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Development of State of Charge and Life Cycle Evaluation Algorithm for Secondary Battery (이차전지의 상태 감시 및 수명 예측 알고리즘 개발)

  • Park, Jaebeom;Kim, Byeonggi;Song, Seokhwan;Rho, Daeseok
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.369-377
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    • 2013
  • This paper deals with the state of charge(SOC) and life cycle evaluation algorithm for lead-acid battery, which is essential factor of the electric vehicle(EV) and the stabilization of renewable energy in the smart grid. In order to perform the effective operation of the lead-acid battery, SOC and life cycle evaluation algorithm is required. Specific gravity with the change of electrolyte temperature inside battery case should be obtained to evaluate the SOC of lead-acid battery, however it is difficult to measure the electrolyte temperature of sealed type lead-acid battery. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes the equation of thermal transmission to compensate internal temperature of the lead-acid battery. Also, it is difficult to exactly evaluate the life cycle of battery, depending on the operation conditions of lead-acid battery such as charging and discharging state, self discharging rate and environmental issue. In order to solve the problem, this paper presents the concept for gravity accumulation of charge and discharge cycle, which is the value converted at $20^{\circ}C$. By using the proposed algorithm, this paper propose the test device based on the Labview software. The simulation results show that it is a practical tool for the maintenance of lead-acid battery in the field of industry.

A 0.18-μm CMOS Baseband Circuits for the IEEE 802.15.4g MR-OFDM SUN Standard (IEEE 802.15.4g MR-OFDM SUN 표준을 지원하는 0.18-μm CMOS 기저대역 회로 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, Jun-Woo;Kim, Chang-Wan
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.685-690
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    • 2013
  • This paper has proposed a multi-channel and wide gain-range baseband circuit blocks for the IEEE 802.15.4g MR-OFDM SUN systems. The proposed baseband circuit blocks consist of two negative-feedback VGAs, an active-RC 5th-order chebyshev low-pass-filter, and a DC-offset cancellation circuit. The proposed baseband circuit blocks provide 1 dB cut-off frequencies of 100 kHz, 200 kHz, 400 kHz, and 600 kHz respectively, and achieve a wide gain-range of +7 dB~+84 dB with 1 dB step. In addition, a DC-offset cancellation circuit has been adopted to mitigate DC-offset problems in direct-conversion receiver. Simulation results show a maximum input differential voltage of $1.5V_{pp}$ and noise figure of 42 dB and 37.6 dB at 5 kHz and 500 kHz, respectively. The proposed I-and Q-path baseband circuits have been implemented in $0.18-{\mu}m$ CMOS technology and consume 17 mW from a 1.8 V supply voltage.

A Study on Competency Evaluation and Improvement Plan of Electrical Construction Management Using Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA를 활용한 전기공사 건설사업관리 역량 평가 및 개선방안 연구)

  • Kim, Seungbeum;Byun, Jeongyoon;Kim, Juhyung;Kim, Jaejun
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 2014
  • Since recent construction projects become larger and complicated, the level of difficulty of management skill is rising, and the risk is increasing accordingly so the necessity of improving management skill of projects is increasing. In order to solve this problem, Construction Management system was preferentially introduced in construction projects but in case of domestic construction industry, separate contracts by business boundary are being made so the actual state is that the function of the Construction Management system is not properly operated over the overall projects. The partial operation of Construction Management system like this may impose many restrictions on converged and combined projects such as smart grid and intelligent buildings etc. in the future. For improvement of management skill of domestic construction projects, the competence of project management skill by work areas that can overcome heterogeneity of the current project management skill shall be secured, and any factor that impedes cooperation ability shall be found and that shall be solved. Therefore, the difference of work competency of project management system of construction and electrical construction is to be analyzed by utilizing IPA model in this study, and a plan to introduce the project management system of electrical construction for efficient operation of projects is to be looked into.

The Selection of Optimal Distributions for Distributed Hydrological Models using Multi-criteria Calibration Techniques (다중최적화기법을 이용한 분포형 수문모형의 최적 분포형 선택)

  • Kim, Yonsoo;Kim, Taegyun
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate how the degree of distribution influences the calibration of snow and runoff in distributed hydrological models using a multi-criteria calibration method. The Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) developed by NOAA-National Weather Service (NWS) is employed to estimate optimized parameter sets. We have 3 scenarios depended on the model complexity for estimating best parameter sets: Lumped, Semi-Distributed, and Fully-Distributed. For the case study, the Durango River Basin, Colorado is selected as a study basin to consider both snow and water balance components. This study basin is in the mountainous western U.S. area and consists of 108 Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) grid cells. 5 and 13 parameters of snow and water balance models are calibrated with the Multi-Objective Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (MOSCEM) algorithm. Model calibration and validation are conducted on 4km HRAP grids with 5 years (2001-2005) meteorological data and observations. Through case study, we show that snow and streamflow simulations are improved with multiple criteria calibrations without considering model complexity. In particular, we confirm that semi- and fully distributed models are better performances than those of lumped model. In case of lumped model, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values improve by 35% on snow average and 42% on runoff from a priori parameter set through multi-criteria calibrations. On the other hand, the RMSE values are improved by 40% and 43% for snow and runoff on semi- and fully-distributed models.

Impact Analysis of Water Blending to Reverse Osmosis Desalination Process (원수 블렌딩이 해수담수화 역삼투 공정 성능에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jihye;Park, Hyung Jin;Lee, Kyung-Hyuk;Kwon, Boungsu;Kwon, Soonbuhm;Lim, Jae-Lim
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.190-199
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    • 2020
  • The utilization of multiple water sources becomes important due to the master plan for development of water supply released by Ministry of Environment, Korea in 2018. In this study, therefore, the analysis of comprehensive effect in blending applicable water sources in Daesan where 100,000 ㎥/d seawater desalination plant will be constructed for industrial use was performed. The increase in mixing ratio of other water sources with seawater reduced salinity up to 50%, but negatively impacted the turbid and organic matter. Lab-scale reverse osmosis performance test also found that membrane fouling was exacerbated in blended water condition. The simulation results of reverse osmosis indicated 39% energy saving on average is expected at the one-to-one blending ratio, however, long-term performance test at the pilot-scale plant is highly required to evaluate the inclusive impact of mixing seawater and other water sources.

A Mobile Landmarks Guide : Outdoor Augmented Reality based on LOD and Contextual Device (모바일 랜드마크 가이드 : LOD와 문맥적 장치 기반의 실외 증강현실)

  • Zhao, Bi-Cheng;Rosli, Ahmad Nurzid;Jang, Chol-Hee;Lee, Kee-Sung;Jo, Geun-Sik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-21
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    • 2012
  • In recent years, mobile phone has experienced an extremely fast evolution. It is equipped with high-quality color displays, high resolution cameras, and real-time accelerated 3D graphics. In addition, some other features are includes GPS sensor and Digital Compass, etc. This evolution advent significantly helps the application developers to use the power of smart-phones, to create a rich environment that offers a wide range of services and exciting possibilities. To date mobile AR in outdoor research there are many popular location-based AR services, such Layar and Wikitude. These systems have big limitation the AR contents hardly overlaid on the real target. Another research is context-based AR services using image recognition and tracking. The AR contents are precisely overlaid on the real target. But the real-time performance is restricted by the retrieval time and hardly implement in large scale area. In our work, we exploit to combine advantages of location-based AR with context-based AR. The system can easily find out surrounding landmarks first and then do the recognition and tracking with them. The proposed system mainly consists of two major parts-landmark browsing module and annotation module. In landmark browsing module, user can view an augmented virtual information (information media), such as text, picture and video on their smart-phone viewfinder, when they pointing out their smart-phone to a certain building or landmark. For this, landmark recognition technique is applied in this work. SURF point-based features are used in the matching process due to their robustness. To ensure the image retrieval and matching processes is fast enough for real time tracking, we exploit the contextual device (GPS and digital compass) information. This is necessary to select the nearest and pointed orientation landmarks from the database. The queried image is only matched with this selected data. Therefore, the speed for matching will be significantly increased. Secondly is the annotation module. Instead of viewing only the augmented information media, user can create virtual annotation based on linked data. Having to know a full knowledge about the landmark, are not necessary required. They can simply look for the appropriate topic by searching it with a keyword in linked data. With this, it helps the system to find out target URI in order to generate correct AR contents. On the other hand, in order to recognize target landmarks, images of selected building or landmark are captured from different angle and distance. This procedure looks like a similar processing of building a connection between the real building and the virtual information existed in the Linked Open Data. In our experiments, search range in the database is reduced by clustering images into groups according to their coordinates. A Grid-base clustering method and user location information are used to restrict the retrieval range. Comparing the existed research using cluster and GPS information the retrieval time is around 70~80ms. Experiment results show our approach the retrieval time reduces to around 18~20ms in average. Therefore the totally processing time is reduced from 490~540ms to 438~480ms. The performance improvement will be more obvious when the database growing. It demonstrates the proposed system is efficient and robust in many cases.

Study of new adsorption isotherm model and kinetics of dissolved organic carbon in synthetic wastewater by granular activated carbon (입상활성탄에 의한 합성폐수의 용존유기물질의 새로운 흡착등온 모델 및 운동학적 흡착 연구)

  • Kim, Seoung-Hyun;Shin, Sunghoon;Kim, Jinhyuk;Woo, Dalsik;Lee, Hosun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.2029-2035
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we conducted the adsorption equilibrium and batch experiments of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the wastewater by granular activated carbon (GAC). The components of organic compound were Beef extract (1.8 mg/L), Peptone (2.7 mg/L), Humic acid (4.2 mg/L), Tannic acid (4.2 mg/L), Sodium lignin sulfonate (2.4 mg/L), Sodium lauryle sulfate (0.94 mg/L), Arabic gum powder (4.7 mg/L), Arabic acid (polysaccharide) (5.0 mg/L), $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ (7.1 mg/L), $K_2HPO_4$ (7.0 mg/L), $NH_4HCO_3$ (19.8 mg/L), $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ (0.71 mg/L), The adsorption characteristics of DOC in synthetic wastewater was described using the mathematical model through a series of isotherm and batch experiments. It showed that there was linear adsorption region in the low DOC concentration (0~2.5 mg/L) and favorable adsorption region in high concentration (2.5~6 mg/L). The synthetic wastewater used was prepared using known quantities of organic and/or inorganic compounds. Adsorption modelling isotherms were predicted by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Sips and hybrid isotherm equations. Especially, hybrid isotherm of Linear and Sips equation was a good adsorption equilibrium in the region of the both the low concentration and high concentration. In applying carbon adsorption for treating water and wastewater, hybrid adsorption equation plus linear equation with Sips equation will be a good new adsorption equilibrium model. Linear driving force approximation (LDFA) kinetic equation with Hybrid (linear+Sips) adsorption isotherm model was successfully applied to predict the adsorption kinetics data in various GAC adsorbent amounts.

An historical analysis on the carbon lock-in of Korean electricity industry (한국 전력산업의 탄소고착에 대한 역사적 분석)

  • Chae, Yeoungjin;Roh, Keonki;Park, Jung-Gu
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.125-148
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    • 2014
  • This paper performs a historical analysis on the various factors contributing to the current carbon lock-in of Korean electricity industry by using techo-institutional complex. The possibilities of the industry's carbon lock-out toward more sustainable development are also investigated. It turns out that market, firm, consumer, and government factors are all responsible for the development of the carbon lock-in of Korean power industry; the Korean government consistently favoring large power plants based on the economy of scale; below-cost electricity tariff; inflation policy to suppress increases in power price; rapid demand growth in summer and winter seasons; rigidities of electricity tariff; and expansion of gas-fired and imported coal-fired large power plants. On the other hand, except for nuclear power generation and smart grid, environment laws and new and renewable energy laws are the other remaining factors contributing to the carbon lock-out. Considering three key points that Korea is an export-oriented economy, the generation mix is the most critical factor to decide the amounts of carbon emission in the power industry, and the share of industry and commercial power consumption is over 85%, it is unlikely that Korea will achieve the carbon lock-out of power industry in the near future. Therefore, there are needs for more integrated approaches from market, firm, consumer, and government all together in order to achieve the carbon lock-out in the electricity industry. Firstly, from the market perspective, it is necessary to persue more active new and renewable energy penetration and to guarantee consumer choices by mitigating the incumbent's monopoly power as in the OECD countries. Secondly, from the firm perspective, the promotion of distributed energy system is urgent, which includes new and renewable resources and demand resources. Thirdly, from the consumer perspective, more green choices in the power tariff and customer awareness on the carbon lock-out are needed. Lastly, the government shall urgently improve power planning frameworks to include the various externalities that were not properly reflected in the past such as environmental and social conflict costs.