• Title/Summary/Keyword: Situation awareness

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A Study of Relationships among Situation Awareness, Presence, and Performance on a Handheld Game Console (휴대용 게임기에서 수행도에 영향을 미치는 상황인식과 현실감의 상관관계 연구)

  • Jung, Doo-Ho;Myung, Ro-Hae
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2008
  • This research was conducted to explore relationships among situation awareness, presence, and performance on a handheld game console. Situation Awareness was measured by SAGAT (Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique) while presence was measured by PQ (Presence Questionnaire) version 3.0. The performance was measured by the number of aircraft shot down during the flight simulator game. The results show that both situation awareness and presence were positively significantly correlated with performance. In order to investigate the effect of performance level, subjects were divided into two significantly different groups: low and high performance groups. In the low performance group, both situation awareness and presence showed a significantly positive correlation with performance. The correlation between presence and situation awareness also showed a positively significant correlation. However, in the high performance group, there were no significant correlations among them. In conclusion, different performance levels could be said to be an important factor in the study of situation awareness and presence. Furthermore, this study also proved that the domain of research on situation awareness and presence was extended to small displays such as the handheld game console.

A Review on Measurement and Applications of Situation Awareness for an Evaluation of Korea Next Generation Reactor Operator Performance (상황인식에 대한 측정 및 차세대 원자로 운전원 성능 평가에서의 활용방법에 관한 이론 연구)

  • Lee, Dhong-Ha;Lee, Hyun-Chul
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.751-758
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    • 2000
  • Situation awareness is defined as a person's perception of the elements of the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. Situation awareness is important in attempting to evaluate human behavior in operating complex systems such as aircraft, air traffic control, and nuclear power plant systems. From the literatures this study reviews the relationship between situation awareness and numerous individual, system and environmental factors, and also reviews the methodologies for the empirical measurement of situation awareness applicable to Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) design project. Attention, working memory, workload, stress, system complexity, and automation are presented as critical factors limiting operator's situation awareness. Mental models and goal-directed behavior are hypothesized as important mechanisms overcoming these limits. This study summarized hypothesized guidelines for interface design to improve situation awareness of reactor operators. Some of the guidelines should be tested in the KNGR evaluation experiments in the future.

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A Quantitative Team Situation Awareness Measurement Method Considering Technical and Nontechnical Skills of Teams

  • Yim, Ho Bin;Seong, Poong Hyun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.144-152
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    • 2016
  • Human capabilities, such as technical/nontechnical skills, have begun to be recognized as crucial factors for nuclear safety. One of the most common ways to improve human capabilities in general is training. The nuclear industry has constantly developed and used training as a tool to increase plant efficiency and safety. An integrated training framework was suggested for one of those efforts, especially during simulation training sessions of nuclear power plant operation teams. The developed training evaluation methods are based on measuring the levels of situation awareness of teams in terms of the level of shared confidence and consensus as well as the accuracy of team situation awareness. Verification of the developed methods was conducted by analyzing the training data of real nuclear power plant operation teams. The teams that achieved higher level of shared confidence showed better performance in solving problem situations when coupled with high consensus index values. The accuracy of nuclear power plant operation teams' situation awareness was approximately the same or showed a similar trend as that of senior reactor operators' situation awareness calculated by a situation awareness accuracy index (SAAI). Teams that had higher SAAI values performed better and faster than those that had lower SAAI values.

Development and Validation of Situation Awareness Tests for Commercial Drivers (사업용 운전자를 위한 상황인식 검사의 개발과 타당화)

  • Lee, Gyeong-Su;Gang, Ui-Jin;Park, Sang-Hyeok;Jeong, Hye-Seung;Lee, Yong-Chan;Son, Yeong-U
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.25-37
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    • 2011
  • This research aimed to investigate whether commercial drivers' situation awareness ability is related to their frequency and magnitude of caused accidents and penalty points. For the purpose of measuring drivers' situation perception and interpretation capacities, two tests named 'situation awareness test' and 'hazard perception test' were developed. The tests were based on the data from 299 commercial drivers (test drivers) using a driving simulator. The outcome of drivers' performance on situation awareness and hazard perception tests was designed to be categorized into 5 grades, classifying the best as grade 1 and the worst as grade 5. As the result, low grades on situation awareness test had positive relationship with accumulated penalty points, frequency of accidents and safety index. Grades on hazard perception test were also positively correlated with accident frequency and safety indices. This suggests situation awareness ability of commercial drivers is significantly related to traffic violations and accident causing tendencies.

Effects of Cockpit Display and Control Complexity on Pilot Situation Awareness (조종실 계기 및 제어 복잡성이 조종사의 상황인식에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Young;Seol, Jae-Wook;Kim, Yong-Seok;Sohn, Young-Woo
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.73-87
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    • 2003
  • This research extends a general theory of human cognition to an applied domain of piloting skills. We examined how fast and accurately pilots achieve and maintain situation awareness in flight by measuring their consistency judgment between a written statement describing a flight situation and a cockpit display showing a current state of an aircraft. The goal of this research is to determine whether situation awareness is influenced by expertise level as a Auction of two different kinds of flight situation variables. It was revealed that flight situation variables representing relations between flight elements had an effect on situation awareness. Working memory was found to play a critical role in integrating a variety of flight information form multiple sources. It was also revealed that flight situation variables representing the contents of flight elements had influence on situation awareness in flight. These results were explained in a theoretical framework of a construction-integration model to reveal the cognitive processes underlying situation awareness in flight.

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The Effects of Specific and Nonspecific Information on Decision Making During Situation Awareness: ERP Study (상황인식 시 구체 및 비구체적 정보가 의사결정에 미치는 영향: ERP 연구)

  • Ryu, Kwang-Min;Kim, Jin-Gu;Kim, Woo-Jong;Lim, Kyung-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.255-270
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of nonspecific and specific cue on decision making during situation awareness. Participants were 36 male college students who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) nonspecific situation awareness, (2) specific situation awareness, and (3) a control group. Every participant was in the level 3-4.5 according to American National Tennis Level Program. Participants were asked to watch tennis single defence, single offence, double defence rally and when the screen stops, they were required to push the button(left, middle, or right) appropriate for the ball's direction to return as soon as possible. The experiment was designed to be analyzed for group(3)${\times}$condition(3)${\times}$area(7) using three-way ANOVA. The dependent variables were reaction time, accuracy rate, and amplitude and latency of P300. The result showed that the latency of the nonspecific situation awareness group and the specific situation awareness group was shorter and their amplitudes were higher than the control group. Fz, Cz, Pz were prominent among areas, and the single defence condition was more prominent than the single offence and the double defence condition. As a result of the study, it can be suggested that the information about situation awareness provided beforehand directly affects the brain's information processing. In addition, it shows that ERP can be a useful index for studying situation awareness.

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A Predictive Model of Situation Awareness with ACT-R

  • Kim, Junghwan;Myung, Rohae
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.225-235
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    • 2016
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to model all levels of situation awareness (SA), which would be able to predict situation awareness quantitatively. Background: When measuring situation awareness, directly measuring SA methods such as SAGAT and SART have been utilized. Several approaches (cognitive modeling approaches) were introduced to model SA but level 3 SA was not completed. For real-life situation, however, it is necessary to detect the problematic level of SA rather than overall SA. Therefore, we proposed a new model of all levels of SA in this study. Method: In order to model all levels of SA, this study chose factors in ACT-R architecture through literature review. ATC (Air Traffic Control)-related simulation task was video-taped to analyze human behaviors in order to model all levels of SA including level 3. Results: As a result, regression analyses show that cognitive activities (neural activations) represented for all levels of SA were highly correlated with SAGAT. Conclusion: In conclusion, neural activations in ACT-R could be proved to be effective to model all levels of SA. Application: Our SA model could be used to predict all levels of SA quantitatively without directly measuring the SA of operators.

A Study of Effects of Situation Awareness, Performance and Presence on Handheld Games Console (휴대용 게임기에서 상황인식, 수행도, 현실감의 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Doo-Ho;Myung, Ro-Hae
    • 한국HCI학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2008
  • 본 연구는 휴대용 게임기에서 가상현실(Virtual Reality)을 구현한 비행기 시뮬레이션 게임을 대상으로 상황인식(Situation Awareness), 수행도(Performance), 현실감(Presence)을 측정하여 세 측정 지표의 상관관계를 분석하였다. 상황인식 측정은 SAGAT (Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique)을 이용하였고, 수행도는 분당 격추 시킨 적기 수를 기준으로 측정하였다. 현실감은 Presence Questionnaire (Version 3.0) 기법을 통해 측정하였다. 실험 결과 상황인식 2 단계와 3 단계의 능력이 좋을수록 현실감이 증가하는 경향을 보여 상황인식 능력과 현실감에 밀접한 연관이 있다는 기존 연구와 동일한 결과가 휴대용 게임기에서도 일어남을 밝혀냈다. 또한 상황인식 2 단계와 3 단계의 능력이 증가할수록 수행도도 같이 증가하는 경향이 있어 좋은 상황인식 능력이 높은 수행도를 가질 확률을 증가시킨다는 기존의 연구 결과를 뒷받침할 수 있었다. 현실감과 수행도의 관계는 본 실험 결과에서 서로 연관이 있는지 결정하기 어려웠다.

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Eye-Tracking and Protocol Analyses of Expert and Novice Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control (항공관제 상황인식에서 전문가와 초보자의 시선추적 및 프로토콜 분석)

  • Hyun, Suk-Hoon;Lee, Kyung-Soo;Kim, Kyeong-Tae;Sohn, Young-Woo
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2007
  • Analyses of eye tracking and think-aloud protocol data were performed to examine novice-expert differences in perceptual and cognitive aspects of air traffic controllers' situation awareness. In Experiment 1, three groups of field air traffic controllers (experts, intermediates, novices) were asked to perceive situations that were manipulated by situation complexity. In Experiment 2, protocol analysis for previous situation awareness tasks was performed to extract different task models and strategy models as a function of expertise. Then delayed-recall task and interviews about air control plans for the recalled situations were also executed. Results showed that expert controllers concentrate only on several critical features and have their own strategies to reduce mental workloads.

Effects of Situation Awareness and Decision Making on Safety, Workload and Trust in Autonomous Vehicle Take-over Situations (자율주행 자동차의 제어권 전환상황에서 상황인식 및 의사결정 정보 제공이 운전자에게 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jihyun;Lee, Kahyun;Byun, Youngsi
    • Journal of the HCI Society of Korea
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2019
  • Take-over requests in semi-autonomous cars must be handled properly in the case of road obstacles or curved roads in order to avoid accidents. In these situations, situation awareness and appropriate decision making are essential for distracted drivers. This study used a driving simulator to investigate the components of auditory-visual information systems that affect safety, workload, and trust. Auditory information consisted of either voice guidance providing situation awareness for the take-over or a beep sound that only alerted the driver. Visual information consisted of either a screen showing how to maneuver the vehicle or only an icon indicating a take-over situation. By providing auditory information that increased situation awareness and visual information that aided decision making, trust and safety increased, while workload decreased. These results suggest that the levels of situation awareness and decision making ability affect trust, safety, and workload for drivers.