• Title, Summary, Keyword: Small Intestine

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Resource conservation using whole body autophagy: Self-digestion of shedded gut lining cells in the small intestine

  • Lee, Phil Jun;Cho, Namki;Yoo, Hee Min;Chang, Sun-Young;Ko, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Hong Pyo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.244-248
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    • 2020
  • To retain valuable resources, organisms adopt several strategies including coprophagy. Cells covering the outer skin and internal digestive lumen are actively recycled to maintain their integrity. In present study, we suggested that the small intestine can consume dead cells in a manner similar to how it consumes protein from the diet. We examined the eluates from five segments of the mouse small intestine and cecum and 2 segments of the large intestine and small intestine tissue, and detected immunoreactivity with eukaryotic caveolin-1 and β-actin antibodies only in the cecum and 2 segments from the large intestine. Bacterial agitation of the mouse intestine with Shigella disrupted the architecture and absorptive function of the small intestine. Small intestine eluates were immunoreactive with murine caveolin-1 and contained heme as determined by dot blot analysis. We concluded that the body conserves resources in the small intestine by disposing of and recycling shedded cells.

Frictional Behavior of Solid and Hollow Cylinders in Contact Against a Porcine Intestine Specimen

  • Kim, Young-Tae;Kim, Dae-Eun;Park, Suk-Ho;Yoon, Eui-Sung
    • KSTLE International Journal
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 2006
  • In order to design an effective foot surface which can provide adequate friction for a self-propelled medical microrobot moving inside the small intestine, frictional mechanisms between the small intestine inner wall and the foot surface of the robot must be understood. In this paper, mechanical interlocking effect was considered to design the surface of the foot that can generate the desired frictional force. The concept of the design was derived from the hookworm that lives inside the small intestine. Hookwarms are known to adhere to the small intestine wall by interlocking with villi on the surface of the small intestine. The interlocking mechanism was considered as the main frictional mechanism for the design of the microrobot foot surface in this work. 2 mm and 6 mm diameter solid and hollow cylindrical shaped foot specimens were designed and tested to assess the frictional force between the specimens and the porcine small intestine specimen.

An Effect of Carbon Tetrachloride Treatment on the Xanthine Oxidase Activity of Small Intestine in Rats (흰쥐에 사염화탄소역여시 소장 Xanthine Oxidase 활성 변동)

  • 윤종국
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1990
  • An effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl$_{4}$) was studied on the xanthine oxidase(XOD)activity of small intestine in male rats. Concomitantly a cause of increasing small intestine XOD was focused on an effect of actinomycin D and the kinetics of partial purified XOD frdm small intestine in CCl$_{4}$ intoxicated rats. An injection of CCl$_{4}$ to the rats showed an increase of small intestine XOD. In the pretreatment of actinomycin D before injection of CCl$_{4}$ to the rats, the XOD activities of small intestine were significantly decreased. In the partial purified enzyme preparation, the small intestine XOD in CCl$_{4}$ intoxicated rats showed the more increased Km and Vmax value with xanthine as substrate than that of control group.

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An immunohistochemical study of endocrine cells in the alimentary tract of the snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus

  • Lee, Jae-hyun;Ku, Sae-kwang;Lee, Hyeung-sik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.689-697
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    • 1999
  • The regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the alimentary tract of the snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus, were investigated by immunohistochemical method using 7 antisera. Chromogranin (Cg)-, glucagon-, somatostatin-, gastrin/cholecystokinin (Gas/CCK)-, serotonin-, bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP)-immunoreactive cells were identified in this study. Cg-immunoreactive cells were detected throughout the alimentary tract including the esophagus, with predominant frequency in the pylorus. Numerous immunoreactive cells were observed from the esophagus to the pylorus but a few cells were detected in the large intestine. Glucagon-immunoreactive cells were observed from the proximal portions to the distal portions of the small intestine. They were increased to the middle portions but thereafter decreased, and no cells were found in the terminal portions. Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were restricted to the small intestine and these cells were decreased toward to distal portions of the small intestine. Gas/CCK-immunoreactive cells were detected in the pylorus and small intestine. They were most predominant in the pylorus and the proximal portions of the small intestine but thereafter decreased toward to the distal regions. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells were observed throughout the alimentary tract. They were most predominant in the pylorus and proximal portions of the small intestine but a few cells were observed in the large intestine. BPP-immunoreactive cells were restricted to the distal portions of the small intestine with rare frequency. No bombesin-immunoreactive cells were found in this study.

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Understanding Starch Utilization in the Small Intestine of Cattle

  • Harmon, David L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.915-922
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    • 2009
  • Ruminants possess the capacity to digest very large amounts of starch. However, in many cases diets approach 60% starch and even small inefficiencies present opportunities for energetic losses. Ruminal starch digestion is typically 75-80% of starch intake. On average, 35-60% of starch entering the small intestine is degraded. Of the fraction that escapes small-intestinal digestion, 35-50% is degraded in the large intestine. The low digestibility in the large intestine and the inability to reclaim microbial cells imposes a large toll on post-ruminal digestive efficiency. Therefore, digestibility in the small intestine must be optimized. The process of starch assimilation in the ruminant is complex and remains an avenue by which increases in production efficiency can be gained. A more thorough description of these processes is needed before we can accurately predict digestion occurring in the small intestine and formulate diets to optimize site of starch digestion.

Transfer of Cupric Sulfate across Rat Small Intestine, in Vitro and Effect of Chelating Agents on It's Transfer

  • Kim, Chong-Kil;Choi, Seung-Gi;Rho, Young-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 1988
  • The transfer of cupric sulfate across the rat small intestine in vitro was studied by perfusion method using the segments of everted rat small intestine. Copper transport was approximately propotional to the metal concentration in the mucosal solution and no difference was observed in the metal transport among rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum. It was suggested from these results that copper transport across the rat small intestine would occur by passive diffusion. The effect of various chelating agents on copper transport across the rat small intestine n vitro and its uptake by the intestine were also studied. Copper transport was greatly enhanced in the presence of EDTA and NTA. Copper uptake decreased to a greater extent in the presence of EPTA and NTA.

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Physiology of Small and Large Intestine of Swine - Review -

  • Mosenthin, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.608-619
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    • 1998
  • The small and the large intestine of swine represent the organs that extract nutrients from feedstuffs through digestion and fermentation and that allow their absorption and incorporation into the blood circulation. Special attention is directed towards the small intestine of young pigs since the transition to a solid diet at weaning exerts major impacts on the structural and functional integrity of the small intestine. Dietary factors involved in postweaning changes of gut morphology and biochemistry such as removal of bioactive compounds in sows milk at weaning, anti-nutritional factors in weaner diets, dietary fiber and the role of voluntary feed intake will be elucidated. The microbial function of the large intestine which is carried out by a diverse population of microorganisms is dependent on substrate availability. Short chain fatty acids as main fermentation products contribute to the energy supply of the host but they are also important for the maintenance of the morphological and functional integrity of the epithelium in the colon. As a result of bacterial nitrogen assimilation in the large intestine, nitrogen is shifted from the urinary to the fecal excretion route thus saving metabolic energy to the pig because less ammonia would become available for conversion to urea.

Changes in Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Composition of Koran Styled Beef Broths (Gom-Guk) during Cooking (쇠고기 곰국의 조리중 지방산 및 Cholesterol 조성변화)

  • Cho, Eun-Za
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.363-371
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    • 1984
  • The content of total lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid in Korean styled various beef broths was examined before and during toiling to determine the influence of cooking time. The values obtained from the broths of brisket, ox-tail and small-intestine were determined by using G. C. The highest total lipid value among small-intestine, brisket and ok-tail was in the small-intestine. The content of total lipid in the boiled meat decreased during cooking with the exception of the brisket. Total lipid content found in the broth of brisket meat increased until 6hr and thell decreased at cooking time of 8hr and 10 hr. The highest total lipid contents in the broths of brisket, ox-tail and small-intestine were found when the cooking time were 6 hr, 10 hr and 4 hr, respectively. The main fatty acids found in the broths of brisket, ok-tail and small-intestine were $C_{14}$, $C_{16}$, $C_{18}$, $C_{18:1}$, and $C_{18:1}$. The content of $C_{18:1}$ and $C_{18:2}$ from the brisket meat increased until 4hr's cooking, especially $C_{18:2}$ increased significantly until 6 hr cooking. The highest ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid (UNS/S) in the meat of brisket and ox-tail were found in the 2hr and 4hr cooking, respectively. The ratios of UNS/S in the broths of both of brisket and small-intestine, and ok-tail were highest in the 4 hr and 2 hr cooking, respectively. The content of total cholesterol (TC) was the highest in the small-intestine and the highest percentage of ester cholesterol was 5.4 in the brisket. The content of TC in small-intestine, brisket and ox-tail was decreased significantly after 2 hr cooking. Precentage of the ester in the brisket was the highest when the cooking time was 8 hr. Only trace amount of total cholesterol was found in the broth.

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A Biopharmaceutical Study on the Absorption of Some Compounding Drugs (배합약물(配合藥物)의 흡수(吸收)에 관(關)한 생물약제학적(生物藥劑學的) 연구(硏究) 1. Salicylamide에 항(抗) Histamine제(劑)를 배합(配合)하였을 때의 흡수효과에 관(關)하여)

  • Kim, Jae-Wan
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 1971
  • The comparative studies were made on Salicylamide, used individually and compounded with antihistaminics as regards. (1) the absorption rate through isolated rat small intestine (in vitro) (2) the absorption rate through rat small intestine (in vivo), and the following effects were found. 1. The Absorption velosity of 2 m Mole gm. of salicylamide in the small intestine were decreased, when the agents compounded with tripelennamine indicating the greatest absorption inhibition in the case of m Mole gm. of tripelennamine. 2. The Absorption velosity of 2m Mole gm. of salicylamide in the small intestine were decreased, when the agents compounded with diphenhydramine indicating the greatest absorption inhibition in the case of 2m Mole gm. of diphenhydramine. 3. The Absorption velosity of 2m Mole gm. of salicylamide in the small intestine were increased, when the agents compounded with chlorpheniramine indicating the greatest absorption augmentation in the case of 0.2m Mole gm. of chlorpheniramine.

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Changes in the Quality of Pork Organ during Frozen Storage (돈 내장육의 냉동저장에 따른 품질변화)

  • 양재영
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 1989
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the changes in quality of pork organs such as the meat of large intestine, small intestine and liver during frozen storage at -18$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$. The result obtained were as follows ; 1 The moisture contents in the meat of large intestine, small intestine and liver was 61.1%, 65.1% and 71.3% and the content of crude fat was 27.1%, 21.5% and 5.0% respectively, 2. Weight loss increased In the course of storage period, and liver showed the least weight loss in them. 3. Total lipid in the meat of large intestine, small intestine and liver was 24.4%, 19.2% and 4.3% respectively, and which decreased gradually in the course of storage period. 4. The content of volatile basic nitrogen in raw meat was 20 mg% within and without before storage treatment, and that of the value was 24.2 mg% within after 3 weeks storage.

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