• Title, Summary, Keyword: Small Intestine

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GET Imaging Evaluation of Patients with Esophageal Cancer (식도암 환자의 GET 영상 평가)

  • Moon, Jong Wun;Lee, Chung Wun;Seo, Young Deok;Yun, Sang Hyeok;Kim, Yong Keun;Won, Woo Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Measure gastric emptying time (GET: Gastric Emptying Time) is a non-invasive and quantitative evaluation methods, mainly by endoscopic or radiological examination confirmed no mechanical obstruction in patients with symptoms of congestion is checked. Such tests are not common gastric emptying time measured esophageal cancer patients (who underwent esophagectomy) patients after surgery for gastric emptying time was measured test. And the period of time for more than one year after the gastric emptying time measurement was performed. By comparing the two kinds of tests in the chest cavity after surgery as the evaluation of gastrointestinal function tests evaluate the usefulness of GET, and will evaluate the characteristics of the image. Materials and Methods: 93 patients who underwent esophagectomy with gastric emptying time measurement of subject tests immediately after surgery and after 1 year or longer were twice. Preparation of the patient before the test is more than 12 hours of overnight fasting is important, in addition to the medicine or to stop smoking, and diabetes insulin injections should be early in the morning is ideal to test. Generally labeled with $^{99m}Tc-DTPA$ resin which is used to make steamed egg, seaweed and fermented milk with a high viscosity after eating, three hours in the standing position was measured. Evaluation of gastric emptying curves on the way intragastric radioactivity level by 50% the time (half-time [T1/2]) was calculated, based on the half-life was divided into three steps: over 180 minutes was defined as delayed gastric emptying, within 180minutes was defined as intermediate gastric emptying and when all the radioisotopes were dumped into the jejunum as soon as swallowed, was defined as rapid gastric emptying. Results: Gastric emptying time of a typical images stomach of antrum and fundus additional images appear stronger over time move on to the small intestine. but esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy side of the thoracic cavity showed a strong image. Immediately after surgery, the half-time (T1/2) of rapid gastric emptying appeared to 12.9%, intermediate gastric emptying appeared to 52.7%, delay gastric emptying appeared to 34.4%. After more than a year the results of the half-life after surgery, 67% of rapid gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying was changed, 69% of delay gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying changed. Intermediate gastric emptying worse in patients rapid gastric emptying and the delay gastric emptying is 24% in the case. Conclusion: Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer who underwent half-time measurement test (T1/2) rapid gastric emptying and delay gastric emptying are the result of the comparison over time, changes were observed intermediate gastric emptying. Mainly seeing of gastric emptying time measurement in the esophagus instead of thoracic cavity to check the evaluation of gastrointestinal function can be useful even means. And segmentation criteria and narrow time interval of checking if more accurate information and analysis of the clinical diagnosis and evaluation seems to be done.

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A Study of Eight Cases According to Hyeongsang Diagnosis Applying Sa-am Acupuncture Therapy (8증례를 통한 사암침법(舍巖鍼法)의 형상의학적(形象醫學的) 운용에 관한 고찰)

  • Choi, Jun-Young;Nam, Sang-Soo;Kim, Yong-Suk;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.139-150
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : The puropse of this study was to report the availability of Hyeongsang diagnosis compensating for visceral pattern identification in applying Sa-am acupuncture therapy. Methods : Eight cases was presented to substantiate the above. Results : According to the characteristic diagnostic method of Hyeongsang medicine by feature such as face, ears, eyes, nose and mouth shape, There are 8 pattern differentiations, including essence family, Qi family, spirit family, blood family, fish type, bird type, beast(running) type and crust(crustacea) type which are correlated with essence deficiency, heat harassing the heart spirit, Qi stagnation, blood stasis, kidney essence deficiency, intense heart fire, liver blood deficiency and lung Qi deficiency in the established visceral pattern identification, respectively. Eight patients was diagnosed by the above Hyeongsang 8 pattern differentiations, of whom Sinjeonggyeok(kidney reinforcing prescription) was applied to a patient with fish type and essence family to nourish kidney essence, and Giul prescription(Qi stagnation prescription) was given to a patient with Qi family for regulating Qi, and Sanghwa priscription(ministerial fire prescription) was delivered to a patient with Spirit family to clear the heart fire and tranquilize, and Sojangjeonggyeok(small intestine reinforcing prescription) was used for a patient with blood family to nourish blood and remove blood stasis, and Sinjeonggyeok(kidney reinforcing prescription), Simhangyeok(heart heat clearing prescription), Ganjeonggyeok(liver reinforcing prescription) and Pyejeonggyeok(lung reinforcing prescription) were utilized for fish type, bird type, beast(running) type and crust(crustacea) type respectively to reinforce the relevant visceral function. Conclusions : It was suggested that characteristic diagnostic method of Hyeongsang medicine should be helpful for enhancing the accuracy of the established visceral pattern identification, applying Sa-am acupuncture therapy more appropriately.

Studies on the Effects of Caponization and Various Hormone Treatment on the Meat Production and Quality in Growing Chicken (닭에 있어서 거세(去勢) 및 Hormone 처리(處理)가 산육성(産肉性) 및 육질(肉質)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ra, Kwang Yon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.9-47
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    • 1975
  • These experiments were caried out to study the effects of caponization and various hormone treatments upon meat production and improvement of meat quality of growing chicken. Sixtyseven days old 160 New Hampshire cockerels were treated and growth rate, carcass yield, change of weight of individual organs, meat composition and change of amino acid were measured and analysed. Otherwise change of testis and thyroid gland by hormone treatment were investigated histologically. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The effectst of caponization and hormone treatment upon meat production were; 1) Body weight of cockerels in D. E. S. group without caponization was increased. upon 96.86% than initial period and A. C. T. H. group was 104.22% but other groups and all carponization groups were lighter than those of control group. 2) Weekly body gain of D. E. S. group without caponization was best showing the significance (102.69 g) and the group with caponization were lower than those groups without caponization. 3) Carcass yield was best in Testo. group without caponization (831.2 g) and the group with caponization were lower than the group without caponization. 4) Carcass rate was highest in A. C. T. H. group with caponization and (67.22%) lowest in Testo. group without caponization (63.37%), but any significance was not recognized. 2. The effects of caponizatitn and hormone treatments upon the coposition of meat and amino acids were; 1) Any significance was not recognized between treated and untreated group about change of moisture, crude protein, crude ash and glycogen contents in meat. 2) Fat co tent in muscle in the all treated groups were higher than that of control group. 3) Extracts of group without caponization were higher than those of groups with caponization. 4) Lysin contents were highest in D. E. S. group with caponization (11. 12/ 16.0 g N) and generelly Testo. group was lower compared with D. E. S. group. 5) Histidine and Arginine contents were higher in the groups with caponization than without caponization. 6) Aspartic acid content were higher in D. E. S. group and A. C. T. H. group without depend on caponization. 7) Treonine content was higher in Testo. group without caponization and in the group with caponization and without hormone treatment compared with those of control group without caponization. 8) Serine content was decreased in the group with caponization and increased by D. E. S. and A. C. T. H treatment groups and glutamic acid was also decreased in Testo. group with out caponization. 9) Cystine content was decreased by Testo. treatment and was not appeared in Testo. group without caponization. 10) Valine content was lower in control group with caponization but significance was not recognized between other groups and control group without caponization. 11) Glycine, Alanine, Methionine. Isoleucine, Leucine, Thyrosine and Phenylalanine contents were not so difference between hormone treated groups and control group without caponization. 3. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon the change of organs were: 1) The weight of all organs were heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (18.5g) and lightest in A. C. T. H. group without caponization (155. 3g) but no significance was recognized between hormone treatment groups. 2) Heart weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (7.46 g) and lightest in Testo. group without caponization (5.95 g). 3) Liver weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization(32.89g) and lightest in hormone untreated group with caponization(29.66g). Significance was not recognized. 4) Spleen weight was heaivest in Testo. group with caponization (3.22 g) and lightest in D. E. S. group without caponization(2.00g) in contrast with the other groups. High significance was recognized among the groups (P<0.01). 5) Cloacal thymus weight was lightest in D. E. S. group with or without caponization compared with control group without caponization. High significance was recognized among the groups. 6) Muscle fat content was not appeared in A. C. T. H. group with caponization, but it was highly increased in D. E. S. group with or without caponization. 7) Testis weight was lightest in D. E. S. group (0.38g) compared with control group (2.66g). Significance was recognized among the groups. 8) Large intestine, small intestine and cecum weight and length were heavier and longer in D. E. S. group without caponization and control group without caponization was lighter than those of hormone treated groups. 4. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon histological change of testis and thyroid gland: 1) The histological change of testis was significantly appeared in D. E. S. group that seminifirous tubles was slowly atrophied, the funtion of spernatogenesis was ceased, spermatocyte was changed as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and interstitial cell was also atrophied, but in Testo. and A. C. T. H. group were similar as control group. 2) The histological change of thyroid gland in Testo. and A. C. T. H. groups without caponization were similar to that of control group without caponization, but in D. E. S. group without caponization, was changed squamously. Thyroid gland of the groups with caponization, epithelium of was atrophied and changed squamously as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and the function of thyroid gland was slowly ceased in colloid and in hormone treated group with caponization.

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Studies on the Meat Production and Woolskin Processing of Sheep and Korean Native Goats for Increasing Farm Income as a Family Subsidiary Work (농가부업(農家副業)의 소득향상(所得向上)을 위한 양육생산(羊肉生産) 및 모피가공(毛皮加工)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kwon, Soon-Ki;Kim, Jong-Woo;Han, Sung-Wook;Lee, Kyu Seung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.93-114
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    • 1978
  • The purpose of the study was to find out possible ways for increasing farm income through the sheep and Korean native goats farming, and to investigate meat productivity, wool productivity; woolskin utility, physiological characteristics and correlation between economical college animal farm of the Chungnam National University and sample farms in the suburbs of Dae jeon City were selected for feeding 20 heads of Corriedale wethers and another 20 heads Korean native kids as research materials for the periods of 5th May-26th November, 1977. The data such as growth rate, carcass, viscera weight, blood picture and plamsa components, hebage intake and economic traits were obtained and analysed. The result of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Meat production and quality 1) After 196days of feeding, the body weight of sheep and Korean native goats was increased by two times of those at the beginning of the trial, i.e. 20kg and 8kg respectively. 2) There was no significance of growth rates of sheep in housing and grazing. 3) The growth rate of Korean native goats were excellent at the mountainous areas of Gong ju-Gun where infectious diseases were not found 4) Accroding to the body measurements of 18-month-old sheep, percentages of hip height, body length, rump length, chest depth, chest width, hip width, chest girth and forearm circumference to the withers height were 103,%, 104%, 33%, 44%, 31%, 23%, 135% and 15% respectively, and those of hip height, body length, chest depth and chest girth of 8-month-old native goats to the withers height were 106%, 109%, 46% and 122,% respecitively. As a result, it was found that the percentage of hip height, body length and chest depth of Korean native goats were higher than those of sheep while that of the chest girth of goats was lower. 5) In the carcass data, 47, $52{\pm}2.27%$ of carcass percentage, $34.61{\pm}1.62%$ of lean meat, $26.07{\pm}2.51%$ of viscera, $9.75{\pm}1.4%$ of bone, and $20.95%{\pm}2.14%$ of woolskin for sheep, and $45.58{\pm}5.63%$ of carcass percentage, $27.62{\p}3.81%$ of meat, $34.86{\pm}4.16%$ of viscera, $11.66{\pm}1.83%$ of bone, $3.63{\pm}1.61%$ of skull and $9.26{\pm}2.41%$ of woolskin for native goats were obtained. 6) The contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash in native goat meat were much similar in both plots of housing and grazing. It was, however, known that the contents of moisture and protein were higher in grazinrg than in housing, while fat content was lower in grazing plots. 7) The weights of visceral organs shown similar tendency for both of sheep and native goats. For the weights of liver, heart, kidney and spleen, significance was not reconized among the treatments. Those of rumen, reticulum, small and large intestine were heavier in grazing than in housing, while the amount of visceral fat was heavier in housing. 2. Wool productivity and woolskin 1) The wool production of sheep for 7 months was $3.88{\pm}1.02kg$, and wool percentage, staple length, straighten length, wool growth per day and number of crimps were $9.27{\pm}1.48%$, 8. $47{\pm}1.00cm$, $10.63{\pm}0.99cm$, $0.40{\pm}0.04cm$ and $2.78{\pm}0.40$ respecitively. 2) The tensile strength and tear strength of woolskin treated by alum tanning were highest on the skin obtained from rump, i.e. $1,351kg/mm^2$ and $2,252kg/mm^2$ respectively, and they are in order of loin and shoulder. 3. Utilization and improvement of pasture. 1) The difference of herbage intake of native goats was not recognized between grazing and tethering, but the intake in the afternoon was s lightly higher than that in the morning. However the hervage intake of sheep was superior in grazing and in the afternoon. 2) The cultivation effect was lower in the native goat plots due to their cultivation abilities, in other words, the establishment rates of pasture by hoof cultivation were 60.25% in the goat plots and 77.35% in the sheep plots. 4. Correlation among economical traits. 1) The correlation between live weight of sheep and daily gain was higher. On the other hand, the correlation between other traits was not significant except that live weight, daily gain and lean meat percentage to the length of thoracic vertebrae. The live weight of native goats and meat production were highly correlated, and high correlation was also found between weights of carcass and meat. However, negative correlation was shown between viscera weight and live weight as well as daily gain. 2) The correlatoin between fleece weight of sheep and other traits such as live weight, daily gain and fleece percentage is very high at the 1% siginficant level, and this means that rapid-growth individuals can produce much fleece. 3) The correlation between the factors such as weights of live body, lean meat and viscera of sheep and body measurements, i. e. chest girth and body length was highest, and weights, of carcass and lean meat was highly correlated to chest width and depth. It will be therefore reasonable that the meat productivity estimates will have to be made on the basis of chest girth and body length. The meat production traits of native goats were highly correlated to the most of body measurement data, and the correlation coefficient between chest girth and weights of live body, carcass, lean meat and bone percentage was very high, i. e. 0.992-0.974 in particular. The correlations of meat production traits to chest depth, forearm circumference, body length were 0.759-0.911, 0.759-0.909 and 0.708-0.872 respectively. Therefore, the meat production of native goats will have to be estimated on the basis of chest data. 5. Blood picture and plasma components. 1) The number of erythrocyte and MCHC of native goats were $12.93{\times}10^6/mm^3$ and 36.14%, and those of sheep were $10.68{\times}10^6/mm^3$ and 36.26 respectively. The values of native goats were significantly higher than those of sheep. 2) The hemoglobin concentration, PVC, MCV and MCR of native goats were 10.92 g/100ml, $23.40{\mu}^3$ and 10.94 pg, and those of sheep were 11.73 g/100ml, 36.25 ml/100ml, $33.97{\mu}^3$ and 30.2 ml/100ml 8.43 pg respectively. The values of native goats were significantly lower those of sheep. 3) The number of leukocytes of native goats was significantly higher than that of sheep, that is, $11.64{\times}10^3/mm^3$ in native goats and $9.32{\times}10^3/mm^3$ in sheep. 4) In differential count of leukocyte, neutrophil was significantly high in native goats while lympocyte in sheep. On the other hand, the basophil, eosinophil and monocyte were not significant between native goats and sheep. 5) The amounts of total protein and glucose in the plasma of native goats were 6.2g/100ml and 53.6mg/100ml, and those of sheep were 5.6g/100ml and 45.7mg/100ml, which means that the values of native goats were significantly higher that those of sheep. The amount of total-lipid of native goats(127.6mg/100ml) was significantly than that of sheep(149.6mg/100ml). 6) The amount of non-protein nitrogen, cholesterol, Ca, P, K, Na and Cl were not different between native goats and sheep. 6. Economic analysis. 1) The gross revenue of a farm which fed native goats and sheep was 4,000won per head and the optimum size for feeding them in a farm as a subsidiary work is 5-10 heads. 2) Since there was no difference between housing and grazing, they can be fed in group for farm's subsidiary work. 3) They can be also fed by youths and house wives in the suburbs of cities, because labour requirement is estimated as only two hours per days for feeding 5 heads of native goats and sheep.

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