• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sliding velocity

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Stellite bearings for liquid Zn-/Al-Systems with advanced chemical and physical properties by Mechanical Alloying and Standard-PM-Route

  • Zoz, H.;Benz, H.U.;Huettebraeucker, K.;Furken, L.;Ren, H.;Reichardt, R.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.9-10
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    • 2000
  • An important business-field of world-wide steel-industry is the coating of thin metal-sheets with zinc, zinc-aluminum and aluminum based materials. These products mostly go into automotive industry. in particular for the car-body. into building and construction industry as well as household appliances. Due to mass-production, the processing is done in large continuously operating plants where the mostly cold-rolled metal-strip as the substrate is handled in coils up to 40 tons unwind before and rolled up again after passing the processing plant which includes cleaning, annealing, hot-dip galvanizing / aluminizing and chemical treatment. In the liquid Zn, Zn-AI, AI-Zn and AI-Si bathes a combined action of corrosion and wear under high temperature and high stress onto the transfer components (rolls) accounts for major economic losses. Most critical here are the bearing systems of these rolls operating in the liquid system. Rolls in liquid system can not be avoided as they are needed to transfer the steel-strip into and out of the crucible. Since several years, ceramic roller bearings are tested here [1.2], however, in particular due to uncontrollable Slag-impurities within the hot bath [3], slide bearings are still expected to be of a higher potential [4]. The today's state of the art is the application of slide bearings based on Stellite\ulcorneragainst Stellite which is in general a 50-60 wt% Co-matrix with incorporated Cr- and W-carbides and other composites. Indeed Stellite is used as the bearing-material as of it's chemical properties (does not go into solution), the physical properties in particular with poor lubricating properties are not satisfying at all. To increase the Sliding behavior in the bearing system, about 0.15-0.2 wt% of lead has been added into the hot-bath in the past. Due to environmental regulations. this had to be reduced dramatically_ This together with the heavily increasing production rates expressed by increased velocity of the substrate-steel-band up to 200 m/min and increased tractate power up to 10 tons in modern plants. leads to life times of the bearings of a few up to several days only. To improve this situation. the Mechanical Alloying (MA) TeChnique [5.6.7.8] is used to prOduce advanced Stellite-based bearing materials. A lubricating phase is introduced into Stellite-powder-material by MA, the composite-powder-particles are coated by High Energy Milling (HEM) in order to produce bearing-bushes of approximately 12 kg by Sintering, Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS) and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). The chemical and physical behavior of samples as well as the bearing systems in the hot galvanizing / aluminizing plant are discussed. DependenCies like lubricant material and composite, LPS-binder and composite, particle shape and PM-route with respect to achievable density. (temperature--) shock-reSistibility and corrosive-wear behavior will be described. The materials are characterized by particle size analysis (laser diffraction), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. corrosive-wear behavior is determined using a special cylinder-in-bush apparatus (CIBA) as well as field-test in real production condition. Part I of this work describes the initial testing phase where different sample materials are produced, characterized, consolidated and tested in the CIBA under a common AI-Zn-system. The results are discussed and the material-system for the large components to be produced for the field test in real production condition is decided. Outlook: Part II of this work will describe the field test in a hot-dip-galvanizing/aluminizing plant of the mechanically alloyed bearing bushes under aluminum-rich liquid metal. Alter testing, the bushes will be characterized and obtained results with respect to wear. expected lifetime, surface roughness and infiltration will be discussed. Part III of this project will describe a second initial testing phase where the won results of part 1+11 will be transferred to the AI-Si system. Part IV of this project will describe the field test in a hot-dip-aluminizing plant of the mechanically alloyed bearing bushes under aluminum liquid metal. After testing. the bushes will be characterized and obtained results with respect to wear. expected lifetime, surface roughness and infiltration will be discussed.

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Study on the Physical Properties of Artificial Soil for Tillage Experiments (경운실험(耕耘實驗)을 위(爲)한 인공토양(人工土壤)의 물리적(物理的) 특성(特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Kee-Dae;Hur, Yun-Kun;Kim, Man-Soo;Kim, Soung-Rai
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 1978
  • For improvement and new design of tillage equipments, indoor test is very useful and more desirable than outdoor because the experiment of outdoor is very difficult and its cost is expensive. This study was carried out to determine the physical properties of artificial soil suitable for the indoor test with the soil bin manufactured at the workshop of the Dept. of Agricultural Machinery Engineering. The artificial soil being studied was made with very similarity to the natural soil of the experimental plots of Chungnam National University, and it consist of 39.35 percent, by weight of bentonite and 48.10 percent of sand with 12.55 percent of SAE 10W oil. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Bulk density increased with increasing number of rolling, and its relationship could be expressed. $y=1.073200+0.070780x-0.002263x^2$ where, y=bulk density ($g/cm^3$), x=number of rolling. These results could be explained that the effect of rolling velocity on the bulk density was not singnificant in the range of 4.5~10.4 em/sec. 2. The absolute soil hardness depended directly upon number of rolling, and their relationship could be expressed by the equation. $y=37.74(0.64 +0.17x-0.0054x^2)/(3.36-0.17x-0.0054x^2)^3$. where, y=absolute soil hardness($kg/cm^3$), x=number of rolling. 3. Relationship between the bulk density and absolute soil hardness could be expressed by the equation; $y=37.74(2.46x-2.02)/(6.02-2.46x)^3$. where, y=absolute soil hardness, x=bulk density. 4. The cohesion and the angle of internal friction of artificial soil were increased with increasing its bulk density. According to the cohesion and angle of internal friction, at the range of 1.60~1.75 ($g/cm^3$) of bulk density, this artificial soil was similar with sandy loam of 29.5% moisture content of natural soil. 5. Sliding-fricfion coefficient of steel plate on the artificial soil was 0.3~0.4 and rubber plate on it is 0.64~0.72. Those values were very similar with those of natural soil being studies by many others.

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