• Title, Summary, Keyword: Smoke-free environment

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Prevalence and Predictors of Support for the Implementation of Smoke-free Regulations in the Home Environment among Residents of Multi-unit Housing in Seoul (서울시내 공동주택 거주자의 주거환경 내 금연정책 시행에 대한 지지와 영향요인)

  • Kim, Jeonghoon;Lee, Kiyoung;Kim, KyooSang
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.130-142
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Although the Korean government is able to implement smoke-free regulations for shared areas in multi-unit housing (MUH), such regulations are limited for private homes. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of support for the implementation of smoke-free regulations for homes and near the outsides of building among residents in MUH. Methods: A population-based sample of 2,600 residents among a web-based panel in Seoul was included. The residents completed questionnaires including smoking status, voluntary smoke-free home rules, and support for the implementation of smoke-free regulations for homes and near the outsides of building. The presence of a voluntary smoke-free home rule was determined when residents declared that no one smoked inside their homes. Results: Among the 2,600 MUH residents, prevalence of support for the implementation of smoke-free regulations for homes was higher (83.2%) than for near the outsides of buildings (75.1%). Support for the implementation of smoke-free regulations for homes was higher when residents were non-smokers, had voluntary smoke-free home rules, lived with children, lived with more residents, lived in owned homes, lived in apartments, and lived in homes with more frequent secondhand smoke (SHS) incursion. Support for the implementation of smoke-free regulations near the outsides of buildings was higher when residents were women, non-smokers, more educated, had a voluntary smoke-free home rule, lived with children, lived in homes with more frequent SHS incursion, and lived in a commercial area. Conclusions: The majority was supportive of the implementation of smoke-free regulations for homes. Predictors identified in the study can be useful for promoting implementation of smoke-free regulations for homes in MUH.

Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Smoke-Free Universities: Changes Since Enactment of Vietnamese Tobacco Control Legislation

  • Nguyen, Ngoc Bich;Cook, Margaret;Johnstone, Kelly;Capra, Mike;Vu, Thi Hoang Lan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2016
  • Background: In 2013, legislation in Vietnam regulated smoking in public areas. Included was a ban on indoor smoking at universities. Objective: Since awareness and attitude are moderators of the effectiveness of smoke-free policy, ou aim was to assess changes in students' knowledge and attitude tosecond hand smoke (SHS) and awareness and support of smoke-free legislation at four Vietnamese universities, one year after legislative changes. Methods: A two-phase cross sectional study of undergraduate students using self-administered questionnaires (based on the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and the Thrasher survey) was conducted at the introduction of the legislation and one year thereafter. Results: One-year post legislation there were significant increases in knowledge of smoke-free legislation and awareness of universities as smoke-free environments. There was a significant increase in knowledge of harmful effects of SHS on diseases such as examples in the heart and lung, including lung cancer, and miscarriage. Students expressed strong support of smoke-free environments in universities, hospitals, schools, workplaces, public transport, libraries, cinemas and theatres; support was also increased post legislation. Changes were seen in attitude to SHS, and rights of non-smokers and smokers. Conclusions: Positive changes have occurred in knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free environments and SHS in universities since enactment of Vietnamese tobacco control legislation.

Simulation of the Brownian Coagulation of Smoke Agglomerates in the Entire Size Regime using a Nodal Method (결절법을 이용한 전영역에서의 연기입자 응집체에 대한 브라운응집현상 해석)

  • Goo, Jae-Hark
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.681-691
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    • 2011
  • The size distributions of smoke particles from fire are prerequisite for the studies on fire detection and adverse health effects. Above the flame of the fire, coagulation dominates and the smoke particles grow from 1 to 50 nm up to 100 to 3,000 nm, sizes ranging from the free-molecular regime to the continuum regime. The characteristics of the agglomeration of the smoke particles are well known, independently for each of the free-molecular and continuum regimes. However, there are not many systematic studies in the entire regime by the complexity of the mechanisms. The purpose of this work is to find the characteristics of the development of the size distribution of smoke particles by agglomeration in the entire size range covering the free-molecular regime, via transition regime, to the near-continuum and continuum regime for each variation of parameters such as fractal dimension, primary particle size and dimensionless coagulation time. In this work, the dynamic equation for the discrete-size spectrum of the particles was solved using a nodal method based on the modification of a sectional method. In the calculation, the collision frequency function for the entire regime, which is derived by using the concept of collision volume and general enhancement function, was applied. The self-preserving size distribution for the entire regime is compared with the ones for the free-molecular or continuum regimes for each variation of the parameters.

Impact of the Smoke-free Law on Secondhand Smoke in Computer Game Rooms (금연정책 시행이 전국 PC방의 간접흡연에 미치는 영향)

  • Guak, Sooyoung;Lee, Kiyoung;Kim, Sungreol;Kim, Sungcheon;Yang, Wonho;Ha, Kwonchul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: This study assessed the impact of the smoke-free law on secondhand smoke exposure in computer game rooms by measuring concentrations of particulate matter smaller than $2.5{\mu}m$($PM_{2.5}$). Methods: Indoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations were measured in 56 (during the smoke-free guidance period) and 118 computer game rooms (after the law went into effect) in four cities (Seoul, Cheonan, Daegu and Kunsan) in Korea. The number of smokers in the computer game rooms was also counted every five minutes. Results: Although a smoking ban had been implemented nationally, smoking was observed in 47% of the computer game rooms. Smoking density decreased from 1.62 persons per $100m^3$ during the guidance period to 0.32 persons per $100m^3$ after the smoke-free law. There is no statistically significant difference of $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations before and after the smoking ban. The $PM_{2.5}$ concentration was two times higher than the US NAAQS of $35{\mu}g/m^3$. The $PM_{2.5}$ concentration in computer game rooms without smokers was two times higher than the outdoor concentration. Conclusion: The smoke-free law in computer game rooms was complied with, even after the guidance period, in Korea. Indoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentration after smoke-free law implementation was high due to this non-compliance. High $PM_{2.5}$ concentration in computer game rooms without smokers might be due to smoking booths. The complete prohibition of smoking in computer game rooms should be implemented to protect patrons from secondhand smoke exposure.

Environmental tobacco smoke and childhood asthma

  • Song, Dae Jin
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2010
  • In recent years, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has become an important worldwide public health issue. Children are particularly vulnerable to ETS because they are still developing. ETS exposure causes a wide range of adverse health effects on childhood asthma. There is convincing evidence that ETS exposure is causally associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, increased severity of asthma and worsening asthma control in children who already have the disease, even though a causal relationship with asthma onset is not yet established for asthma incidence. Mechanisms underlying these adverse effects of ETS are not clearly elucidated but e studies on this issue suggest that genetic susceptibility, impaired lung function, and augmented airway inflammation and remodeling may be involved. Children with asthma are just as likely to be exposed to ETS as children in general and there is no risk-free level of exposure. Therefore, providing a smoke-free environment may be of particular importance to the asthmatic children exposed to ETS who have adverse asthma outcomes, as well as to children with genetic susceptibility who are at increased risk of developing asthma upon exposure to ETS in early childhood.

A study on Early Childhood Secondhand Smoke Prevention Education for Young Children's Health Right Promotion (유아의 건강 권리 증진을 위한 유아 간접흡연 예방교육에 관한 연구)

  • Gwon, Gi-Nam;Min, Ha-Yeoung;Yoon, Chung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.187-196
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    • 2006
  • This study aims to 1) develop the Secondhand Smoke prevention program using project approach program for young children aged 4 to 5 years, 2) estimate the influence of project approach program on the prevention of their secondhand smoke, and 3) suggest effective strategies to ultimately encourage a smoke-free environment for them. The participants of an experimental group included a total of 64 preschoolers (42 boys and 22 girls) from one child-care center in Gyeonggi province. The sample of a controlled group was 49 preschoolers (30 boys and 19 girls) from one child-care center in Daegu province. Before and after experiencing project approach program on the prevention of secondhand smoke, each of them was asked to respond to such questions as recognition, attitude, and coping behavior of secondhand smoke. It has revealed that, after the program, those in the experimental group showed greater degree of recognition, more negative attitude, and more active coping behavior of secondhand smoke than those in the controlled group.

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Experimental and CFD Study on the Exhaust Efficiency of a Smoke Control Fan in Blind Entry Development Sites (맹갱도 굴진 작업공간내 방재팬의 화재연 배기효율에 관한 현장실험 및 CFD 연구)

  • Nguyen, Vanduc;Kim, Dooyoung;Hur, Wonho;Lee, Changwoo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.38-58
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    • 2018
  • The ventilation system plays a crucial role in underground mine safety. The main objective of the ventilation system is to supply sufficient air to dilute the contaminated air at working places and consequently provide tenable environment during the normal operation, while it also should be capable of controlling the fire propagation and facilitate rescue conditions in case of fire in mines. In this study, a smoke control fan was developed for the auxiliary ventilation as well as the fire smoke exhaust. It works as a free-standing auxiliary fan without tubing to dilute or exhaust the contaminated air from the working places. At the same time, it can be employed to extract the fire smoke. This paper aims to examine the smoke control efficiency of the fan when combined with the current ventilation system in mines. A series of the site experiments and numerical simulations were made to evaluate the fan performance in blind entry development sites. The tracer gas method with SF6 was applied to investigate the contaminant behavior at the study sites. The results of the site study at a large-opening limestone mine were compared with the CFD analysis results with respect to the airflow pattern and the gas concentration. This study shows that in blind development entry, the most polluted and risky place, the smoke fan can exhaust toxic gases or fire smoke effectively if it is properly combined with an additional common auxiliary fan. The venturi effect for smoke exhaust from the blind entry was also observed by the numerical analysis. The overall smoke control efficiency was found to be dependent on the fan location and operating method.

A Study on Non-smoking Policy and Factors Related to Smoking in General Hospitals (종합병원의 금연방침과 직원의 흡연관련 요인 분석)

  • Nam, Eun-Woo;Ryu, Hwang-Gun
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.85-106
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    • 2001
  • Since physical damages caused by passive smoking had been widely recognized, the Korea parliament enacted the National Health Promotion Law on September, 1995. The law specified nonsmoking areas in all public facilities, including hospitals. But this law is not strictly enforced. The benefits of a nonsmoking policy can not be expected by the public. Even though hospitals should preserve a smoke-free-environment, most of hospitals are not under full controls against smoking. The purpose of this study is to identify factors related to smoking in general hospitals. Field study and surveys were simultaneously performed at study hospitals in Busan. 9 of 24 general hospitals were selected and survey was performed for 10 days by investigators during January of 2000. Nine hospitals had nonsmoking regulations, but only 8 hospitals had designated nonsmoking areas. Two hospitals among those hospitals had a nonsmoking committee. Patients' smoking rate was 35.0%, while hospital employees' smoking rate was 22.5%. The smoking rates of physicians, nurses, administrators and medical technicians were 45.38%, 0.85%, 31.73% and 40.70%, respectively. In the question of the severity of damages caused by passive smoke, only 29.2% of the smoking group considered smoking as a serious health risk, while 69.4% of non-smoking group did. Christian employee showed lower smoking rate compared to other employee did. Even though physicians should educate patients and other professions about smoking, physicians' smoking rate (45.4%) was higher than other professions. As a consequence, this study insists that general hospitals should enhance their nonsmoking policy and implement any practical policy for smoking free hospital environment.

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Indoor Air Quality Pollution of PM2.5 and Associated Trace Elements Affected by Environmental Tobacco Smoke (환경담배연기로 인한 실내공기 중 PM2.5 및 미량성분 오염 특성)

  • Lim, Jong-Myoung;Lee, Jin-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2014
  • Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) samples were collected separately in mainstream and side-stream smoke using a self-designed smoking machine, and a total 40 of PM2.5 was collected with low volume air sampler at indoor environments with and without ETS in Daejeon, Korea. About 20 trace elements including toxic metals like As, Cr, Mn, Se, V, and Zn were determined in PM2.5 and ETS samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). It is found that the emission factors of K, Cl, Na, and Al were much higher than those of toxic elements for both mainstream and side-stream smoke. The average concentration of PM2.5 was enriched by 1.5 times at smoking area ($58.7{\pm}18.1{\mu}g/m^3$) than at smoking free area ($38.6{\pm}12.7{\mu}g/m^3$). The concentration ratio of each element between smoking and smoking free area were ranged from 1.1 to 6.0 except Cu (1.0); especially, Ce (6.0), La (5.2), K (2.3), and Co (2.0) showed higher ratio, which suggests that the ETS is one of the possible increasing factors of PM2.5 and elemental concentration at indoor environment.

Evaluation of Indoor ETS Exposure Levels in Pubs, PC Game Rooms, and Billiards Halls around a University Campus using PM2.5 Concentrations (대학 캠퍼스 주변 호프집, PC방, 당구장의 실내 PM2.5 농도를 통한 ETS 노출 수준 평가)

  • Lee, Jae Hwan;Park, Donguk;Ha, Kwonchul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.411-417
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the indoor level of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and to assess the implementation rate of smoke-free laws at hospitality venues around a university campus by measuring particulate matter smaller than $2.5{\mu}m$ ($PM_{2.5}$) as an indicator of ETS. Materials and Methods: We measured indoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations at 20 PC game rooms, 20 pubs, and 20 billiards halls using Sidepak AM510, a direct reading portable real time monitor, from October to December 2015. Results: Smoking was observed in 65% of the PC game rooms, 10% of pubs, and 85% of billiards halls. The average $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations were $98.2{\mu}g/m^3$, $29.0{\mu}g/m^3$, and $134.2{\mu}g/m^3$ at PC game rooms, pubs, and billiards halls, respectively. $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in PC game rooms and billiards halls were 2 to 2.7 times higher than the 24-hour exposure standard for outdoor $PM_{2.5}$ ($50{\mu}g/m^3$) by the Ministry of Environment. Conclusions: Although a smoking ban has been implemented for PC rooms and pubs, smoking is still taking place in many of these places. More stringent legal action is required for successfully protecting patrons and workers from secondhand smoke exposure. A ban on smoking in billiards halls should be introduced as quickly as possible.