• Title, Summary, Keyword: Small Intestine

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Clinical Significance of Ultrasonographic Assessment for Small Intestinal Layer in Cats

  • Kim, Young-hwan;Kim, Sung-yong;Hwang, Tae-sung;Lim, Jong-su;Jung, Dong-in;Lee, Hee-chun
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.225-228
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    • 2019
  • Inflammatory bowel disease and alimentary lymphoma are common gastrointestinal disorder in cats. More recently, ultrasonographic features associated with feline alimentary lymphoma has been recognized as a diffuse thickening of muscular layer of small intestine. We investigated correlation between thickening of muscular layer of small intestine and such disease. We found a significantly increased thickness of the muscular layer of small intestine in cats with lymphoma or IBD compared with healthy cats. When a muscularis to submucosa ratio > 1 and regional lymphadenopathy were found during ultrasonography on cats with gastrointestinal signs, full-thickness biopsy could be recommended to make sure presence confirmation of inflammatory bowel disease or alimentary lymphoma.

고슴도치 위장관의 Gastrin(G)세포, Glucagon(L)세포, Somatostatin(D)세포 및 Cholecystokinin(I)-8세포의 면역세포화학적 연구

  • 최월봉;원무호;박형진;서지은
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.154-166
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    • 1987
  • Recently, the researches on the enteroendocrine cells of vertebrates have made a remarkable advance by the immunocytochemical methods. This study was attempted to investigate the topographical distributions and the shapes of gastrin, glucagon, somatostatin and cholecystokinin-8 immuno-reactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the Korean hedgehog, Erinaceus koreanus. For light-microscopical examination of immunocytochemistry, the tissue specimens taken from the various portions(body and pyloric protion of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and rectum) were fixed in glutaraldehyde-picric acid-acetic acid (GPA) or 10% neutral buffered formalin solutions. For the demonstration of immunoreactive cells, the paraffin sections (6$\mu$m) were immunocytochemically identified by PAP procedure (Sternberger, 1979) with gastrin, glucagon, somatostatin and cholecystokinin-8 antisera. Gastrin-immunoreactive cells were mainly distributed in the pyloric portion of stomach and were a few in the duodenum and jejunum. The shapes of these cells were round or oval in the pyloric portion and pyramidal in the small intestine. Glucagon-immunoreactive cells were sparsely distributed in the only small intestine. The shapes of these cells were mainly pyramidal. Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were a few in the pyloric portion and duodenum, and were sparsely distributed in the body of stomach and jejunum. The shapes of these cells were round or oval in the stomach and oval or pyramidal in the small intestine. Cholecystokinin-8-immunoreactive cells were sparsely distributed in the only small intestine. The shapes of these cells were mainly oval or pyramidal.

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The Transport of Organic Cations in the Small Intestine: Current Knowledge and Emerging Concepts

  • Kim, Moon-Kyoung;Shim, Chang-Koo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.605-616
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    • 2006
  • A wide variety of drugs and endogenous bioactive amines are organic cations (OCs). Approximately 40% of all conventional drugs on the market are OCs. Thus, the transport of xenobiotics or endogenous OCs in the body has been a subject of considerable interest, since the discovery and cloning of a family of OC transporters, referred to as organic cation transporter (OCTs), and a new subfamily of OCTs, OCTNs, leading to the functional characterization of these transporters in various systems including oocytes and some cell lines. Organic cation transporters are critical in drug absorption, targeting, and disposition of a drug. In this review, the recent advances in the characterization of organic cation transporters and their distribution in the small intestine are discussed. The results of the in vitro transport studies of various OCs in the small intestine using techniques such as isolated brush-border membrane vesicles, Ussing chamber systems and Caco-2 cells are discussed, and in vivo knock-out animal studies are summarized. Such information is essential for predicting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and in the design and development of new cationic drugs. An understanding of the mechanisms that control the intestinal transport of OCs will clearly aid achieving desirable clinical outcomes.

An incidental case of human Heterophyes nocens infection diagnosed by sectional morphology in a biopsy specimen of the small intestine

  • Ryang, Yong-Suk;Lee, Chi-Young;Lee, Kyu-Jae;Lee, Soon-Hyung;Chai, Jong-Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 1999
  • A case of human infection with Heterophyes nocens (Heterophyidae) was incidentally found in a biopsy specimen of the Meckel's diverticulum at the upper part of the small intestine. The patient was a 58-year-old man living in a rural area of Talsong-gun, Kyongsangbuk-do.He had gastrointestinal symptoms such as epigastric pain, indigestion, and abdominal discomfort for 3 months, and severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting for about 1 month before hospitalization. Endoscopy of the upper part of the small intestine revealed a Meckel's diverticulum, and it was excised and histo-pathologically examined. Three adult flukes were incidentally found sectioned in the mucosa, and they were identified as H.nocens. The patient had a history of eating raw mullets at a fish market in Pusan 6 months ago, and the mullets were presumed to be the source of infection. This case brings a considerable interest in that specific diagnosis of heterophyid infections could be done by sectional morphology of the worms.

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Protective effect of Asystasia gangetica reduced oxidative damage in the small intestine of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

  • Kumar, K. Asok;Umamaheswari, M.;Sivashanmugam, A.T.;Subhadradevi, V.;Somanathan, S.S.;Ravi, T.K.
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.307-314
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    • 2009
  • Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications and small intestine is vulnerable to damage resulting in morphological and functional changes. In this study, the effects of Asystasia gangetica leaf extract (AGLE) on oxidative stress status in small intestine of diabetic rats were examined. The leaves of Asystasia gangetica was extracted with 70% ethanol. Oral administration of AGLE once daily (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days to diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05) increased antioxidant levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, GSSH, carbohydrate metabolizing enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The increased levels of protein carbonyl content, lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase in diabetic rats were reverted back to near normal levels on treatment with AGLE. Both doses of AGLE offered significant activity (P < 0.01) against oxidative damage and were comparable with standard, glibenclamide. The results revealed the occurrence of oxidative stress in small intestine during diabetes and suggest the potential of AGLE as an antioxidant in protecting the tissue defense system against oxidative damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

Modeling Nutrient Supply to Ruminants: Frost-damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat

  • Yu, Peiqiang;Racz, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to use the NRC-2001 model and DVE/OEB system to model potential nutrient supply to ruminants and to compare frost damaged (also called "frozen" wheat with normal wheat. Quantitative predictions were made in terms of: i) Truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine; ii) Truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine; iii) Endogenous protein in the digestive tract; iv). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; and v). Protein degraded balance. The overall yield losses of the frozen wheat were 24%. Results showed that using the DVE/OEB system to predict the potential nutrient supply, the frozen wheat had similar truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (65 vs. 66 g/kg DM; p>0.05), tended to have lower truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein (39 vs. 53 g/kg DM; p<0.10) and had higher endogenous protein (14 vs. 9 g/kg DM; p<0.05). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was significantly lower (89 vs. 110 g/kg DM, p<0.05) in the frozen wheat. The protein degraded balance was similar and both were negative (-2 vs. -1 g/kg DM). Using the NRC-2001 model to predict the potential nutrient supply, the frozen wheat also had similar truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (average 56 g/kg DM; p>0.05), tended to have lower truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein (35 vs. 48, g/kg DM; p<0.10) and had similar endogenous protein (average 4 g/kg DM; p>0.05). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was significantly lower (95 vs. 108 g/kg DM, p<0.05) in the frozen wheat. The protein degraded balance was not significantly different and both were negative (-16 vs. -19 g/kg DM). In conclusion, both models predict lower protein value and negative protein degraded balance in the frozen wheat. The frost damage to the wheat reduced nutrient content and availability and thus reduced nutrient supply to ruminants by around 12 to 19%.

The Effect of Jiaweizhengqi-tang on Motor Activity, Glucose Transport and Metabolism in Rat Small Intestine (가미정기탕(加味正氣湯)이 흰쥐 소장의 수송능과 글루코스 이동 및 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Gyu-Taek;Kim, Woo-Hwan;Moon, Sun-Young;Cho, Su-In
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.397-403
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    • 2001
  • Objectives; This study was carried out to investigate the motor activity, glucose transport and metabolism of Jiaweizhengqi-tang(JKT) in rat small intestine. Methods ; The motor activity of the rat small intestine has been investigated by means of measuring barium sulfate passage degrees. Transport and metabolism of glucose were studied in everted sac of rat small intestine with incubation under several conditions. Results; Atropine treatment significantly delayed barium sulfate transit, and JKT pretreatment increased intestinal motor activity, but not significant. JKT administration showed renal toxicity in animal experiment, so clinical safety should settled to use commonly. The transport and metabolism of glucose were greater at jejunum than ileum. So, everted jejunum of rat were used to study the effect of JKT. When JKT were treated, the concentration of glucose were higher than untreated group. This result was thought to be influenced by the glucose in JKT. When 2, 4 dinitrophenol was treated, the transport and metabolism of glucose were decreased, but JKT treated together, the concentration of glucose in serosal solution increased. Conclusions; The transport and metabolism of glucose were influenced by the glucose in JKT. And the effects of JKT were still unidentified, but through continuous investigation, these effects of JKT should be identified.

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Effects of Supplementing Different Levels of a Commercial Enzyme Complex on Performance, Nutrient Availability, Enzyme Activity and Gut Morphology of Broilers

  • Yuan, Jiu;Yao, Junhu;Yang, Fengxia;Yang, Xiaodan;Wan, Xinjie;Han, Jincheng;Wang, Yaojie;Chen, Xinke;Liu, Yurui;Zhou, Zhenfeng;Zhou, Ningbo;Feng, Xinyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.692-700
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    • 2008
  • A trial was conducted to study the influence of different levels of a commercial enzyme complex on performance, nutrient availability, blood parameters, digestive tract measurements, amylase and trypsin activity of the digestive tract and gut morphology in broilers fed the typical diets in north China. There were four treatments: the control diet and the other three enzyme complex supplemented diets which were 180 mg/kg, 360 mg/kg and 720 mg/kg enzyme complex supplemented to the control diet, respectively. The birds fed the diets supplemented with 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg enzyme complex had better performance and nutrient availability, the activities of amylase and trypsin in the digestive tract in the two treatments were improved, the villus height and surface area of villus in the small intestine increased and the crypt depth and epithelial thickness of small intestine decreased. Relative weights of pancreas and relative weights and lengths of small intestine decreased. However, the addition of 720 mg/kg enzyme complex had no effects on these parameters and increased crypt depth and epithelial thickness of the small intestine. The data suggested that suitable supplementation of enzyme complex was beneficial for the birds, while excess enzyme complex inhibited secretion of endogenous enzyme and destroyed the structure of the small intestine.

Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology

  • Songsri, Jiraporn;Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan;Boonmars, Thidarut;Ratanasuwan, Panaratana;Laummaunwai, Porntip;Sriraj, Pranee;Sripan, Panupan
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2016
  • Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group.

A Study on the Clinical Application of the Exterior-Interior Relationship Between the Heart and Small Intestine -Focusing on Prescriptions for Urine Disorders- (심소장(心小腸) 표리(表裏) 관계의 임상 적용에 대한 고찰 -소변이상 관련 처방을 중심으로-)

  • Ahn, Jinhee
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2020
  • Objectives : The aim of this paper is to examine texts that deal with the clinical application of the exterior-interior relationship between the Heart and Small Intestine. Methods : Texts that apply the Heart and Small Intestine relationship to treating urine disorders were selected and analyzed. Results : The relevance of the Heart-SI relationship to urine disorders was first discussed in the 『Zhubingyuanhoulun(諸病源候論)』, and the theory was finally applied to clinical treatment of urine disorders in the 『Waitaimiyao(外臺秘要)』. Text analysis revealed that Daochisan of the 『Yujiweiyi(玉機微義)』, Daochisan of the 『Yizongjinjian(醫宗金鑑)』, HupoDaochitang of the 『Yichunshengyi(醫醇賸義)』, and Daochiyinjiaweifang of the 『Xuezhenglun(血證論)』 were of Daochisan affiliation, while those that were not of this affiliation were Gandihuangwan of the 『Waitaimiyao(外臺秘要)』, Xijiaotang of the 『Shengjizonglu(聖濟總錄)』 and 『Pujifang(普濟方)』, Rushensan and Xijiaodihuangtang of the 『Qixiaoliangfang(奇效良方)』, and Liangxinlishuitang of the 『Bianzhenglu(辨證錄)』, indicating that the formulas used for treatment were mostly affiliated with Daochisan. When clinically applying the exterior-interior relationship of the Heart and SI to urine disorders, the phenomenon can be most closely matched to the biomedical concept of Overactive Bladder. Discussion : Based on the finding that the formula following the exterior-interior relationship of the Heart and SI was first mentioned in 『Waitaimiyao(外臺秘要)』 published in 752, and was continuously mentioned in the 『Xuezhenglun(血證論)』 which was published in 1884, it is highly probable that the exterior-interior relationship theory of the Heart and SI and its clinical application closely influenced each other.