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The Study on Acupuncture Operation Method of ${\ll}$Sang Han Lun(傷寒論)${\gg}$Liu-Jing-Bian-Zheng(大經辯證) -Based on the Study of Tai-Yang-Bing(太陽病)- (${\ll}$상한론(傷寒論)${\gg}$ 태양병(太陽病) 제강(提綱)의 침구학적(鍼灸學的) 분경(分經) 및 정증(定證)의 운용(運用) 방법론(方法論)에 관한(關) 연구(硏究))

  • Back, Song-ook;Son, Seong-cheol;Lee, Jun-beom;Hwang, Min-seob;Yoon, Jong-hwa
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2005
  • Objective : The following study was undertaken in order to seek the acupuncture operation method of ${\ll}$Sang Han Lun(傷寒論)${\gg}$ Liu-Jing-Bian-Zheng(六經辨證). Methods : Based on the documents quoted in ${\ll}$Sang Hang Za Bing Lun Xu Wen(傷寒雜病論)${\gg}$ of "Zhang, Zhong-Jing(張仲景)", the relativity of the theory of Jing-Mai(經脈) and Liu-Jing-Bian-Zheng of convalescence, and from the Liu-Jing-Bing(六經病), the origin and implication that caused Tai-Yang-Bing(太陽病) to form was studied on the basis of acupuncture medicine publications and the commentary writing of ${\ll}$Sang Han Lun${\gg}$. Results : 1) ${\ll}$Sang Ham Lun${\gg}$ Liu-Jing-Bian-Zheng has succeeded and was developed based on Liu-Jing-Fen-Zheng(六經分證) of ${\ll}$Su Wen Re Lun(素問 熱論)${\gg}$. In addition the summary of Liu-Jing-Bing became the general principle of Fen-Jing(分經) and Ding-Zheng(定證) that may be applicable to Fenghan(風寒), Wenre(溫熱), Lili(疫疾) and Zabing(雜病). 2) Most commentators of ${\ll}$Sang Han Lun${\gg}$ in the Song, Ming and Ching Dynasties of ${\ll}$Sang Han Lun${\gg}$ interpreted the Tai-Yang-Bing in physiological and pathological aspects of Rong-Wei(榮衛) as the disease of the bladder meridian that oversees the skin of the human body. 3) From the Liu-Jing-Bing of ${\ll}$Sang Han Lun)${\gg}$, the region of acupuncture treatment of Tai-Yang-Bing is treated with the needle from the point of view of Bing-Zheng-Lun-Zhi(辨證論治) with the basis of the important region of acupuncture of the small intestine meridian bladder meridian and governor vessel.

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Gene Expression Analysis of Inducible cAMP Early Repressor (ICER) Gene in Longissimus dorsi of High- and Low Marbled Hanwoo Steers (한우 등심부위 근육 내 조지방함량에 따른 inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) 유전자발현 분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Nam-Kuk;Kim, Sung-Kon;Cho, Yong-Min;Yoon, Du-hak;Oh, Sung-Jong;Im, Seok-Ki;Park, Eung-Woo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1090-1095
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    • 2008
  • Marbling (intramuscular fat) is an important factor in determining meat quality in Korean beef market. A grain based finishing system for improving marbling leads to inefficient meat production due to an excessive fat production. Identification of intramuscular fat-specific gene might be achieved more targeted meat production through alternative genetic improvement program such as marker assisted selection (MAS). We carried out ddRT-PCR in 12 and 27 month old Hanwoo steers and detected 300 bp PCR product of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) gene, showing highly gene expression in 27 months old. A 1.5 kb sequence was re-sequenced using primer designed base on the Hanwoo EST sequence. We then predicted the open reading frame (ORF) of ICER gene in ORF finder web program. Tissue distribution of ICER gene expression was analysed in eight Hanwoo tissue using realtime PCR analysis. The highest ICER gene expression showed in Small intestine followed by Longissimus dorsi. Interestingly, the ICER gene expressed 2.5 time higher in longissimus dorsi than in same muscle type, Rump. For gene expression analysis in high- and low marbled individuals, we selected 4 and 3 animal based on the muscle crude fat contents (high is 17-32%, low is 6-7% of crude fat contents). The ICER gene expression was analysed using ANOVA model. Marbling (muscle crude fat contents) was affected by ICER gene (P=0.012). Particularly, the ICER gene expression was 4 times higher in high group (n=4) than low group (n=3). Therefore, ICER gene might be a functional candidate gene related to marbling in Hanwoo.

Effects of Prebiotics and Probiotics on Swine Intestinal Microflora and Fermentation Products In Vitro Fermentation (In vitro 발효에서 Prebiotics와 Probiotics가 돼지 장내미생물과 발효산물에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Woon;Chae, Su-Jin;Kim, Young-Hwa;Jung, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Sung-Dae;Park, Jun-Cheol;Cho, Kyu-Ho;Sa, Soo-Jin;Kim, In-Cheul;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, the effects of prebiotics and prebiotics+probiotics on intestinal microflora and fermentation products were evaluated in a pig in vitro fermentation model. The substrates used in this study were iso-malto oligosaccharide (IMO), partially digested chicory-inulin (CI), raffinose (RA), and cyclodextrin (CD) as prebiotics and Lactobacillus reiteri as probiotics. For a pig in vitro fermentation, the experimental diet for growing pigs was predigested using digestive enzymes secreted by small intestine and this hydrolyzed diet was mixed with a buffer solution containing 5% fresh swine feces. The mixture was then incubated with either prebiotics or prebiotics+probiotics for 24 h. Samples were taken at 24 h, and viable counts of microflora, gas, pH, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) were analyzed. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in all treatments containing prebiotics and prebiotics+probiotics when compared to the control. However, the number of lactic acid bacteria increased in the prebiotics and prebiotics+probiotics treatment. The pH values in the fermentation fluid decreased in all treatments when compared to the control, and their effects were greater in the prebiotics+probiotics group than prebiotics group. Fermentation with prebiotics resulted in a reduction in malodorous compounds such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and skatole when compared to the prebiotics+probiotics group. Short-chain fatty acid production was also higher for treatment with prebiotics+probiotics than treatment with prebiotics. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that fermentation with prebiotics was effective in reducing the formation of malodorous compounds and prebiotics+probiotics was effective in increasing lactic acid bacteria and SCFA and reducing the pH. Moreover, further studies will be needed to determine whether the results observed in the in vitro model would occur in pigs that ingest these prebiotics or probiotics.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Coffee Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Defense System in Broiler Chickens (사료 내 항산화원으로서 커피박 첨가가 닭의 사양성적, 혈액생화학성상 및 항산화 작용에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Young-Hyun;Kang, Sun-Young;Jang, In-Surk
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2012
  • The effects of dietary supplementation of dried coffee meal (CM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, the weights of immune-related organs, and the antioxidant defense system in broiler chicks were examined. A total of 162, 3-day-old male broiler chickens were assigned to three dietary groups: control group (CON), control diet added with 0.5% CM (CM0.5), and control diet added with 1.0% CM (CM1.0). In vitro antioxidant activity test, coffee extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in radical scavenging activity. Dietary addition of 0.5 and 1.0% of CM did not have negative effects on growth performance and feed conversion during the experimental periods, whereas dietary CM significantly (P<0.05) increased the relative weight of thymus without changes in the other organ weights. In addition, birds fed the diet supplemented with CM (0.5 and 1.0%) significantly increased blood albumin without affecting other components including glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol compared with those fed control diet. In antioxidant defense system, the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase and the level of glutathione in the small intestine and liver were not affected by dietary supplementation of CM. However, hepatic lipid peroxidation in birds fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% CM was significantly (P<0.05) decreased compared with that in control birds. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of CM(0.5~1.0%) has potential for use as a natural antioxidant source without negative effect on growth performance in broiler chickens.

Identification and Functional Analysis of Pig β-1,4-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase A (MGAT4A) (돼지 유래의 β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase A (MGAT4A) 유전자의 동정 및 기능 분석)

  • Kim, Ji-Youn;Hwang, Hwan-Jin;Chung, Hak-Jae;Park, Mi-Ryung;Byun, Sung June;Kim, Kyung-Woon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2016
  • Glycan modification is important in pharmaceutical industry. Especially, sialic acid affects the bioactivity and stability of medicine. Milk of pig has been used as bioreactor to produce various pharmaceutical proteins. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the glycan chain in pig mammary grand. β-1,4-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase A (pMGAT4A) is one of the essential enzymes for increase of sialic acid content, but pig MGAT4A is unclear. In this study, the pMGAT4A was identified and characterized. The pMGAT4A has 1638 nucleotides encoding 535 amino acids and type II membrane topology, which is one of the common features in many glycosyltransferases. The gene was strongly expressed in liver and mammary gland, whereas was weakly expressed in small intestine, stomach and bladder. For functional test, HA-tagged MGAT4A was over-expressed in porcine kidney (PK-15) cell line. Forced expression of pMGAT4A gene was identified by qPCR, and we identified that pMGAT4A is located in Golgi complex by co- staining with HA antibody and BODIPY TR ceramide. In addition, we identified the increase of mannose-β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine structure by ELISA and immunofluorescence using Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), which recognizes mannose-β-1,4-Nacetylglucosamine. Through the specific activity analysis, we showed that pMGAT4A modified bi-antennary to tri-antennary. This event affects sialic acid content. Therefore, we thought that over-expression of pMGAT4A will be necessary in pig mammary grand for improved medicine.

A Study on Heavy Metal and Selenium Levels in Dried Seafoods (건조수산물의 중금속 및 셀레늄 함량)

  • Kwon, Hye-Jung;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Kim, Kyung-A;Kim, Young-Su;Kang, Suk-Ho;Kwak, Shin-Hye;Kang, Kyung-Ja;Lee, Pil-Suk;Cho, Wook-Hyun;Moh, Ara;Park, Yong-Bae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.562-570
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    • 2019
  • The heavy metal concentrations in dried seafoods commonly consumed in Gyeonggi-do were analyzed. Concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were measured in 95 samples with an inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and an Hg analyzer. The average concentration [mean±SD(minimum-maximum) mg/kg] of heavy metals were as follows: Pb 0.062±0.071(0.002-0.428), Cd 0.083±0.100(0.004-0.540), Hg 0.012±0.012(N.D-0.054) and Se 0.839±0.371(0.362-2.124). All the levels were below the recommended standards of the MFDS (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety). In the comparison of heavy metal content by anchovy size, it was shown that mercury was significantly higher in large anchovy (P<0.05). Selenium levels were found to differ significantly in small anchovy and large anchovy (P<0.05). Pb, Cd and Hg were significantly higher in Tiger prawn among shrimp (P<0.05). The heavy metal and selenium levels of anchovy and shad were highest in the intestine. However, the heavy metal and selenium levels of shrimp were highest in the head. In addition, weekly (monthly) intake of mercury and cadmium from dried seafoods was found to be 0.712% and 2.978% of PTW(M)I (Provisional Tolerable Weekly(Monthly) Intake) respectively. Therefore, it was found that dried seafoods were safe for consumption.

Studies for Antibiotic Free Chicken Production Using Water Extracts from Artemisia capillaris and Camellia sinensis (인진쑥 및 녹차 추출물을 이용한 무항생제 닭고기 생산 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Kim, Ji-Hyuk;Kang, Geun-Ho;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Park, Sung-Bok;Park, Jae-Hong;Bang, Han-Tae;Kim, Min-Ji;Na, Jae-Cheon;Chae, Hyun-Suk;Choi, Hee-Chul;Suh, Ok-Suk;Kim, Sang-Ho;Kang, Chang-Won
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.975-988
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    • 2010
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine whether water extracts from Artemisia capillaries (A. capillaries) and Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis) could be used as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler feed. The experiment 1 was verified their chemical composition, extracts yields, total phenolic compounds concentration, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, and chicken splenocytes proliferation through in vitro test. The extract yields of A. capillaries and C. sinensis were 26.5 and 16.8%, respectively. Total phenolic compounds concentrations of them expressed as gallic acid equivalent were 15.28 and 26.74 mg/mL, respectively. Electron donating abilities of them expressed as $SC_{50}$ showing 50% DPPH radical scavenging were 0.30 and 0.06 mg, respectively. Bacterial inhibitory rates of them against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium were ranged from 42.1 to 52.3% and from 21.6 to 33.7%, respectively. And, these extracts increased proliferation of chicken splenocytes. Especially, A. capillaris was more excellent than Echinacea and Concanavalin A known as T-cell stimulator. The experiment 2 was investigated their effects on growth performance, relative organ weight, cecal microflora, blood biochemical parameters, and splenic cytokines mRNA expression in broiler chicks. Four hundred eighty 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were divided in to 4 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 30 birds in each group: NC (control, no antibiotics), PC (avilamycin, 10 ppm; salinomycin, 60 ppm), AC (A. capillaries, 100 ppm), and CS (C. sinensis, 100 ppm); treatments were administered through water supplementation. Final body weight was significantly higher in all treated groups than in NC (p<0.05). Cecal Salmonella numbers were significantly or somewhat decreased in all treated groups than in NC (p<0.05). The relative weights and lengths of the small intestine were more significantly decreased in the PC and AC groups than in the other groups. Cecal Salmonella numbers were significantly or somewhat decreased in all treated groups than in the NC group (p<0.05). The contents of total cholesterol, aspatate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in blood serum were more significantly decreased in all treated groups than in NC (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested the possibility that these extracts could serve as alternatives for antibiotic growth promoters.

GET Imaging Evaluation of Patients with Esophageal Cancer (식도암 환자의 GET 영상 평가)

  • Moon, Jong Wun;Lee, Chung Wun;Seo, Young Deok;Yun, Sang Hyeok;Kim, Yong Keun;Won, Woo Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Measure gastric emptying time (GET: Gastric Emptying Time) is a non-invasive and quantitative evaluation methods, mainly by endoscopic or radiological examination confirmed no mechanical obstruction in patients with symptoms of congestion is checked. Such tests are not common gastric emptying time measured esophageal cancer patients (who underwent esophagectomy) patients after surgery for gastric emptying time was measured test. And the period of time for more than one year after the gastric emptying time measurement was performed. By comparing the two kinds of tests in the chest cavity after surgery as the evaluation of gastrointestinal function tests evaluate the usefulness of GET, and will evaluate the characteristics of the image. Materials and Methods: 93 patients who underwent esophagectomy with gastric emptying time measurement of subject tests immediately after surgery and after 1 year or longer were twice. Preparation of the patient before the test is more than 12 hours of overnight fasting is important, in addition to the medicine or to stop smoking, and diabetes insulin injections should be early in the morning is ideal to test. Generally labeled with $^{99m}Tc-DTPA$ resin which is used to make steamed egg, seaweed and fermented milk with a high viscosity after eating, three hours in the standing position was measured. Evaluation of gastric emptying curves on the way intragastric radioactivity level by 50% the time (half-time [T1/2]) was calculated, based on the half-life was divided into three steps: over 180 minutes was defined as delayed gastric emptying, within 180minutes was defined as intermediate gastric emptying and when all the radioisotopes were dumped into the jejunum as soon as swallowed, was defined as rapid gastric emptying. Results: Gastric emptying time of a typical images stomach of antrum and fundus additional images appear stronger over time move on to the small intestine. but esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy side of the thoracic cavity showed a strong image. Immediately after surgery, the half-time (T1/2) of rapid gastric emptying appeared to 12.9%, intermediate gastric emptying appeared to 52.7%, delay gastric emptying appeared to 34.4%. After more than a year the results of the half-life after surgery, 67% of rapid gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying was changed, 69% of delay gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying changed. Intermediate gastric emptying worse in patients rapid gastric emptying and the delay gastric emptying is 24% in the case. Conclusion: Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer who underwent half-time measurement test (T1/2) rapid gastric emptying and delay gastric emptying are the result of the comparison over time, changes were observed intermediate gastric emptying. Mainly seeing of gastric emptying time measurement in the esophagus instead of thoracic cavity to check the evaluation of gastrointestinal function can be useful even means. And segmentation criteria and narrow time interval of checking if more accurate information and analysis of the clinical diagnosis and evaluation seems to be done.

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A Study of Eight Cases According to Hyeongsang Diagnosis Applying Sa-am Acupuncture Therapy (8증례를 통한 사암침법(舍巖鍼法)의 형상의학적(形象醫學的) 운용에 관한 고찰)

  • Choi, Jun-Young;Nam, Sang-Soo;Kim, Yong-Suk;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.139-150
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : The puropse of this study was to report the availability of Hyeongsang diagnosis compensating for visceral pattern identification in applying Sa-am acupuncture therapy. Methods : Eight cases was presented to substantiate the above. Results : According to the characteristic diagnostic method of Hyeongsang medicine by feature such as face, ears, eyes, nose and mouth shape, There are 8 pattern differentiations, including essence family, Qi family, spirit family, blood family, fish type, bird type, beast(running) type and crust(crustacea) type which are correlated with essence deficiency, heat harassing the heart spirit, Qi stagnation, blood stasis, kidney essence deficiency, intense heart fire, liver blood deficiency and lung Qi deficiency in the established visceral pattern identification, respectively. Eight patients was diagnosed by the above Hyeongsang 8 pattern differentiations, of whom Sinjeonggyeok(kidney reinforcing prescription) was applied to a patient with fish type and essence family to nourish kidney essence, and Giul prescription(Qi stagnation prescription) was given to a patient with Qi family for regulating Qi, and Sanghwa priscription(ministerial fire prescription) was delivered to a patient with Spirit family to clear the heart fire and tranquilize, and Sojangjeonggyeok(small intestine reinforcing prescription) was used for a patient with blood family to nourish blood and remove blood stasis, and Sinjeonggyeok(kidney reinforcing prescription), Simhangyeok(heart heat clearing prescription), Ganjeonggyeok(liver reinforcing prescription) and Pyejeonggyeok(lung reinforcing prescription) were utilized for fish type, bird type, beast(running) type and crust(crustacea) type respectively to reinforce the relevant visceral function. Conclusions : It was suggested that characteristic diagnostic method of Hyeongsang medicine should be helpful for enhancing the accuracy of the established visceral pattern identification, applying Sa-am acupuncture therapy more appropriately.

Studies on the Effects of Caponization and Various Hormone Treatment on the Meat Production and Quality in Growing Chicken (닭에 있어서 거세(去勢) 및 Hormone 처리(處理)가 산육성(産肉性) 및 육질(肉質)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ra, Kwang Yon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.9-47
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    • 1975
  • These experiments were caried out to study the effects of caponization and various hormone treatments upon meat production and improvement of meat quality of growing chicken. Sixtyseven days old 160 New Hampshire cockerels were treated and growth rate, carcass yield, change of weight of individual organs, meat composition and change of amino acid were measured and analysed. Otherwise change of testis and thyroid gland by hormone treatment were investigated histologically. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The effectst of caponization and hormone treatment upon meat production were; 1) Body weight of cockerels in D. E. S. group without caponization was increased. upon 96.86% than initial period and A. C. T. H. group was 104.22% but other groups and all carponization groups were lighter than those of control group. 2) Weekly body gain of D. E. S. group without caponization was best showing the significance (102.69 g) and the group with caponization were lower than those groups without caponization. 3) Carcass yield was best in Testo. group without caponization (831.2 g) and the group with caponization were lower than the group without caponization. 4) Carcass rate was highest in A. C. T. H. group with caponization and (67.22%) lowest in Testo. group without caponization (63.37%), but any significance was not recognized. 2. The effects of caponizatitn and hormone treatments upon the coposition of meat and amino acids were; 1) Any significance was not recognized between treated and untreated group about change of moisture, crude protein, crude ash and glycogen contents in meat. 2) Fat co tent in muscle in the all treated groups were higher than that of control group. 3) Extracts of group without caponization were higher than those of groups with caponization. 4) Lysin contents were highest in D. E. S. group with caponization (11. 12/ 16.0 g N) and generelly Testo. group was lower compared with D. E. S. group. 5) Histidine and Arginine contents were higher in the groups with caponization than without caponization. 6) Aspartic acid content were higher in D. E. S. group and A. C. T. H. group without depend on caponization. 7) Treonine content was higher in Testo. group without caponization and in the group with caponization and without hormone treatment compared with those of control group without caponization. 8) Serine content was decreased in the group with caponization and increased by D. E. S. and A. C. T. H treatment groups and glutamic acid was also decreased in Testo. group with out caponization. 9) Cystine content was decreased by Testo. treatment and was not appeared in Testo. group without caponization. 10) Valine content was lower in control group with caponization but significance was not recognized between other groups and control group without caponization. 11) Glycine, Alanine, Methionine. Isoleucine, Leucine, Thyrosine and Phenylalanine contents were not so difference between hormone treated groups and control group without caponization. 3. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon the change of organs were: 1) The weight of all organs were heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (18.5g) and lightest in A. C. T. H. group without caponization (155. 3g) but no significance was recognized between hormone treatment groups. 2) Heart weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (7.46 g) and lightest in Testo. group without caponization (5.95 g). 3) Liver weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization(32.89g) and lightest in hormone untreated group with caponization(29.66g). Significance was not recognized. 4) Spleen weight was heaivest in Testo. group with caponization (3.22 g) and lightest in D. E. S. group without caponization(2.00g) in contrast with the other groups. High significance was recognized among the groups (P<0.01). 5) Cloacal thymus weight was lightest in D. E. S. group with or without caponization compared with control group without caponization. High significance was recognized among the groups. 6) Muscle fat content was not appeared in A. C. T. H. group with caponization, but it was highly increased in D. E. S. group with or without caponization. 7) Testis weight was lightest in D. E. S. group (0.38g) compared with control group (2.66g). Significance was recognized among the groups. 8) Large intestine, small intestine and cecum weight and length were heavier and longer in D. E. S. group without caponization and control group without caponization was lighter than those of hormone treated groups. 4. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon histological change of testis and thyroid gland: 1) The histological change of testis was significantly appeared in D. E. S. group that seminifirous tubles was slowly atrophied, the funtion of spernatogenesis was ceased, spermatocyte was changed as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and interstitial cell was also atrophied, but in Testo. and A. C. T. H. group were similar as control group. 2) The histological change of thyroid gland in Testo. and A. C. T. H. groups without caponization were similar to that of control group without caponization, but in D. E. S. group without caponization, was changed squamously. Thyroid gland of the groups with caponization, epithelium of was atrophied and changed squamously as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and the function of thyroid gland was slowly ceased in colloid and in hormone treated group with caponization.

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