Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
Just as various religions of the world have multiple systems based on their own belief system respectively, religious costumes, which are the expression of religion, are varied in forms according to different religions. Nonetheless, this research attempts to examine the universal features of the variety of religious costumes. Since the range of this research is broad and the limit of study is clear, this research confines the study objects into world's four high religions. The purposes of this research are as followings; first, the investigation of the world's high religions, second, the study of the figurative attributes of religious costume to study and discuss the universality of figurative beauty and aesthetic value. Figurative attributes are distinct in religious costume. First, the non structural feature of composition, and the manner in which the costume is worn. Second, the rich silhouette covering the body. Third, the restraint and inhibition of decoration, and fourth, the preference of achromatic color and monotones. 'The beauty of concealing', derived from the religious absolute and chastity, 'The beauty of chastity' influenced by the restraint of decoration and design, and 'The beauty of nature' as the drapery and non structural feature are the universal aesthetic values. Human beings tend to contact the divine beings by pursuing the essential thing and concealing the body through religion. The forms of concealment and chastity, mentioned above are reflected in the usual costumes, affected by religion as well as religious costume.
This study aimed to find the differences in weight control status and eating behavior of satisfied and dissatisfied female high school students regarding their own body shape. The participants consisted of 238 students at two female high schools in Nonsan-si, Chungnam-do in May of 2008. Self-assessment evaluated present body shape and ideal body shape they would like to have by providing silhouette drawings. The subjects were divided into two groups, 'satisfied' and 'dissatisfied', according to the differences between present body shape and ideal body shape. In the distribution of subjects according to body mass index, 100% of overweight, 97.0% of normal weight and 48.7% of underweight belonged to the dissatisfied group. There were significant differences in weight control and eating behavior between dissatisfied and satisfied groups in terms of frequency and reasons of conducting weight control behavior, body weight return after weight reduction, skipping breakfast and consuming fast food. The satisfied group was two times more likely to not conduct weight control behaviors compared to the dissatisfied group. The main reason for trying to control weight differed according to the group; the reason was feeling fat in the dissatisfied group and desiring to be healthy in the satisfied group. The percentage of subjects that returned to their original weights after weight reduction was 5 times higher in the dissatisfied group. The percentages of subjects that regularly skip breakfast and consume fast food were both higher in the dissatisfied group than in the satisfied group. The dissatisfied group responded 'eating alone' more frequently among nine binge eating behaviors compared to the satisfied group. Both groups, however, did not show any difference in overeating of meals, eating speed, intake frequency of regular meals, food preference, preferred cooking method, carbonated beverage intake and snack eating behavior. In summary, the dissatisfied group tried more unnecessary body weight reduction and had poor eating behavior. Accordingly, to correct the biased perception of body shape by the majority of female high school students, the values of our society should change toward the pursuit of beauty of health.
The quality of 2D-to-3D conversion depends on the accuracy of the assigned depth to scene objects. Manual depth painting for given objects is labor intensive as each frame is painted. Specifically, a human is one of the most challenging objects for a high-quality conversion, as a human body is an articulated figure and has many degrees of freedom (DOF). In addition, various styles of clothes, accessories, and hair create a very complex silhouette around the 2D human object. We propose an efficient method to estimate visually pleasing depths of a human at every frame in a monocular video. First, a 3D template model is matched to a person in a monocular video with a small number of specified user correspondences. Our pose estimation with sequential joint angular constraints reproduces a various range of human motions (i.e., spine bending) by allowing the utilization of a fully skinned 3D model with a large number of joints and DOFs. The initial depth of the 2D object in the video is assigned from the matched results, and then propagated toward areas where the depth is missing to produce a complete depth map. For the effective handling of the complex silhouettes and appearances, we introduce a partial depth propagation method based on color segmentation to ensure the detail of the results. We compared the result and depth maps painted by experienced artists. The comparison shows that our method produces viable depth maps of humans in monocular videos efficiently.
The purpose of this study is to provide Torso pattern for Korean middle-aged women using 3D human body scan data. 155 women in their 40's or 50's were measured by Martin's anthropometry. Merging the data of 914 middle aged women provided by Korean agency for technology and standards, total of 1,069 subjects' data were analyzed. For data analysis, ANOVA, factor analysis and cluster analysis were done using SPSS PC+. And representative subject of each cluster was selected and they participated in 3D scanning and Torso pattern suggested for middle-aged women Torso pattern which investing the amount of ease according to each group for diffuse front interscye 30%, armscye circumference 30%, back interscye 40% using 3D human body scan data. The results of this study are as follows. Firstly, as a result of the factor analysis, the first factor was 'obesity index of body', The second factor was 'verticality size of body', The third factor was 'verticality length of upper bodice', The fourth factor was 'drop value to represent silhouette', and the fifth factor was 'physique of upper bodice'. And, middle-aged women type were classified 3 types according to the cluster analysis. Type 1(Y-type) was the long upper Torso with wide shoulder. Type 2(H-type) was flat-body type with comparatively thin upper bodice and thin lower bodice. And type 3(A-type) was the obese type with comparatively thin upper bodice and fat lower bodice. Secondly, using CAD program, point filtering was performed and approximated surface model was made. It used that generated surface smoothing corrected for abnormally extruded points and scattered points based on the curvature information. And 3D surfaces were flatted onto the plane by the internal tools of CAD program. Difference ratios of outline length and area between 3D curves and 2D plane were 0.42% and 0.54%, respectively. Third, wearing test by the sensory evaluation showed that distinct difference almost every category. The movement functionality test shows that, in all the tests which reveal significant differences, especially, 'comparison pattern A' experienced inconvenience to neck width and neck depth.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
Sports has become one way to improve our own health and to enjoy life by changing the lifestyle of modern-day people. Sports athletes not only give pleasure to the public, but also play a role in elevating a nation's reputation through sports. Tennis is popular with the public, and women players receive tennis wear from various sports companies to promote the designs to the public. This study considers the design-related characteristics of women's tennis wear through content analysis of design elements from the tennis wear in four major tournaments over the most recent five years. This is important in order to provide basic data on design directions for tennis wear in the future. The results of this study are as follows. First, the silhouette plays a role in enhancing activity by considering the physical movement of tennis players who are very active. Second, color emphasizes the rules and clarity of traditional tennis tournaments, and reflects a diversified trend in tennis wear by considering smooth game play by players and combining popular colors in the year. Third, patterns and decorations on material are used as a means to emphasize the esthetics of tennis wear, and tape plays an auxiliary role in emphasizing the physical beauty of women or preventing physical movement causing injury. In addition, sponsor logos are generally located at the center of the chest of tennis wear tops by mixing letters and images. This can be interpreted as a part of the marketing strategy to enhance clarity of the sponsor's brand.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
Negative space in the discipline of art defines the space around and between the subject of an image. The use of negative space is an element of artistic composition, since it is occasionally used to artistic effect as the "real" subject of an image. In painting, it is a technique that negatively touches the background of an object to be expressed, so that it gives a feeling of unique texture and silhouette by touching unnecessary parts while leaving necessary parts. As in art, negative space in a design can also be useful to identify an image of infeasible design ranges with a straightforward view. Similarity between two disciplines leads to the introduction of the negative space concept for design space exploration. A rough design space exploration using statistics and visual analytics may support more efficient decision-making, and can provide meaningful insights into the direction of early-phase system design. For this, the approach guarantees dynamic interactions between visualized information and human cognitive systems. Visual analytics is useful to summarize complex and large-scale data. It is useful for identifying feasible design spaces, as well as for avoiding infeasible spaces or highly risky spaces. This paper investigates the possible use of the negative space concept by using an application example.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
To release fashion trends in an efficient way, many of the apparel business and fashion educational institutes in land adopt fashion shows employing fashion models. Modeling rather than flat pattern making realizes the majority of the complicated design works for the fashion shows. However, for the different measurements between the dress form and the real human model, problems often occur during the modeling and fitting processes. Researches on the standard dress form development representing professional fashion models' features are therefore in urgent need to enable the related apparel business and fashion institutes to make appropriate use of the dress form in their jobs. The study has been conducted as a preliminary study using a questionnaire method ultimately to develop the female dress form. A questionnaire in the research aimed at an investigation into the actual conditions of and satisfaction with the usage and the body measurements of existed dress forms. Approximately 30 fashion-related educational institutes and 10 apparel companies responded to the survey. Data derived from the survey was analyzed using SPSS version 10.1, the statistics tool. The results throughout the research were discussed in terms of largely three categories that are; (1) the general conditions of the usage of the dress form to prepare fashion shows: e.g. the frequency of holding the fashion show in an annual term, the proportion of professional and amateur models employed for the fashion show, the methods to construct garments, types and number of dress forms utilized and etc.; (2) factors considered to purchase the dress form e.g. its functionality, shapes, sizes, duration, price, A/S condition and etc.; and(3) satisfaction with the similarity between the dress form and the human body in the relation to the body measurements. Measurements in length wise, front and back waist lengths, neck to bust point on the dress forms were apparently differed from the ones of the actual body. In particular, differed torso length measurements cause the problem to have to alter the whole silhouette, consequently, the resultant patterns as well. In girth measurements, in order of bust and waist girths, the satisfaction was low.
It's not easy to renew old brand of over 50 years history to the tastes of new consumer of our time. Most of national brands that has a history of some 20 years in Korea have strove for continuation and growth of brand to no avails, which can be taken as a good example of current situation. For instance, C company, one of the National brand of US which has a history of 51 years, has made its position secure as a fashion group and based itself on a sound foundation by establishing new marketing strategy and completing successful brand renewal in the process of strategic M&A with Italian company. Those successful marketing strategies are as follows. 1) they regarded both market and consumer oriented marketing activity as company's highest priority strategy and put great emphasis upon concentration on target market and reestablishment of brand image of business casual wear. 2) Setting up and operating planning team composed of merchandizer alone in Milano, they set the direction of plan on the basis of concentrated research on potential item in market according to thorough market research done by buying office in Korea, branch office in Hong Kong and buyer in US prior to blueprint planning for season. 3) Great emphasis was placed on business which focused on intensive presentation of basic key item for apparel career women who are main consumer group in the midium-low prices market in US and on supplementation of size and color. they named this line 'collectibles' and helped their customer develop their own clothes plan without worrying about the change of color and fabric by supporting same fabric and color throughout the year and enabled them to add variation easily by supplementing new trend item. 4) Company set black as a main color that lots of apparel career women find easy to care and to express their own image and presented them with pebble which belongs to navy and beige and added fashion color such as wine and brown etc as season goes by. They constructed basic line in order for their customers to coordinate purchased item with new one or to add them to present collection, and to achieve efficient sale by setting up strategy which allows this cross coordination and changing pattern occasionally. 5) Though basic jacket for 99$, short slim skirt for 49$ are products within midium-low prices range, in the material planning stage aiming at production of item that has both resonable function appealing to consumer and is fashionable, synthetic material had to be used as a main source due to price competitiveness. Despite this situation, considering comfortable sense of fit and refined drape of silhouette that has no sign of cheap material, whole collectible line was divided into two items, which contributed to reduction of cost. In case of material that is composed of triacetate and polyester in 70 to 30 ratio, was used up to 4 million yard, which allowed drastic curtailment of cost accompanied by concentration. In case of 'collectibles' line, using Korean material mainly, C company chose to have their product sewed in Southeast Asian countries where transportation is well developed and both productivity and quality verified by operating global production system which aiming at cutdown of cost through outsourcing production from the country where labor cost is low and getting finished product. Polarization between present consumers telling us that consumers with the mind of middle classes in the past no longer exists between consumers who seek after only fine article of highest quality and wise consumers who are sensible enough to judge bubble on correlation between price and quality. To cope with this change in new consumer mind, apparel makes changing their policy so as to produce item that has reasonable quality and falls within affordable price range anywhere in the world. and they're striving to get out of difficult situation by operating global marketing strategy which stresses separation of planning, production and sale and sensibility of fashion shared worldwide. The marketing strategy of C company can be exemplified as a successful one.
Recently, consumer needs are diversifying as information technologies are evolving rapidly. A lot of IT devices such as smart phones and tablet PCs are launching following the trend of information technology. While IT devices focused on the technical advance and improvement a few years ago, the situation is changed now. There is no difference in functional aspects, so companies are trying to differentiate IT devices in terms of appearance design. Consumers also consider design as being a more important factor in the decision-making of smart phones. Smart phones have become a fashion items, revealing consumers' own characteristics and personality. As the design and appearance of the smartphone become important things, it is necessary to examine consumer values from the design and appearance of IT devices. Furthermore, it is crucial to clarify the mechanisms of consumers' design evaluation and develop the design evaluation model based on the mechanism. Since the influence of design gets continuously strong, various and many studies related to design were carried out. These studies can classify three main streams. The first stream focuses on the role of design from the perspective of marketing and communication. The second one is the studies to find out an effective and appealing design from the perspective of industrial design. The last one is to examine the consumer values created by a product design, which means consumers' perception or feeling when they look and feel it. These numerous studies somewhat have dealt with consumer values, but they do not include product attributes, or do not cover the whole process and mechanism from product attributes to consumer values. In this study, we try to develop the holistic design evaluation model based on consumer values based on three-step approach from product attributes, perceived attributes, to consumer values. Product attributes means the real and physical characteristics each smart phone has. They consist of bezel, length, width, thickness, weight and curvature. Perceived attributes are derived from consumers' perception on product attributes. We consider perceived size of device, perceived size of display, perceived thickness, perceived weight, perceived bezel (top - bottom / left - right side), perceived curvature of edge, perceived curvature of back side, gap of each part, perceived gloss and perceived screen ratio. They are factorized into six clusters named as 'Size,' 'Slimness,' 'No-Frame,' 'Roundness,' 'Screen Ratio,' and 'Looseness.' We conducted qualitative research to find out consumer values, which are categorized into two: look and feel values. We identified the values named as 'Silhouette,' 'Neatness,' 'Attractiveness,' 'Polishing,' 'Innovativeness,' 'Professionalism,' 'Intellectualness,' 'Individuality,' and 'Distinctiveness' in terms of look values. Also, we identifies 'Stability,' 'Comfortableness,' 'Grip,' 'Solidity,' 'Non-fragility,' and 'Smoothness' in terms of feel values. They are factorized into five key values: 'Sleek Value,' 'Professional Value,' 'Unique Value,' 'Comfortable Value,' and 'Solid Value.' Finally, we developed the holistic design evaluation model by analyzing each relationship from product attributes, perceived attributes, to consumer values. This study has several theoretical and practical contributions. First, we found consumer values in terms of design evaluation and implicit chain relationship from the objective and physical characteristics to the subjective and mental evaluation. That is, the model explains the mechanism of design evaluation in consumer minds. Second, we suggest a general design evaluation process from product attributes, perceived attributes to consumer values. It is an adaptable methodology not only smart phone but also other IT products. Practically, this model can support the decision-making when companies initiative new product development. It can help product designers focus on their capacities with limited resources. Moreover, if its model combined with machine learning collecting consumers' purchasing data, most preferred values, sales data, etc., it will be able to evolve intelligent design decision support system.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
The goal of this study is to express the image of chameleons-that change their colors by light, temperature and its mood-into the sexy styles of corresponding coquettish temperamental people in Wearable Art. The method used in this study was experimenting various production mediums, including creating the textured stretch fabric, in the process of expressing the conceptual characteristics of the chameleon in Wearable Art. The concept of the work was a concoction of 'tempting', 'splendid', 'brilliant', 'fascinating', etc. that highlighted the real disposition of the chameleon. The futuristic preference of the researcher was also implicated. "Comfortable" and "enjoyable" concepts via motions were improved with the its completeness. The point of the design and production is to express symbolically the chameleon in real life, analyzing its sleek body lines, conditional colors changing, outer skins and the cubic textures. The coquettish temperamental image, the conceptual image of the chameleon, was also expressed by implication into the whole work. The entire line of this work is body-conscious silhouette. It was symbolically selected to image the outline of the chameleon that has the slim and sleek body. The exposed back is intended to express symbolically the projected back bones of the chameleon. The hood of gentle triangle line expresses the smooth-lined head part. The irregular hemlines represent the elongated chameleon's tale. The chameleon with its colors of vivid tones is characterized the colors changing by its conditions. This point was importantly treated in the working process by trying the effects that the colors are seen slightly different according to the light and angles. The material was given the effect that its surface colors are seen different in lights and angles because of the wrinkles protruded lumpy-bumpy. The various stones of red and blue tones are very similar to the skin tones of the real chameleon, and their gradation makes the effect that the colors are visibly changed with each move. The textures of the chameleon were produced via the wrinkle effect of smoke-shape, which is the result of using the elastic threads on the basic mediums stitched with 50/50 chiffon and polyester along with velvet dot patterns. The stretching fabric by the impact of the elastic threads is as much suitable for making the body-conscious line. The stones are composed of acrylic cabochon and gemstone. They are symbolically expressed the lumpy and bumpy back skin of the chameleon and produced the effect of the colors visibly different. The primary technique used in this dress is the draping utilizing the biased grains. The front body piece is connected to the hood and joined to the back piece without any seam. For the irregular hemline flares, leaving the several rectangular pieces with bias grains, they were connected by interlocking. What defines the clothes is the person in action. Therefore, what decides the completeness of clothes might be its comfortable and enjoyable feeling by living and acting people. The chameleon dress could also reach its goal of comforting and pleasing Wearable Art in the process of studying the techniques and effects that visibly differentiate the colors. It is considered as a main point of the Wearable Art, which is a comfortable enjoyable clothing tempered with the artistic beauty.
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