and behavioral intention for smoking cessation programs. Five effective smoking cessation programs were considered： acupuncture, nicotine patch, clinic program, mass education, and alliance programs. To explain the health behavior for smoking and smoking cessation programs, a five-stage behavioral intention model was built, and 500 questionnaires were completed through a telephone survey. Stages of the model included recogniton of the programs, past experiences, present smoking status, intention for smoking, and behavioral intention for smoking cessation programs. The results showed that the recogniton rate of the programs were low in general, therefore strategies of education, public relations, and advertisement need to be pursued. Nicotine dependency resulted in the fact that success rates were low although trial rates of smoking cessation were high among smokers. The necessity for smoking cessation programs was suggested. And the significant factors related to the intention for smoking cessation were individual attitude and reluctancy to pay time and money. Others' attitude was insignificant to subjects' smoking cessation. Purchase rates for nicotine patches were 11.3％ for male and 27.3％ for female, those for acupunture were 7.6％ for male and 10.0％ for female. There were very low purchase rates for clinic, mass education, and alliance programs. In conclusion, evidence-based and effective smoking cessation programs need to be promoted by medical doctors. Strategies in education, public relations, and advertisement also need development. In addition, continuing legal and systematic support for smoking cessation would lower the smoking rate and ultimately contribute to the nation's health.
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of smoking cessation education using the transtheoretical model on the process of change, smoking temptation, decisional balance and stage change transition. Methods: A nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design was used for this study. The study population was 44 male college students in the experimental group and 66 students in the control group. Smoking cessation education was administered to the experimental group at one university. Descriptive analysis, t-test, and ANCOVA were used with the SPSS 19.0 program to analyze the data. Results: After providing a smoking cessation program, the experimental group showed significantly higher scores for self-efficacy for smoking cessation, process of change, and a lower score in decisional balance for pros of smoking and nicotine dependancy compared to the control group two weeks after the pre-test. However, no significant differences were found at four weeks after the pre-test. Conclusion: The findings indicate that this program could have a positive effect on process of change, decisional balance and stage transition for college student smokers.
Park, Seong-Hi;Hwang, Jeong-Hae;Choi, Yun-Kyoung;Kang, Chang-Bum
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if smoking cessation programs (SCPs) are effective for adults through a systematic review of the results of such programs in large randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: The PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) strategy was established, 1,160 literature from domestic and foreign electronic databases was reviewed, and 22 references were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of each reference was evaluated using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network tool, and meta-analysis was carried out. Results: The SCPs were significantly effective for adult smokers. Smoking cessation counseling, education, and smoking cessation medications such as nicotine patch were more effective than the other interventions. However, the results showed short-term effects (within six months), and differences were observed among the SCPs. For the outcome measures for SCPs, the abstinence rate of seven days was mainly used, but differences were identified between the CO level and the cotinine-verified abstinence rate of smoking cessation. Conclusions: For a smoking cessation program for adult smokers, the strength of the evidence of the program's effectiveness in RCTs that provide the identified intervention strategies should be considered.
This study conducted a survey with the 67 students who are in their 2nd year at 3 vocational high schools. The researcher of this study developed and operated the smoking cessation program based on the Transtheoretical model. To evaluate the effects, experiments were repeatedly done. The data were collected from June 21, 2004 till July 9, 2004. The survey was done based on the questionnaire-interview before and after education. The collected date was computerized by using SPSS-WIN 10.0 program. The results are as follows: Firstly. before education, the smoking cessation stage of change shows precontemplation stage $37.3\%$, preparation stage $37.3\%$, and contemplation stage $25.4\%$ respectively. However, after education it shows preparation stage $44.8\%$, action stage $25.4\%$, contemplation stage $19.4\%$, precontemplation stage $10.4\%$. The positive result was $62.7\%$ and smoking cessation stage of change made a 0.9 step increase. Secondly, process of change rose in all the areas except helping relationship. It also shows statistical improvement in all the fields except the dramatic relief of the experiential process, the helping relationship of behavioral process and stimulus control Thirdly, negative affective situation temptation, positive social situation temptation, and habitual strength temptation's average points decreased but showed statistical differences. Weight control temptation's average points decreased after education but didn't show statistical differences. Self efficiency increased measurably after education. Fourthly, concerning the social pros and coping pros caused by smoking, the average points were low after education and showed statistic decrease. As for the cons due to smoking, the average points increased but didn't show any statistical differences. In conclusion, thanks to the smoking cessation program applied by the Transtheoretical model, the smoking rate of vocational high school students became low and their smoking temptation also dropped considerably. In conclusion, while the pros for smoking were lessened, its corns were heightened through the educational awareness offered by this program.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of public health center smoking cessation counseling program using the transtheoretical model on the process of change, smoking temptation, decisional balance and stage change transition. Methods: A nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design was used for this study. The study population was 115 adult smokers. The counseling program was administered to the experimental group and a smoking cessation program from the Korean Ministry of Health & Welfare was administered to the control group. Descriptive analysis, $\chi^2-test$, t-test, and ANCOVA were used with the SPSS 12.0 program to analyze the data. Results: After treatment with this program, the experimental group showed significantly higher scores for process of change (t=4.148, p<.001), smoking temptation (t=-2.988, p=.003), and stage change transition ($\chi^2=5.871$, p=.031) compared to the control group. Experimental group members also showed significantly lower score for Pros of smoking (t=-3.151, p=.002). Conclusion: The findings indicate that this program could have positive effect on process of change, smoking temptation, decisional balance and stage transition for adult smokers. Based on these findings, the authors suggest additional counseling program focusing on smokers in specific stages.
Objectives： This study aims to investigate the psychological factors associated with abstention following a smoking cessation program, and to suggest useful information for those who want to stop . smoking and health practitioners who help them Methods： Participants were 73 smokers (65 males, 8 females) that participated in a hospitalized smoking cessation program, whose mean age was 44.89 (SD＝9.61). Participants completed questionnaires and psychological tests including： Demographic sheet, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire, Multidimensional Coping Scale, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Jerusalem and Schwarzer's Self-Efficacy Scale. To identify whether the subjects abstained or not and to encourage them to abstain, the researcher called them on the telephone once a week for three months. After three months, they were contacted every other week till six months passed since they had left the smoking cessation program Tthey were THEN contacted once a month for another six months. The data was analyzed by using ANCOVAs with SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results： 42 (57.5％) out of 73 abstained for one month and 26 (35.6％) abstained for one year. People who failed to abstain within a month showed a higher psychoticism and introversion personality trait than those who abstained for one month, while people who abstained for one month were coping actively in most situations, showed a higher self-efficacy and lower nicotine dependence than those who failed to abstain within a month, and people who failed to abstain within a year showed a higher psychoticism than those who abstained for one year. While people who abstained for one year were coping actively, obstinate, and interpreting positively most situations, they showed a higher self-efficacy than those who failed to abstain within a year. Conclusion： These findings reiterate the roles of personality, self-esteem, nicotine dependence in smoking and suggest the roles for smoking cessation. And it was found the roles of coping styles ,in smoking cessation. It might help smokers who want to stop smoking and health practitioners who help them
This study has comparatively analyzed the primary success factors in smoking cessation among new enrollees and re-enrollees of a smoking cessation clinic in order to find out how to efficiently operate smoking cessation clinics at public health centers. The study was conducted with 262,837 smokers aged 19 or over who were provided with smoking cessation services for more than 6 months after being registered with the smoking cessation clinic at public health centers(250 clinics nationwide) from July 16, 2006 to July 15, 2007. After dividing smokers into re-enrollees and new enrollees of the smoking cessation clinic, the success rate of and success factors for smoking cessation over 6 months have been investigated. The success factors in smoking cessation have been compared between new enrollees and re-enrollees of smoking cessation clinics. The results can be summarized as follows: First, the success rate of smoking cessation for 6 months at smoking cessation clinics of public health centers was higher in new enrollees (46.3%) than in re-enrollees (41.1%). Second, the common factors that had an influence on the success of smoking cessation of both new enrollees and re-enrollees of the smoking cessation clinic included age, social security, service, frequency of counseling, number of cigarettes per day, and alcoholic problems. Third, compared to new enrollees, re-enrollees had a higher success rate of smoking cessation as they got older. In terms of the success rate of health insurance, on the contrary, new enrollees were better than re-enrollees. Fourth, the study showed a higher success rate in smoking cessation in both new and re-enrollees if they had no alcoholic problems. In particular, a higher success rate was observed in re-enrollees when there were no alcoholic problems. To efficiently operate smoking cessation clinics at public health centers, this study confirmed that counseling should be tailored depending on the types of enrollees in the program.
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