• Title, Summary, Keyword: Skin depth

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Human Skin Region Detection Utilizing Depth Information (깊이 정보를 활용한 사람의 피부영역 검출)

  • Jang, Seok-Woo;Park, Young-Jae;Kim, Gye-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, we suggest a new method of detecting human skin-color regions from three-dimensional static or dynamic stereoscopic images by effectively integrating depth and color features. The suggested method first extracts depth information that represents the distance between a camera and an object from input left and right stereoscopic images through a stereo matching technique. It then performs labeling for pixels with similar depth features and determines the labeled regions having human skin color as actual skin color regions. Our experimental results show that the suggested skin region extraction method outperforms existing skin detection methods in terms of skin-color region extraction accuracy.

Predicting Factors for the Distance from Skin to the Epidural Space with the Paramedian Epidural Approach (방정중접근법에 의한 경막외 천자시 피부로부터 경막외강까지의 거리의 예측인자)

  • Shim, Jae-Chol;Lee, Myoung-Eui;Kim, Dong-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.349-353
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    • 1996
  • Background: Although the paramedian approach for epidural blockade is useful in some clinical situation, the parameters which are correlated with the distance from skin to the epidural space has not been established. Methods: We studied in 143 patients having elective continuous epidural blocks for relief of postoperative pain. All blocks were performed using paramedian approach with Tuohy needle in the lumbar (group 1, n=100) and thoracic (group 2, n=45) area. We measured the distance from skin to the epidural space, body weight, height, and the angle between the shaft of the needle and the skin. Data were analyzed by linear regression. The relationships between parameters identified by the F-test with a P value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The mean distance from skin to the lumbar epidural space was $4.4{\pm}0.7$ cm. significant correlation between the body weight and the depth of lumbar epidural space ($\gamma$ value : 0.492) was noted with regression equation of depth(cm)=2.293+0.034${\times}$body weight (kg). Also the significant correlation between the ponderal index (PI) and the depth of lumbar epidural space ($\gamma$ value : 0.539) was noted with regression equation of depth(cm)=1.703+0.07${\times}$PI, The mean distance from skin to the thoracic epidural space was $5.2{\pm}0.7cm$ which did not correlated with other anatomic measurements. Conclusion: We found that PI and body weight are the suitable predictors of the depth of the lumbar epidural space, but not the thoracic epidural space.

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Clinical Study on Facial Skin Furrow Measurement Changes after Miso Facial Rejuvenation Acupuncture (미소안면침 시술 후 안면 주름 측정값 변화에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Kwon, Na-Hyoun;Kim, Chan-Young;Shin, Ye-Ji;Seo, San;Song, Jeong-Hwa;Baek, Yong-Hyeon;Woo, Hyun-Su;Park, Dong-Suk
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : Miso facial rejuvenation acupuncture is a Korean medical treatment technique for face lifting. The authors aimed to evaluate the effects of Miso facial rejuvenation acupuncture on facial skin furrows. Methods : 11 patients who made first visits to Hyo-Jun Korean Medical Clinic from October 1, 2009 to October 25, 2009 were each given one-time treatment of Miso facial rejuvenation acupuncture treatment. A portable fluorescent dermal diagnostic equipment, ECOSKIN, was used to measure extraocular skin furrows and perioral skin furrows width and depth before and after treatment. Results : Mean width and depth of both the extraocular and perioral skin furrows decreased after one-time Miso facial rejuvenation acupuncture treatment. Extraocular skin furrow width, depth, and perioral skin furrow width showed statistically significant decreases(p=0.003, 0.017, 0.041 respectively). Conclusions : Mean depth and width of both the extraocular and perioral skin furrows decreased after receiving Miso facial rejuvenation acupuncture treatment. Miso facial rejuvenation acupuncture may be an effective treatment for improving wrinkles in clinic.

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Face Detection Algorithm using Kinect-based Skin Color and Depth Information for Multiple Faces Detection (Kinect 디바이스에서 피부색과 깊이 정보를 융합한 여러 명의 얼굴 검출 알고리즘)

  • Yun, Young-Ji;Chien, Sung-Il
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2017
  • Face detection is still a challenging task under severe face pose variations in complex background. This paper proposes an effective algorithm which can detect single or multiple faces based on skin color detection and depth information. We introduce Gaussian mixture model(GMM) for skin color detection in a color image. The depth information is from three dimensional depth sensor of Kinect V2 device, and is useful in segmenting a human body from the background. Then, a labeling process successfully removes non-face region using several features. Experimental results show that the proposed face detection algorithm can provide robust detection performance even under variable conditions and complex background.

Skin depth profiling by using fiber optic probes in the near infrared

  • Woo, Young-Ah;jung, Suh-Eun;Kim, Hyo-Jin
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • pp.218-218
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    • 2003
  • Recently we showed the prototype portable device for the determination of human skin moisture by using near infrared spectroscopy. In order to optimize the acquiring condition of NIR spectrum of skin and control the target information of water depending the site such as epidermis and dermis, skin depth profiling was investigated changing the distance between illuminations and receiving of radiation in the terminal of fiber probe. The colleted light information could be controlled by changing the distance of the fiber optic probes. It was confirmed that the longer distance we used, the deeper site from the skin surface we could get information from in this study. Four kinds of probes with distances such as 0.03 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1.0 mm were used. In addition, the gap size from 0.3 mm to 3.0 mm was studied to control the intensity of water absorbance effectively and to avoid saturation of water absorption. We also investigated the reference materials depending the reflectance ratio for water absorption not to be saturated because of the strong absorptivity of water. Furthermore, spectroscopic information regarding free water and bound water around 1850 nm was investigated by using the different distance of fiber optic probes. This study would be great help to control the spectroscopic information of water to be measured depending the site where water exists.

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NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, A POWERFUL TECHNIQUE IN HUMAN SKIN STUDY : PART I METHOD RELIABILITY AND INFLUENTIAL PARAMETERS

  • Snieder, Marchel;Wiedemann, Sophie;Hansen, Wei G.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.3101-3101
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    • 2001
  • Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIR) used on human skin measurement was explored in the past decade. Many publications in different journals and magazines discussed the feasibility of the NIR technique for cosmetic product property studies. Based upon the results of pioneers, we have pursued some work of the NIR instrument coupled with a probe module for skin measurement in vivo and vitro. In part I of this paper, the specific Near Infrared spectroscopy instrument stability, human subject conditions and other parameters, which could affect the measurements reproducibility are discussed. Second derivative NIR spectra and Principle Components Analysis (PCA) are utilised for data interpretation. In part II of this paper, the relationship of human skin moisture and ageing, the gender information and finally, the discovery of penetration depth of NIR incident light on skin are reported. A theoretical penetration depth calculation equation is proposed. In part III, the study results of a couple of commercial skin care products effect will be described. The skin lotions were applied on human skin (in vivo) in order to exam the NIR feasibility to monitor the changes of moisture level. The results are consistently positive. From our primary study, it can conclude that the NIR is potentially a very powerful instrument for skin condition diagnostics, either for cosmetic and/or for medication purposes.

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The Distance from Skin to Cervical Epidural Space (피부에서 경부 경막외강까지의 깊이에 대한 연구)

  • Han, Kyung-Ream;Kwak, No-Kil;Whang, Hyuk-Ie;Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, Chan;Kim, Seoung-Mo
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.105-108
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    • 1998
  • Backgrounds: Cervical epidural nerve block is useful in the management of a variety of acute, chronic and cancer related pain syndromes involving the head, face, neck and upper extrimity. To safely perfom the cervical epidural block, an appreciation of the expected distance from skin to epidural space is important. We studied the distance from skin to cervical epidural space of adults to determine if any relationship exists between patient height, weight and neck circumference and the distance from skin to epidural space. Methods: Patients 170, suffering from neck and upper extremity pain with cervical HIVD(herniated intervertebral dics) were selected. Cervical epidural block was performed at $C_{6\sim7}$ or $C_{7-}T_1$ intervertebral space. Then measured the distance from skin to epidural space and analysed the relationship between age, height, weight and neck circumference and the distance from skin to epidural space. Results: The cervical epidural depth of male $C_{6\sim7}$, male $C_{7-}T_1$, female $C_{6\sim7}$ and female $C_{7-}T_1$ groups were $5.17{\pm}0.63$, $5.47{\pm}0.59$, $4.84{\pm}0.56$ and $5.01{\pm}0.60$ cm respectively. Cervical epidural depth significantly correlated with body weight, ponderal index and neck circumference. Conclusions: The distance from skin to cervical epidural space has significant relationships with weight, ponderal index and neck circumference. Although experience is important, patient's weight and neck circumference are indicating factor, of the cervical epidural depth.

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A Study of the Depth from the Skin to the Psoas Compartment under C-arm Guidance (C자형 영상증강장치를 사용한 방사선 투시하에 피부로부터 대요근 근구까지의 깊이에 대한 연구)

  • Woo, Sung-Hoon;Kang, Jung-Gwon;Oh, Wan-Soo;Hong, Ki-Hyuk
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.93-96
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    • 2000
  • Background: Psoas compartment block with local anesthetics and corticosteroids is one of the treatments which provides long term analgesia of the lower back and anterior thigh unilaterally, and its technical easiness and safety allows blind application without C-arm guidance in the out-patient clinic. This study aimed to evaluate the mean of the depth from the skin to the psoas compartment, and its correlation to the following attributes: age, weight, height and PI (Ponderal Index). Methods: We investigated 28 patients who underwent psoas compartment block. All blocks were performed using Chayen's method (punctured at the point of 3 cm caudally and 5 cm laterally from the 4th lumbar vertebral spinous process) with a 22 G, 8 cm Tuohy needle under C-arm guidance. We recorded the depth from skin to the psoas compartment, height, weight and PI (weight (kg)/height (cm)$\times100$ (%)). Data were analyzed using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. The correlations between the depth and other attributes identified by p-value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The mean depths from skin to the psoas compartment were $6.02{\pm}0.28$ cm in men, $5.44{\pm}0.22$ cm in women. There is no significant correlation between the depth and other patient's attributes. Conclusions: The mean depths from skin to the psoas compartment may be one of the guide for psoas compartment block in outpatient clinics without C-arm guidance.

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Reduction of the Skin Friction Drag Using Transverse Cavities (횡 방향 공동을 이용한 마찰 저항 감소)

  • Kim, Chul-Kyu;Jeon, Woo-Pyung;Choi, Hae-Cheon
    • 유체기계공업학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.397-400
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    • 2006
  • In this study, we experimentally investigate the possibility of skin-friction drag reduction by series of transverse cavities in a turbulent boundary layer flow. The effects of cavity depth (d), cavity length (l) and cavity spacing (s) on the skin friction drag are examined in the range of $Re_{\theta}\;=\;4030\;{\sim}\;7360$, $d/{\theta}_0\;=\;0.13\;{\sim}1.03$, l/d = 1 ~ 4 and s/d = 5 ~ 20. We perform experiments for twenty different cavity geometries and directly measure total drag force using in-house force measurement system. In most cases, the skin friction drag is increased. At several cases, however, small drag reduction is obtained. The variation of the skin ftiction drag is more sensitive to the cavity length than to the cavity depth or cavity spacing, and drag is reduced at $s/l\;{\geq}\;10$ and $l/{\theta}_0\;{\leq}\;0.26$ irrespective of the cavity depth. At $l/\bar{\theta}_0\;=\;0.13$ and s/l = 10, maximum 2% drag reduction is achieved. When the skin friction drag is reduced, there is little interaction between the flows inside and outside cavity, and the flow changed by the cavity is rapidly recovered at the following crest. A stable vortex is formed inside a cavity in the case of drag reduction. This vortex generates negative skin friction drag at the cavity bottom wall. Although there is form drag due to the cavity itself, total drag is reduced due to the negative skin friction drag.

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The Suggestion of MF BIA Analyzer Method to Reflect the Resistance in the Extracelluar and Intracelluar Fluid at Acupoint & the Evaluation of Reflection Rate on the Tissue under Skin (MF-BIA Analyzer를 이용한 경혈의 세포 내액과 외액에 의한 저항성분 추정 방법 제시 및 반영률 평가)

  • Kim, Soo-Byeong;Lee, Na-Ra;Kim, Won-Ky;Lee, Yong-Heum
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.563-572
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to suggest a new method to estimate the resistance by acupoint compositions by using the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis(MF-BIA) of 5 kHz, 50 kHz and 200 kHz within 2 cm of acupoints as a local segment. Moreover, we try to confirm the relation to between measured resistance at skin surface and measured resistance by various manual acupuncture needle insertion depth. Methods : Ten male subjects participated in this study. We measured the resistance at left/right ST36 at skin surface and various manual acupuncture needle insertion depth(skin, 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm and 30 mm). Results : It was also observed that the all measured resistances were the highest at 5 kHz and the lowest at 200 kHz. There were significant differences at 5 kHz, 50 kHz and 200 kHz between measured resistance at skin surface and measured resistance by various manual acupuncture needle insertion depth(p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the left and right identical acupoints under the identical condition(p>0.05). Conclusions : We conclude that the measured resistance at skin surface has limitation as to reflect the information of tissue. However, the measured resistance at each frequency was changed as similar pattern by different insertion depth. Hence, we confirmed the possibility of assumption on information of tissue which was expected to locate an acupoint.