• Title, Summary, Keyword: Six-sigma

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Solving Probability Constraint in Robust Optimization by Minimizing Percent Defective (불량률 최소화를 통한 강건 최적화의 확률제한조건 처리)

  • Lee, Kwang Ki;Park, Chan Kyoung;Kim, Geun Yeon;Lee, Kwon Hee;Han, Sang Wook;Han, Seung Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.37 no.8
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    • pp.975-981
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    • 2013
  • A robust optimization is only one of the ways to minimize the effects of variances in design variables on the objective functions at the preliminary design stage. To predict the variances and to formulate the probabilistic constraints are the most important procedures for the robust optimization formulation. Though several methods such as the process capability index and the six sigma technique were proposed for the prediction and formulation of the variances and probabilistic constraints, respectively, there are few attempts using a percent defective which has been widely applied in the quality control of the manufacturing process for probabilistic constraints. In this study, the robust optimization for a lower control arm of automobile vehicle was carried out, in which the design space showing the mean and variance sensitivity of weight and stress was explored before robust optimization for a lower control arm. The 2nd order Taylor expansion for calculating the standard deviation was used to improve the numerical accuracy for predicting the variances. Simplex algorithm which does not use the gradient information in optimization was used to convert constrained optimization into unconstrained one in robust optimization.

Crystal Structures of Full Dehydrated $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$and $Ca_{29}Cs_{34}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$ ($Ca^{2+}$ 이온과 $Cs^+$ 이온으로 치환되고 탈수된 두개의 제올라이트 X $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$$Ca_{29}Cs_{34}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$의 결정구조)

  • Jang, Se Bok;Song, Seung Hwan;Kim, Yang
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.427-435
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    • 1996
  • The structures of fully dehydrated $Ca^{2+}$- and $Cs^+$-exchanged zeolite X, $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$($Ca_{35}Cs_{22}$-X; a=25.071(1) $\AA)$ and $Ca_{29}Cs_{34}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$($Ca_{29}Cs_{34}$-X; a=24.949(1) $\AA)$, have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods in the cubic space group Fd3 at $21(1)^{\circ}C.$ Their structures were refined to the final error indices $R_1$=0.051 and $R_2$=0.044 with 322 reflections for $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}$-X, and $R_1$=0.058 and $R_2$=0.055 with 260 reflections for $Ca_{29}Cs_{34}$-X; $I>3\sigma(I).$ In both structures, $Ca^{2+}$ and $Cs^+$ ions are located at five different crystallographic sites. In dehydrated $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}$-X, sixteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions fill site I, at the centers of the double 6-rings(Ca-O=2.41(1) $\AA$ and $O-Ca-O=93.4(3)^{\circ}).$ Another nineteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions occupy site II (Ca-O=2.29(1) $\AA$, O-Ca-O=118.7(4)') and ten $Cs^+$ ions occupy site II opposite single six-rings in the supercage; each is $1.95\AA$ from the plane of three oxygens (Cs-O=2.99(1) and $O-Cs-O=82.3(3)^{\circ}).$ About three $Cs^+$ ions are found at site II', 2.27 $\AA$ into sodalite cavity from their three-oxygen plane (Cs-O=3.23(1) $\AA$ and $O-Cs-O=75.2(3)^{\circ}).$ The remaining nine $Cs^+$ ions are statistically distributed over site Ⅲ, a 48-fold equipoint in the supercages on twofold axes (Cs-O=3.25(1) $\AA$ and Cs-O=3.49(1) $\AA).$ In dehydrated $Ca_{29}Cs_{34}$-X, sixteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions fill site I(Ca-O=2.38(1) $\AA$ and $O-Ca-O=94.1(4)^{\circ})$ and thirteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions occupy site II (Ca-O=2.32(2) $\AA$, $O-Ca-O=119.7(6)^{\circ}).$ Another twelve $Cs^+$ ions occupy site II; each is $1.93\AA$ from the plane of three oxygens (Cs-O=3.02(1) and $O-Cs-O=83.1(4)^{\circ})$ and seven $Cs^+$ ions occupy site II'; each is $2.22\AA$ into sodalite cavity from their three-oxygen plane (Cs-O=3.21(2) and $O-Cs-O=77.2(4)^{\circ}).$ The remaining sixteen $Cs^+$ ions are found at III site in the supercage (Cs-O=3.11(1) $\AA$ and Cs-O=3.46(2) $\AA).$ It appears that $Ca^{2+}$ ions prefer sites I and II in that order, and that $Cs^+$ ions occupy the remaining sites, except that they are too large to be stable at site I.

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Synthesis of Fully Dehydrated Partially Cs+-exchanged Zeolite Y (FAU, Si/Al = 1.56), |Cs45Na30|[Si117Al75O384]-FAU and Its Single-crystal Structure

  • Seo, Sung-Man;Kim, Ghyung-Hwa;Lee, Seok-Hee;Bae, Jun-Seok;Lim, Woo-Taik
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1285-1292
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    • 2009
  • Large single crystals of zeolite, |$Na_{75}$|[$Si_{117}Al_{75}O_{384}$]-FAU (Na-Y, Si/Al = 1.56), were synthesized from gels with composition of 3.58Si$O_2$ : 2.08NaAl$O_2$ : 7.59NaOH : 455$H_2$O : 5.06TEA : 2.23TCl. One of these, a colorless single-crystal was ion exchanged by allowing aqueous 0.02 M CsOH to flow past the crystal at 293 K for 3 days, followed by dehydration at 673 K and 1 ${\times}\;10^{-6}$ Torr for 2 days. The crystal structure of fully dehydrated partially $Cs^+$-exchanged zeolite Y, |$Cs_{45}Na_{30}$|[$Si_{117}Al_{75}O_{384}$]-FAU per unit cell (a = 24.9080(10) $\AA$) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique in the cubic space group Fd $\overline{3}$ m at 294(1) K. The structure was refined using all intensities to the final error indices (using only the 877 reflections with $F_o\;>\;4{\sigma}(F_o))\;R_1$ = 0.0966 (Based on F) and $R_2\;=\;0.2641\;(Based\;on\;F^2$). About forty-five $Cs^+$ ions per unit cell are found at six different crystallographic sites. The 2 $Cs^+$ ions occupied at site I, at the centers of double 6-ring (D6Rs, Cs-O = 2.774(10) $\AA$ and O-Cs-O = 88.9(3) and 91.1(3)$^o$). Two $Cs^+$ ions are found at site I’ in the sodalite cavity; the $Cs^+$ ions were recessed 2.05 $\AA$ into the sodalite cavity from their 3-oxygen plane (Cs-O = 3.05(3) $\AA$ and O-Cs-O = 77.4(13)$^o$). Site-II’ positions (opposite single 6-rings in the sodalite cage) are occupied by 7 $Cs^+$ ions, each of which extends 2.04 $\AA$ into the sodalite cage from its 3-oxygen plane (Cs-O = 3.067(11) $\AA$ and O-Cs-O = 80.1(3)$^o$). The 26 $Cs^+$ ions are nearly three-quarters filled at site II in the supercage, being recessed 2.34 $\AA$ into the supercage (Cs-O = 3.273(8) $\AA$ and O-Cs-O = 74.3(3)$^o$). The 4 $Cs^+$ ions are found at site III deep in the supercage (Cs-O = 3.321(19) and 3.08(3) $\AA$), and 4 $Cs^+$ ions at another site III’ (Cs-O = 2.87(4) and 3.38(4) $\AA$). About 30 $Na^+$ ions per unit cell are found at one crystallographic site; The $Na^+$ ions are located at site I’ in the sodalite cavity opposite double 6-rings (Na-O = 2.578(11) $\AA$ and O-Na-O = 97.8(4)$^o$).

The Impact of Service Level Management(SLM) Process Maturity on Information Systems Success in Total Outsourcing: An Analytical Case Study (토털 아웃소싱 환경 하에서 IT서비스 수준관리(Service Level Management) 프로세스 성숙도가 정보시스템 성공에 미치는 영향에 관한 분석적 사례연구)

  • Cho, Geun Su;An, Joon Mo;Min, Hyoung Jin
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.21-39
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    • 2013
  • As the utilization of information technology and the turbulence of technological change increase in organizations, the adoption of IT outsourcing also grows to manage IT resource more effectively and efficiently. In this new way of IT management technique, service level management(SLM) process becomes critical to derive success from the outsourcing in the view of end users in organization. Even though much of the research on service level management or agreement have been done during last decades, the performance of the service level management process have not been evaluated in terms of final objectives of the management efforts or success from the view of end-users. This study explores the relationship between SLM maturity and IT outsourcing success from the users' point of view by a analytical case study in four client organizations under an IT outsourcing vendor, which is a member company of a major Korean conglomerate. For setting up a model for the analysis, previous researches on service level management process maturity and information systems success are reviewed. In particular, information systems success from users' point of view are reviewed based the DeLone and McLean's study, which is argued and accepted as a comprehensively tested model of information systems success currently. The model proposed in this study argues that SLM process maturity influences information systems success, which is evaluated in terms of information quality, systems quality, service quality, and net effect proposed by DeLone and McLean. SLM process maturity can be measured in planning process, implementation process and operation and evaluation process. Instruments for measuring the factors in the proposed constructs of information systems success and SL management process maturity were collected from previous researches and evaluated for securing reliability and validity, utilizing appropriate statistical methods and pilot tests before exploring the case study. Four cases from four different companies under one vendor company were utilized for the analysis. All of the cases had been contracted in SLA(Service Level Agreement) and had implemented ITIL(IT Infrastructure Library), Six Sigma and BSC(Balanced Scored Card) methods since last several years, which means that all the client organizations pursued concerted efforts to acquire quality services from IT outsourcing from the organization and users' point of view. For comparing the differences among the four organizations in IT out-sourcing sucess, T-test and non-parametric analysis have been applied on the data set collected from the organization using survey instruments. The process maturities of planning and implementation phases of SLM are found not to influence on any dimensions of information systems success from users' point of view. It was found that the SLM maturity in the phase of operations and evaluation could influence systems quality only from users' view. This result seems to be quite against the arguments in IT outsourcing practices in the fields, which emphasize usually the importance of planning and implementation processes upfront in IT outsourcing projects. According to after-the-fact observation by an expert in an organization participating in the study, their needs and motivations for outsourcing contracts had been quite familiar already to the vendors as long-term partners under a same conglomerate, so that the maturity in the phases of planning and implementation seems not to be differentiating factors for the success of IT outsourcing. This study will be the foundation for the future research in the area of IT outsourcing management and success, in particular in the service level management. And also, it could guide managers in practice in IT outsourcing management to focus on service level management process in operation and evaluation stage especially for long-term outsourcing contracts under very unique context like Korean IT outsourcing projects. This study has some limitations in generalization because the sample size is small and the context itself is confined in an unique environment. For future exploration, survey based research could be designed and implemented.

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