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A Evaluation Study on Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality of Male College Students According to Packyear in Korea (흡연력에 따른 남자 대학생의 영양소 섭취 상태와 식사의 질 평가)

  • Kim, Mi-Hyun;Bae, Yun-Jung;Sung, Chung-Ja
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.572-584
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the nutrient intake and diet quality of male college student according to smoking groups. Subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the smoking, which included non-smoker (n = 100), light-smoker (n = 78; packyear < 5), and heavy-smoker (n = 76; packyear ${\geq}$ 5). Subjects were interviewed using a general questionnaire, 24-hour recall method for dietary intake and diet quality. The average age of the subjects were 22.7 years for non-smoker, 23.5 years for light-smoker, and 23.4 years for heavy-smoker. Also the results showed that the heavy-smoker was significantly more often to drink coffee and alcohol compared with the other two groups (p<0.001, p<0.05). The mean daily energy intake was 2278.1 kcal in non-smoker, 2148.3 kcal in light-smoker, and 2144.4 kcal in heavy-smoker. The heavy-smoker consumed significantly lower intakes of vitamin C (p<0.001), calcium (p<0.01), animal calcium (p<0.01), and potassium (p<0.05) compared to the non-smoker and light-smoker. Also NAR (Nutrient Adequacy Ratio), ND (Nutrient Density), and INQ (Index of Nutritional Quality) of these nutrients in heavy-smoker were lower than the other two groups. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was 0.78 in non-smoker, 0.78 in light-smoker, and 0.74 in heavy smoker (p<0.05). The heavy-smoker consumed significantly lower intakes of fruits (p<0.001) compared to the non-smoker and light-smoker. The DVS (Dietary Variety Score) of heavy-smoker (26.8) was significantly lower than that 30.4 of non-smoker and 31.5 of light-smoker (p<0.01). In conclusion, heavy-smoker man have low intake status of vitamin C, calcium and potassium, and partly low diet quality. Therefore it was needed that well planed diet to replace the nutrients supplied from excluded food groups in heavy- smoker.

Differences in Food and Nutrient Intake Associated with Smoking Status of Korean

  • Kim, Youngok
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in food and nutrient intake by smoking status among Korean. Food and nutrient intake in relation to smoking status was studied in 7,370 adults, aged 20 years and older in 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey, in which 24 hour recall method was used for dietary survey. Information of subject's smoking status was collected by interview as a part of health behavior survey. Analysis of variance was used to test the differences in food and nutrition intake among subjects following after Duncan's multiple range test among four different smoking exposure categories. Food intake of male ex-smoker was the highest in most of the food groups among the four groups of daily current smoker, occasional current smoker, ex-smoker and never smoker. There was significant differences observed in food intake of sugar, fruits, beverage, seasoning by the smoking status. It had been also observed that significantly high intake of energy from carbohydrate in non smoker compare to current smoker especially in male subjects. Fiber and vitamin C intake was also higher among non-smoker (never smoker and ex-smoker) than current smoker. In general, food and nutrient intake pattern of ex-smoker resembled those of never smoker than those of current smoker. Not likely the observation from European and American studies, fat intake was not statistically different between smoker (current) and non-smoker (ex-smoker and never smoker) among Korean.

A Survey on Dietary Behavior and Nutrient Intake of Smoking Male College Students in Chungnam Area (충남지역 일부 남자 대학생의 흡연상태에 따른 식사섭취 실태조사)

  • Choe, Mi-Gyeong;Jeon, Ye-Suk;Kim, Ae-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.248-257
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking on dietary behavior and nutrient intake among the male college students. The subjects were divided into three groups; non smoker(n=84), moderate smoker(n=68), and heavy smoker(n=89) according to duration and degree of smoking. And they were asked for general characteristics, life style, eating pattern, food frequency, and nutrient intake using questionnaire and 24-hr recall method. The mean age, height, weight, and BMI of the subjects were 26.2$\pm$6.2 years, 173.3$\pm$5.3㎝, 66.5$\pm$9.3㎏, and 22.1$\pm$2.7㎏/$m^2$, respectively. The type of residence and frequency of alcohol drinking were significantly different among three groups; the frequency of self-boarding and alcohol drinking in moderate smoker and heavy smoker was higher than those in non smoker. Comparing with non smoker, the frequency of skipping meals, especially breakfast and supper, was significantly high in moderate smoker and heavy smoker. The most common reason why heavy smoker skipped meals was ‘eating habit’, while it was ‘lack of time’ in non smoker. The results showed that the heavy smoker tended to drink coffee more often compared to the other two groups. There were no significant differences in nutrient intakes among three groups. In conclusion, heavy smoking students have unhealthy dietary behaviors in terms of high frequency of alcohol drinking, habit of skipping meals and frequent coffee drinking showing a strong need of proper education on smoking withdrawal and meal practice for them.

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Measurement of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine Values in Smokers and Non-smokers (흡연자 및 비흡연자의 뇨중 니코틴 및 코티닌 함량)

  • 이문수;나도영;황건중
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.40-45
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the personal effects of tobacco smoke and environmental tobacco smoke(ETS) by measuring the concentration of nicotine and cotinine in the urine. While 129 urine samples were being collected, Personal characteristics such as sex, age, number of years since a Person has been a smoker, average consumption number of cigarettes per day, and number of smoker in family were also surveyed. Collected urine samples were used for analysis of nicotine and cotinine by GC/NPD after Passing the extrelut column. In the urine of the smoker, the average contents of nicotine and cotinine were 5.38$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and 3.14 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, respectively. The average contents of nicotine and cotinine were 0.18$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and 0.07$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml in the urine of male non-smoker, respectively. The contents of nicotine and cotinine in the non-smoker's urine were dependent on sex and age. On the other hand, the contents of nicotine and cotinine in smoker's urine were dependent on average consumption amount of cigarettes per day. Also, there was a direct relation between nicotine levels in the smoker's urine and the average consumption number of cigarettes Per day of smoker. The Possible sources of nicotine and cotinine in the non-smoker's urine seemed to be caused by food, beverage and En, Our results indicate that the number of smoker in family had no effect on increasing nicotine and cotinine contents in the urine of non-smoker.

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Association between smoking cessation and metabolic syndrome in Korean Men: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014 (한국 남성의 금연과 대사증후군과의 관련성: 2013-2014년 국민건강영양조사 활용)

  • Kwak, Jin-Hee;Hong, Na-Young;Ha, Hee Sung;Lee, Won-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between smoking cessation and metabolic syndrome components in Korean male and to clarify how long metabolic syndrome and its components remains after smoking cessation. Methods: A total of 4,408 participants from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking status was categorized into three groups, current-smoker, ex-smoker and non-smoker. Also smoking cessation period was categorized into three groups, less than 5 years, 5 years to 15 years and more than 15 years. Results: Smoking cessation were associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. The multi-variate adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 1.68(1.22-2.31) for smoker, 1.04(0.74-1.46) for ex-smoker, as compare with non-smoker; adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of hypertriglyceride 2.17(1.77-2.66) for smoker, 1.27(1.02-1.59) for ex-smoker and high waist circumference 1.36(0.98-1.88) for smoker, 1.07(0.78-1.48) for ex-smoker, as compare with non-smoker. Conclusions: Smoking cessation in Korean male reduced odds ratio for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its 4 components except for hypertension.

Comparative Study on Nutrient Intakes, Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Profile of Korean Adult Men According to Smoking Status (성인 남자의 흡연상태에 따른 영양섭취, 혈압, 혈액 성상 및 지질패턴 비교연구)

  • Choi, Mi-Kyeong;Cho, Hye-Kyung;Sung, Chung-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.164-170
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the nutrient intakes, blood pressure, and biochemical values and lipid profile in blood according to smoking status. Subjects were recruited from Korean adult men, which included non-smoker (n=47), smoker (n=58), and ex- smoker (n=44) . Anthropometrical measurement, blood pressure measurement, dietary intake assessment using 24-hour recall method, and blood collection and analysis were conducted. The average age, height, weight, and BMI of the subject were 54.7 years, 165.8 cm, 67.3 kg, and $24.5\;kg/m^2 $, respectively. There was no significant difference in general characteristics among three groups. The mean daily intakes of energy and protein were 1740.9 kcal and 69.6 g. The daily folate intake of the smoker was significantly lower than that of the non- smoker or ex-smoker. However, cholesterol intake of the smoker was significantly higher than two groups. The daily total food intake was 1250.0 g for non-smoker, 1180.1 g for smoker, and 1237.5 g for ex-smoker. The mushrooms intake in the smoker was significantly lower than that in the ex - smoker. However, eggs intake of the smoker was significantly higher than two groups. The RBC count and serum GOT/GPT of the subjects were $4598.2\times1000/mm^3$ and 27.3/27.3 U/L. The WBC count, hematocrit and hemoglobin of the smoker were significantly higher than those of the non-smoker and ex-smoker. Blood pressure and serum lipids of the subjects were 128.3/75.5 mmHg for SBP/DBP, 180.2 mg/dL for total cholesterol, 160.8 mg/dL for triglyceride, 41.5 mg/dL for HDL-cholesterol, 106.5 mg/dL for LDL-cholesterol, and 3.5 for atherogenic index. Especially serum triglyceride of smoker was significantly higher than that of non-smoker. The above results revealed that some nutrient intakes, such as folate and cholesterol, and hematological findings, and serum triglyceride of the smoker were different from non-smoker. However, these differences were recovered to non-smoking status by prohibition of smoking. Therefore, in order to stop smoking, the effect of smoking on nutritional and health status should be informed to smoker and more systematic study should be conducted.

A Study on The Sasang Constitutional Interrelationship of Equilibrium Function According to Drinking and Smoking (음주량과 흡연에 따른 균형기능의 체질 상관성 연구)

  • Lee, Han-Eol;Lee, Joo-Yong;Han, Kyung-Su;Lee, Hyun;Ahn, Taek-Won
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.63-75
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    • 2009
  • 1. Objectives: This study was carried out to investigate the Sasang constitutional equilibrium functional difference according to drinking and smoking. 2. Methods: We analyzed the data of 300 adults(194 males, 106 females), who visited Cheonan oriental hospital of D univ. for medical examination, which includes Sasang constitution examination, equilibrium function test, questionnaire. We evaluationed the equilibrium function by measurement of open eyes and close eyes trace length, using the posturography system, according to drinking groups, smoking groups and drinking-smoking groups. 3. Results and Conclusions: The results were as follows : 1) In all subjects, trace length of heavy-drinker was significantly higher than non-drinker, trace length of smoker was significantly higher than non-smoker, trace length of drinker and smoker was significantly higher than non-drinker and non-smoker, trace length of male was significantly higher than female. 2) In Soyangin, trace length of middle-drinker was significantly higher than non-drinker. 3) In Taeumin, trace length of heavy-drinker was significantly higher than non-drinker, trace length of smoker was significantly higher than non-smoker, trace length of drinker and smoker was significantly higher than non-drinker and non-smoker. 4) In Soumin, trace length of drinker and smoker was significantly higher than non-drinker and non-smoker. The above results show that driking and smoking are one of main causes to decrease equilibrium function, specially the case of at once drinking and smoking are a potent influence. Also in Taeumin, comparing to different consitutions, the above results show that it is more obvious that drinking and smoking are influence on decrease of equilibrium function.

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Influence of Smoker Image Perceived Cigarette Advertising on Intention of Adulthood Smoking Among Highschool Students (고등학생들의 담배광고에서 지각한 흡연자 이미지가 성인기 흡연 의도에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Goo-Churl
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.785-795
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to develop and validate of Smoker Image Scale and to evaluate the effect of the smoker image on adulthood smoking intention of youth. Data were collected from 610 high school students were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 programs. Smoker Image Scale were developed and verified the reliability and validity. In addition, ordinal logistic regression analysis was implemented for impact of smoker image on adulthood smoking intention. As a results of analysis, first, the developed Smoker Image Scale confirmed with 10 items in 1 factor and Cronbach's ${\alpha}$ was .91. Second, men and smokers had significantly higher positive smoker image formed by cigarette advertising. Third, positive smoker image had a significant positive effect on adulthood smoking intention while controlling of gender and smoking status. Positive smoker image formed by cigarette advertising was associated with adulthood smoking intention of youth. Based on these findings, implications and suggestions for future research were discussed for the risk of adulthood smoking intention of youth.

Effects of the inspiratory muscle breathing training on the lung function in 20s healthy smoking and non-smoking male (건장한 20대 흡연·비흡연 남성의 흡기근 호흡 훈련이 폐기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Yang Jin;Kim, Kyung Hun
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find the difference in lung function effects between a healthy adult male smoker, non-smoker after inspiratory muscle breathing training. Design: Quasi-experiment design. Method: In this study, we want to compare the effects of the inspiratory muscle breathing training smoker group (n=11) and non-smoker group (n=10) to target the healthy adult 21 people. All participated underwent 30 minutes of inspiratory muscle breathing training (5 times per week, for a total of 4 weeks). Using the spirometer in order to examine the ability to lung function EVC, ERV, FEV1/FVC was measured. Result: The results showed that the smoker group FVC and FEV1 increased statistically significantly (p<0.05). The results showed that the non-smoker group FVC and FEV1 increased statistically significantly (p<0.05). There was no statistical difference between them. Conclusion: This study tested the adult male smoker and the adult male non-smokers using inspiratory muscle breathing training the effect of smoking on lung function.

Characteristics of respiration and phonation depending on smoking or non smoking by practical musicology students and general male students (실용음악전공학생과 일반남학생의 흡연여부에 따른 호흡과 발성 특성 비교)

  • Kim, Eunhye;Choi, Hong-Shik;Lim, Seong-Eun;Choi, Yaelin
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2014
  • This research compared the features of respiration and phonation between practical musicology students and general male students, according to their smoking status. Participants of this research are 15 practical musicology male students attending ${\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}$ university and 16 general ${\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}$ university students. The participants, both non-smokers and smokers with 5-years of smoking history have no history of voice disease in any case and have normal cognitive functions. The results indicated that, first, there is not a notable difference in the respiratory activity status(FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC), regardless of major and smoking status. In MPT, even though there is no significant difference in accordance with their majors, considering smoking status, the smoker group was shorter than non-smoker group significant difference statistically (p<.01). Second, the divisions of participants' major did not show significant difference in Fo, jitter, shimmer, and NHR in the vowel prolongation task. However, the smoker group showed a significantly higher degree of jitter and shimmer than the non-smoker group (p<.05) as Fo and NHR shows no difference. In the case of VRP, maximum frequency and frequency range of the practical group are significantly higher than normal group statistically (p<.001). Moreover, although the difference of the minimum frequency shown at the statistic is not significant, practical group showed a higher tendency of frequency than normal group (p=.051). In conclusion, even though there is no difference in respiratory activity between the smoker group and non-smoker group, the MPT of the smoker group is shorter than that of non-smoker group. In addition, the smoker group showed a higher degree of jitter and shimmer than the non-smoker group. MPT is related to the valve action of vocal fold that passes through the glottis. Thus, it is interpreted that the smoker group has a lower quality of voice and valve action of the vocal fold. Also, the practical group has a higher degree of maximum frequency and frequency range than the normal group. This research can function as basic data for vocal characteristics for the majors in relation to the voice-specializing.