• Title, Summary, Keyword: Smallholder

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Smallholder Dairy Production Systems in Developing Countries : Characteristics, Potential and Opportunities for Improvement - Review -

  • Devendra, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.104-113
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    • 2001
  • Smallholder dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder cooperative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of smallholder dairy production is fueled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators in smallholder dairy production systems are indicated.

Case Study of the Viability of Smallholder Dairy Farming in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe

  • Francis, Joseph;Sibanda, Simba
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.1098-1105
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    • 2001
  • There is little information on smallholder dairy farming in Zimbabwe. With such inadequate knowledge, no meaningful decisions on how to improve these systems can be made. A study was, therefore, carried out in Nharira communal area and Lancashire small-scale commercial area to provide information on the viability of dairy farms. This paper is based on data obtained through participatory monitoring of 13 smallholder dairy farms in 1996 and 1997. All the four farms in Lancashire were found to be viable in both years. In Nharira, two out of the nine farms in 1996 and three farms in 1997 failed to break even. There were considerable inter-farm differences in the contribution of milk sales towards total income from dairy farming, ranging from 41% to 99% in Nharira and 71% to 81% in Lancashire in 1996. Corresponding estimates in 1997 were 51-95% and 72-78%, respectively. Expenses on cattle feeds contributed 36-84% in 1996 and 37-80% in 1997 towards total variable costs in Nharira. In Lancashire, the respective estimates were 15-33% and 22-36%. Seven out of the nine studied farms in Nharira and three out of four in Lancashire realized higher gross margin (GM) in 1997 than in 1996. All these farming households had conserved considerable amounts of farm-grown feeds. It was concluded that feed costs, number of cows and sizes of land holdings were the main factors determining viability of smallholder dairy farming. The major challenge to smallholder dairy farming in Nharira, in particular, was to develop low-cost feeding strategies.

Environmental Conditions and Resource Management in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Thailand. I. Production Systems and Management of Resources

  • Skunmun, P.;Boonsom, J.;Kaewsuwan, S.;Chantalakhana, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.215-219
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    • 1999
  • This study aims to make detail examination of smallholder dairy farming systems in the Nongpho Dairy Cooperative. Forty-three dairy farms were selected from three geographical areas i.e. irrigated area, municipality area, and factory area. Within each area some number of sample farms were selected from each of the three levels of farm and animal crowdedness (very crowded, crowded, and not crowded farms). Detail data were collected during 1996 to 1997, they were socio-economic conditions of the sample farms and farmers, dairy production systems and management of resources (animals, bam, feeds, stocking rates, herd structure, animal body conditions, milk yield and milk quality, manure and farm wastes management, and other related items). Detail information useful for the improvement of farm production efficiency were discussed. It was very clear that much improvement of smallholder dairy production can be achieved if the recommendations given by this study were implemented.

Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review

  • Nyamushamba, G.B.;Mapiye, C.;Tada, O.;Halimani, T.E.;Muchenje, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.603-621
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    • 2017
  • The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

Environmental Conditions and Resource Management in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Thailand. II. Effects of Dairy Wastes on Water and Soil

  • Chantalakhana, C.;Korpraditsakul, R.;Skunmun, P.;Poondusit, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.220-225
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    • 1999
  • The environmental conditions in smallholder dairy farms especially the effects of dairy wastes on waters and soil were the main objectives of this investigation. Forty-three dairy farms from an older dairy cooperative (Nongpho Dairy Cooperative, NP) were compared with four dairy fauns from relatively new dairy cooperative (Kamphaengsaen Dairy Cooperative, KS) for the quality parameters of water and soil samples during a 12-month period. Forty-three farms at NP were from three geographical areas and three levels farm crowdedness. The results from this study clearly showed that the waste waters from older dairy barns contained much higher levels of organic and inorganic substances which could create environmental pollution if not properly managed. The differences in waste water qualities due to areas and seasons were not significant, while waste water samples from crowded farms tended to contain higher averages of waste water parameters such as COD and BOD. Highly significant correlations between pairs of waste water parameters indicated that certain parameters can be used without the need for chemical analysis of some other parameters. The qualities of well water on dairy farms as well as water samples from public waterways nearby indicated some contamination of dairy wastes such as manure. Storage and sun-drying of dairy manure on bare soil surface could result in the contamination of underground water and nearby water sources. Some recommendations from this study if implemented can prevent environmental pollution in smallholder dairy farms.

Key Performance Indicators to Diagnose Poor Farm Performance and Profitability of Smallholder Dairy Farmers in Asia

  • Moran, John B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1709-1717
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    • 2009
  • This review presents a series of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) to assist Asian smallholder dairy farmers in identifying the possible causes for their poor farm performance and profitability. When assessing farm profitability, these indicators can be split into two types, those diagnosing problems with feeding management and those indicating poor herd management. As home grown forage is generally cheaper to source than purchased forage, the more produced on farm, the better. Too many stock on limited land is a common feature on Asian dairy small holdings. Unlike other classes of livestock, milking cows have very high nutrient requirements, therefore high quality forages and concentrates are essential for profitable dairying. Milk income less feed cost is one of the simplest and easy to measure indicators of farm profitability and is also quick to respond to small changes in farm practices. Problems with herd management can be diagnosed using measures such as the proportion of cows actually milking in the herd or their peak yield and persistency of production. There are also simple indicators of herd reproductive performance and of health and growth of young stock that assist in searching for the underlying causes of poor farm profitability.

Smallholder Pig Rearing Systems in Northern Lao PDR

  • Phengsavanh, P.;Ogle, B.;Stur, W.;Frankow-Lindberg, B.E.;Lindberg, J.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.867-874
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    • 2011
  • This paper describes the results of a survey aimed at characterizing smallholder pig production systems in northern Lao PDR. A total of 341 households from five Northern provinces were interviewed in the survey. Village meetings and individual interviews, using a semi-structured questionnaire, were used to collect information. Three main pig rearing systems, free-scavenging, semi-scavenging and confinement (enclosures and pens), were found in the survey areas. These systems were practiced differently by smallholders depending on the level of intensity of crop production, ethnicity and purpose of keeping pigs. The confinement system was mainly practiced by Lao-Tai and Tibeto-Burman groups, who mainly bought piglets and fattened these pigs for sale. In contrast, the Mon-Khmer and Hmong-Mien reared pigs in free-scavenging and semi-scavenging systems, and usually keep sows for piglet production. The main factors that affected the changes in rearing systems were found to be level of intensity of crop production, local regulations and outbreaks of disease. The main constraints found in smallholder systems were outbreaks of disease, high mortality of piglets and the slow growth rate of fattening pigs.

Incidence and Causes of Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows on Smallholder and Large Scale Farms in Tropical Areas of Tanzania

  • Shem, M.N.;Malole, J.M.L.;Machangu, R.;Kurwijila, L.R.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.372-377
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    • 2001
  • A study on the prevalence and causes of sub-clinical mastitis was conducted on ten smallholder and large-scale dairy farms in Morogoro urban and peri-urban areas. A total of 65 lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Confirmatory tests used included; the direct microscopic somatic cell count (DMSCC), culture, bacteriological and biochemical tests. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on management aspects. Results showed 62% and 4% cows as sub- clinical and clinical mastitis cases respectively. Levels of infection were higher on smallholder farms (75%) than on large-scale farms (25%). All tested cows had high cell counts (>500,000) per ml of milk. Incidences of mastitis were significantly (p<0.05) related to milking practices. The dominant bacterial isolates in the same order were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, and Escherichia coli. Other organisms isolated included Pseudomonas spp and Klebsiella spp. It was concluded that the high rates of sub-clinical mastitis in the research area were mainly due to poor management and unhygienic milking practices.

Current Attitudes of Pesticide Use and Protective Clothing in Smallholder Farmers of Korea (소규모 농가에서의 농약의 사용 행태 및 방제복 착용현황에 대한 조사)

  • 유경숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.28 no.910
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    • pp.1292-1299
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    • 2004
  • This survey was carried out on 256 smallholder farmers of the Jeonbuk Province to analyze their current behavior in pesticide usage and the use of protective clothing during spray work. The interviewees were at the age of about 50's in both males and females: they performed spray work mainly for their own farms. Many of them were not very well aware of the danger of pesticides and the adequate methods of pesticide handling. Water drinking and smoking during break time were the endangering factors of pesticide intoxication, reaching to 30-60% sprayers. Most of sprayers had experienced the exposures to pesticides during spray work and appealed some subjective clinical symptoms to the exposure, but they seldom sought medical treatments. More than 70% of respondents had not been wearing protective equipments during spray work. The results will be used as basic information in designing the improved protective clothing more acceptable by pesticide sprayers.

Participation Scheme of Smallholder Dairy Farmers in the Northeast Thailand on Improving Feeding Systems

  • Wanapat, M.;Pimpa, O.;Petlum, A.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Yuanklang, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.830-836
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    • 2000
  • A participation scheme involving smallholder dairy farmers in improving dairy productivity through the use of local feeds, on-farm established feeds and crop residues was carried out in the Northeast, Thailand. At six milk collection centers, 63 farmers with 340 lactating cows participated in this research and demonstration of feed supplements. Farmers and cows were allotted to receive respective feed supplements: high-quality feed block (HQFB), high-quality feed pellet (HQFP), dried cassava leaf/cassava hay, dried leucaena leaf and cottonseed meal: 5% urea treated rice straw was fed as a source of roughage throughout the feeding period of the dry season. Trainings and workshops were organized by the researchers at the University, research station, demonstration sites and on-farms. Regular visits to the fartns by researchers and extension officers were made while discussions and demonstrations were performed in addition. Participating farmers also visited other farmers during the demonstration which offered a real practical perspective and farmer-to-farmer interaction. As a result of this participation and demonstration scheme, the farmers could learn more effectively and accepted the technology more readily, especially the practicality of the feed preparation, feed establishment, feeding method and feed reserve. Strategic supplementation of these feed supplements resulted in improving milk yield, milk quality, overall condition of the cows and higher income return through increased productivity and lower level use of concentrate to milk yield from 1:2 to 1:3 or lower. Based on this research and demonstration /participation scheme, all feed supplements enhanced productivity, however the establishment of cassava hay on fartns deserved more attention and warrants a wider developmental expansion among dairy farmers since it contained high rumen by-pass protein (tannin-protein complex) and could be easily produced and be sustainable on farms.