• Title/Summary/Keyword: Small cross section tunnel

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A study on the optimal reinforcement area for excavation of a small cross-section shield TBM tunnel in fault fracture zone through parameter analysis (매개변수 분석을 통한 단층파쇄대의 소단면 쉴드 TBM 터널 굴착 시 최적 보강영역 연구)

  • Kang, Byung-Yun;Park, Hyung Keun;Cha, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.261-275
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    • 2020
  • When excavating a small cross-section tunnel in a fault fracture zone using the shield TBM method, there is a high possibility of excessive convergence and collapse. Appropriate ground reinforcement is required to minimize construction cost loss and trouble due to a fault fracture zone. In this study, the optimal reinforcement area was suggested and the surrounding ground behavior was investigated through numerical analysis using MIDAS GTS NX (Ver. 280). For the parameters, the width of the fault fracture zone, the existence of fault gouge, and the groundwater level and depth of cover were applied. As a result, when there is not fault gouge, the convergence and ground settlement are satisfied the standard when applying ground reinforcement by up to 0.5D. And, due to the high permeability coefficient, it is judged that it is necessary to apply 0.5D reinforcement. There is a fault gouge, it was possible to secure stability when applying ground reinforcement between the entire fault fracture zone from the top of the tunnel to 0.5D. And, because the groundwater discharge occurred within the standard value due to the fault gouge, reinforcement was unnecessary.

An analytical study on the fire characteristics of the small tunnel with large smoke exhaust port (대배기구 배연방식을 적용한 소형차 전용 터널의 화재특성에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Yoo, Ji-Oh;Kim, Jin-Su;Rhee, Kwan-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.375-388
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    • 2017
  • In order to solve the traffic congest and environmental issues, small-cross section tunnel for small car only is increasing, but there is not standard for installation of disaster prevention facility. In this study, in order to investigate the behavioral characteristics of thermal environment and smoke in a small cross section tunnels with a large port exhaust ventilation system, the A86, the U-Smartway and the Seobu moterawy tunnel, Temperature and CO concentration in case of fire according to cross sectional area, heat release rate and exhaust air flow rate were analyzed by numerical analysis and the results were as follows. As the cross-sectional area of the tunnel decreases, the temperature of the fire zone increases and the rate of temperature rise is not significantly affected by heat release rate. However, there is a difference depending on the change of the exhaust air flow rate. In the case of applying the exhaust air flow rate $Q_3+2.5Ar$ of the large port exhaust ventilation system, the temperature of the fire zone was 7.1 times for A86 ($Ar=25.3m^2$) and 5.4 time for U-smartway ($Ar=37.32m^2$) by Seobu moterway tunnel ($Ar=46.67m^2$). The CO concentration of fire zone also showed the same tendency. The A86 tunnels were 10.7 times and the U-Smartways were 9.5 times more than the Seobu moterway. Therefore, in the case of a small section tunnel, the thermal environment and noxious gas concentration due to the reduction of the cross-sectional area are expected to increase significantly more than the cross-sectional reduction rate.

A study on the fire characteristics according to the installation type of large smoke exhaust port in a small cross sectional tunnel fire (소단면 대심도 터널 화재시 대배기구의 설치형태에 따른 화재특성 연구)

  • Choi, Pan-Gyu;Baek, Doo-San;Yoo, Ji-Oh;Kim, Chang-Yong
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2019
  • Recently, due to the efforts to mitigate traffic congestion and expansion of space efficiency, the construction of underground roads has been increased in big-scale cities. Since tunnels in the city have a higher chance for a fire leading to a great tragedy during a severe traffic jam than mountain tunnels, it is highly likely that it will be constructed as a tunnel, having a small cross section, for small vehicles. However, if they are constructed as such small-vehicle tunnels, it would be possible to reduce the design fire intensity while the concentration of harmful gases would increase due to a reduction in the small cross sectional area, led by a decrease in the tunnel height. In this study, behaviors of fire smoke by the installation interval and format of large-scale exhaust-gas ports were examined and compared in the analysis of temperatures and CO concentrations of a tunnel and its results were as the following. Although there were no significant differences in the smoke spreading distance between installation intervals, but in this study, 100 m was found to be the most effective installation interval. The smoke exhaustion performance was found to be excellent in the order of $4m{\times}3m$, $6m{\times}2m$, and $3m{\times}2m$ (2 lane) of the smoke spreading distance. Although there was no significant difference in the smoke spreading distance between formats of large-scale exhaust-gas ports, it was found that the smoke spreading distance was larger than other cases when it was $3m{\times}2m$ in the fire growing process. The analysis of smoke spreading distances by the aspect ratio showed that a smoke spreading distance was shorted when its the smoke spreading distance was found to be shorter when its traverse distance was relatively longer than its longitudinal distance.