• Title, Summary, Keyword: Small Intestine

Search Result 921, Processing Time 0.037 seconds

Study of the Muscle Activity of Small Intestine Channel of Hand Taiyang Muscle Using Contact Reflex Analysis (접촉반사분석법을 이용한 수태양경근의 근육 활성도에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Kwang Gye;Oh, Jong Hyun;Lee, Sang Ryong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.26 no.6
    • /
    • pp.947-952
    • /
    • 2012
  • This Study was conducted to investigate Muscle Test of Point Selection through CRA(Contact Reflex Analysis) Muscel Diagnosis. So this study used to compare and analyze the effects of Muscel(Deltoid Muscel of Posterior) RMS(Root Mean Squared) and MEF(Median Edge Frequency) Among Groups that do not respond to questionnaire, Tonguibogam Naegyeongpyeon Small Intestine Group, Small Intestine MeridianPathway Primary Symptom and Secondary Symptom Group and Kwanwon(CV4) meridian Principal action Group. The questionnaire is composed of 23 items. The questionnaire was intended to elicit information on assorting into 4 groups. After Survey, Subject had to Muscle test subjects. Muscle experimental methods are as follows: Holding the shoulder without contacting Kwanwon. Holding the shoulder contacting Kwanwon. The first iteration. Group 1,2,3 were increased sEMG RMS compared with First experiment and Second experiment. Group 4(Including Uterus and Intestinal Flora Problem) were decreased sEMG RMS compared with First experiment and Second experiment. This test means that it is similar to diagnosis CRA and Small intestine channel of hand taiyang muscle, not Small Intestine MeridianPathway. It is suggested that subjects with a Small Intestine problem(Uterus and Intestinal Flora Problem) shows the results of decreasing posterior Deltoid Muscular strength. It means that CRA muscle diagnosis is associated with Alarm points diagnosis. But it doesn't consider influence of fat on the surface EMG.

Comparison of the Chicken Large Intestine to the Large Intestine of Pigs and the Rumen of Cows (닭의 대장을 돼지의 대장이나 소의 제 1위 (Rumen)와 비교 연구)

  • Nahm K.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.81-95
    • /
    • 2006
  • The large intestine of the chicken differs both anatomically and physiologically from the pig's large intestine and the men of the cow. The chicken's large intestine is less developed than the pig's large intestine or the cow's lumen. This paper summaries these differences. The chicken's large intestine contains a microbiological population similar to that found in the rumen. The chicken's caeca especially contains a large number of microorganisms, but this population varies according to age, fred, maturity, antibiotic use and etc.. Protein is an essential nutrient for the formation of intestinal microvilli. A study showed that the length of the small intestine was 63 % of the total gastrointestinal tract (GIT) length, while caecum was 8.1 %, and the colon and rectum were 4.6 %. The establishment of the microbial population of the small intestine occurs earlier than that of the caeca, but the identity of approximately 90 % of microbial population of the chicken GIT is hon. Recent studies have shown that energy, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and electrolytes that are found in the large intestine may be absorbed to a certain degree. The chicken small intestine is the primary location for digestion with a variety of enzymes being secreted here. Much research is being conducted into the digestion of sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel (STOP), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) in the chicken caeca and large intestine. Excessive fibre content in the feed has detrimental effects, but proper fibre supplementation to chicken diets can improve the length and capacity of the small intestine.

Recent insights into the role of ChREBP in intestinal fructose absorption and metabolism

  • Lee, Ho-Jae;Cha, Ji-Young
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.51 no.9
    • /
    • pp.429-436
    • /
    • 2018
  • Fructose in the form of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup is absorbed by the intestinal transporter and mainly metabolized in the small intestine. However, excess intake of fructose overwhelms the absorptive capacity of the small intestine, leading to fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression in response to carbohydrate consumption. While ChREBP was initially identified as a glucose-responsive factor in the liver, recent evidence suggests that ChREBP is essential for fructose-induced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the small intestine as well as in the liver. We recently identified that the loss of ChREBP leads to fructose intolerance via insufficient induction of genes involved in fructose transport and metabolism in the intestine. As fructose consumption is increasing and closely associated with metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases, a comprehensive understanding of cellular fructose sensing and metabolism via ChREBP may uncover new therapeutic opportunities. In this mini review, we briefly summarize recent progress in intestinal fructose metabolism, regulation and function of ChREBP by fructose, and delineate the potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption may lead to irritable bowel syndrome.

Histological Observation on Development of the Small Intestine of the Korean Native Goat (재래산양(在來山羊)의 소장형성(小腸形成)에 관한 조직학적관찰(組織學的觀察))

  • Kwak, Soo-dong;Kim, Chong-sup
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.25 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-5
    • /
    • 1985
  • The morphological development of the small intestinal tissues of the Korean native goat were observed by light microscopy. Samples were taken from a 60-, 90-, 120-day-old fetus, a newborn goat and a 30-day-old goat. The results were summarized as follows; 1. In the small intestine of 60-day-old fetus, the apexes and sides of villi were covered with a simple columnar epithelium, and intervilous areas and mucosal ridges were still covered with stratified epithelium of two to six cell layers. Mesenchymal tissues formed lamina propria, circular muscle layer and serosa. The numbers of villi per cross section of the small intestine (NVPCS) were 10 to 18. 2. In 90-day-old fetus, intervillous areas and mucosal ridges of the organ were covered with simple columnar epithelium. Goblet cells in epithelium and outer longitudinal muscle layer often appeared. NVPCS were 35 to 60 and Brunner's glands were appeared. 3. In 120-day-old fetus, Brunner's glands of the duodenum and circular connection of outer longitudinal muscle layer were formed, NVPCS were 50 to 87. 4. In newborn goat, Peyer's patches were fully formed and NVPCS were 50 to 87. 5. In 30-day goat, the small intestine was fully matured and NVPCS were 81 to 102.

  • PDF

Determination of Optimal Conditions of Pressure Toasting on Legume Seeds for Dairy Deed Industry : I. Effects of Pressure Toasting on Nutritive Values of Lupinus albus in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Yu, P.;Goelema, J.O.;Tamminga, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.12 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1205-1214
    • /
    • 1999
  • Whole lupinus albus seeds were pressure toasted at temperatures of 100, 118 and $136^{\circ}C$ for 3, 7, 15 and 30 min to study rumen degradation and post-rumen digestion and to determine optimal heating conditions for the Dutch dairy feed industry. In sacco nylon bag and mobile bag techniques were employed for rumen and intestine incubations to determine ruminal degradation characteristics and intestinal digestion of crude protein (CP) in 4 lactation rumen cannulated and 4 lactating intestinal cannulated Dutch dairy cows fed 47% hay and 53% concentrate according to Dutch dairy requirements. Measured rumen degradation characteristics were soluble fraction (S), undegradable fraction (U), potentially degradable fraction (D), lag time (T0) and rate of degradation (Kd) of insoluble but degradable fraction. Percentage bypass feed protein (BCP), ruminal microbial protein synthesized based on available nitrogen (N_MP) and that based on available energy (E_MP), true protein supplied to the small intestine (TPSI), truly absorbed BCP (ABCP), absorbed microbial protein (AVP) in the small intestine, endogenous protein losses in the digestion (ENDP), true digested protein in the small intestine (TAP or DVE in Dutch) and degraded protein balance (PDB or OEB in Dutch) were totally evaluated using the new Dutch DVE/OEB System. Pressure toasting decreased (p<0.001) rumen degradability of CP. It reduced S (p<0.05) and Kd (p=0.06), increased D (p<0.05) and U (p<0.01) but did not alter T0 (p>0.05), thus resulting in dramatically increased BCP (p<0.001) with increasing time and temperature from 73.7 (raw) up to 182.5 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$). Although rumen microbial protein synthesized based on available energy (E_MP) was reduced, true protein (microbial and bypass feed protein) supplied to the small intestine (TPSI) was increased (p<0.001) from 153.1 (raw) to 247.6 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$). Due to digestibility of BCP in the intestine not changing (p>0.05) average 87.8%, the absorbed BCP increased (p<0.001) from 62.3 (raw) to 153.7 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$). Therefore DVE value of true digested protein in the small intestine was significantly increased (p<0.001) from 118.9 (raw) to 197.0 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$) and OEB value of degraded protein balance was significantly reduced (p<0.001) from 147.2 (raw) to 63.1 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$). It was concluded that pressure toasting was effective in shifting degradation of CP of lupinus albus from the rumen to small intestine without changing intestinal digestion. Further studies are required on the degradation and digestion of individual amino acids and on the damaging effects of processing on amino acids, especially the first limiting amino acids.

The Digestibility of Organic Trace Minerals along the Small Intestine in Broiler Chickens

  • Bao, Y.M.;Choct, M.;Iji, P.A.;Bruerton, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.90-97
    • /
    • 2010
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of low concentrations of organic and inorganic dietary trace minerals on broiler performance and trace mineral digestibility along the small intestine of 35-day-old broiler chickens reared under floor-pen conditions. Eight hundred male, day-old Cobb broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments (25 birds per pen with 8 replicates per treatment). Broilers fed diets supplemented with 4, 20, 40 and 30 mg/kg, respectively, of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn from organic chelates and inorganic salts achieved the same body weight gain as those supplemented at the NRC levels (8 mg Cu, 40 mg Fe, 60 mg Mn and 40 mg Zn/kg, respectively) from inorganic salts. However, birds fed a control diet without any supplementation at dietary levels of 7.4-8.8, 60.1-69.2, 14.6-15.4 and 19.1-20.6 mg/kg of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively, had decreased feed intake and growth rate. There was no significant difference in the digestibility of Cu in all regions of the small intestine. Throughout the small intestine the apparent absorption of Mn from both organic and inorganic sources was small, whereas the digestibility of Zn seemed to be more complex, exhibiting differences in the apparent absorption due to both mineral source and intestinal site. Therefore, the digestibility of organic Zn was improved (p<0.01) in the ileum compared to inorganic Zn. The digestibility of Zn in the duodenum was smaller (p<0.05) than that in the ileum.

Changes in Total Plate Counts and Quality of Pig Small Intestine by Different Washing and Packaging Methods

  • Kang, Geunho;Seong, Pil-Nam;Ba, Hoa Van;Moon, Sungsil;Cho, Soohyun;Park, Beom-Young;Kang, Sun-Moon;Ham, Hyoung-Joo;Kim, Dayae;Park, Kyoungmi
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.38 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1253-1260
    • /
    • 2018
  • Pig small intestine not only is used as food but also for sausage casings production in many countries worldwide. However, it is well recognized that the small intestine is important source of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of different washing and packaging methods on the changes of microbial levels and physicochemical characteristics of pig small intestine. After collecting and trimming off of visible fats, the pig small intestine samples were treated with; (i) different packaging methods: aerobic packaging (AP), skin packaging (SP), and vacuum packaging (VP); and (ii) washing with different concentrations of acetic acid. The treated samples were then stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 1, 4, 7, and 10 d. At 1-d storage, higher pH value was found in the AP-treated samples, however, after 7 to 10 days the samples treated with SP had higher values compared to the ones treated with AP and VP (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were higher in the AP-treated samples than those of the SP- and VP- treated samples at 7-d storage (p<0.05). At $10^{th}$ d, total plate counts (TPC) were higher in the control than in the acetic acid-washed samples (p<0.05). Additionally, the TPC was lower in the SP- and VP-treated samples than the AP-treated samples at 7-d storage (p<0.05). These obtained results suggest that the applications of washing with acetic acid solution and/or SP and VP methods could be an effective way to extend the shelf-life of pig small intestine during cold distribution.

Effects of Electro-acupuncture's Stimulated Frequency, Intensity, Duration at ST36 on the Small Intestine Motility in Rats (족삼리(足三里) 전침(電鍼)의 주파수(周波數), 강도(强度) 및 자극(刺戟) 시간(時間)이 소장(小腸) 수송능(輸送能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Yong-Jeong;Park, Sang-Moo;Cha, Suk;Yun, Jeong-Ahn;Yu, Yun-Jo;Kang, Byung-Ki;Kim, Kang-San
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.175-185
    • /
    • 2006
  • Objectives : This study was designed to investigate effects of electro-acupuncture's stimulated frequency, intensity, duration at 5736 on tile Small Intestine Motility in Rats. Methods The motor activity of small intestine in rats was evaluated by intestinal transportation rate. Changes in tile motility of ileum in vivo was measured at 10 minutes after electro-acupuncture. Various kinds of stimulus-frequency were used in this experiment: 2 Hz, 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 2 Hz-4 trains, 8 Hz groups treated with EA of the condition in S mA, 1 ms pulse duration, 30 minutes stimulated duration. Three different stimulus-intensity were used: 1, 5, 10 mA groups treated with EA of the condition in 2 Hz, 1 ms pulse duration, 30 minutes stimulated duration. Six different stimulus-duration were used: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 minutes groups treated with EA of the condition in 2 Hz, 5 mA, 1 ms pulse duration. Results : 2 and 100 Hz groups significantly increased the small intestine motility, but 50 Hz group did not induce a significant change. Besides, small intestine motility was significantly increased only in 5 mA intensity (5 times twitch). futhermore, at least 20 minutes EA treatment was necessary to increase the small intestine motility. Conclusion : Those basic data form this study can be applied to established the effective treatment of EA for gastrointestinal diseases in the clinical field.

  • PDF

Studies on the effect of various para-sympatholytic agents to the absorption of some sulfanamides (부교감신경차단성약물이 sulfa제의 흡수에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 김재완
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
    • /
    • v.12 no.1_2
    • /
    • pp.16-31
    • /
    • 1968
  • Comparative studies were made on some sulfonamides, used individually and combined with parasympatholytic agents as regards (1) the absorption rate through isolated rat small intestine (in vitro), (2) the absorption rate through rat small intestine (in vivo), and (3) the blood concentration of sulfonamides were examined by its oral administration with each combined drug to rabbits, and the following effects were found, parasympatholytic agents inhibit the absorption of sulfonamides from the small intestinal tract. Comparison of the inhibitic efficiency of parasympatholytic agents is as follows: oxazepam, oxyphencyclimine hydrochloride, probantheline bromide, atropine sulfate (The examples are from the weakest to the strongest). Decrement of the absorption rate of sulfonamides is as follows: sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine (The example are from the strongest to the weakest). Additionally, it is assumed that if the combined drugs were absorbed from the small intestine in the original form, those inhibitic effects should be best regarding to their sulfonamide per parasympatholytic agent combined rate "25:1" than to their any other rates.her rates.

  • PDF