• Title, Summary, Keyword: Silage Temperature

Search Result 71, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

Effects of Aspergillus oryzae Inclusion on Corn Silage Fermentation

  • Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg;Ku, Hsiao-Che;Chen, Chao-Ren;Yu, Bi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1568-1579
    • /
    • 2001
  • This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (AFE) on corn silage fermentation characteristics. Trial included two groups of treatments, with or without AFE inclusion in corn ensilage. Sixty corn silage containers, including two treatments with thirty replicates each, were processed in a laboratory scale mini-silo of 21 cm radius by 45 cm height. Three replicate containers were opened and sampled for analysis at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 18 and 34 days after being ensiled. One silage container from each treatment was installed with a remote controlled electronic thermometer to record the temperature changes. Analysis included silage temperature, pH, fermentation acids, the water-soluble carbohydrates and chemical compositions and the silage protein fractions. Results showed that on the first day, the temperature of the ensiled corn was slightly higher than room temperature, but returned to room temperature on the second day. The pH and concentrations of WSC, ADF, lignin and acetic acid in the AFE treated silage were significantly lower than the control groups (p<0.05). The lactic acid and crude protein on the other hand were significantly higher in the AFE treated silage as compared to the control (p<0.05) at the end of the ensilage period. The DM content was significantly higher (p<0.05) whereas the butyric acid content of the AFE treated silage was significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control at the end of the 34 day ensilage period. Titratable acid and buffering capacity in the corn silage were not significantly different between treatment groups (p>0.05). Ammonia N concentration in the AFE treated silage showed a trend of decrease (p>0.05). NPN and the protein fraction A in both groups increased during the conservation period, but fraction A in the AFE treated corn silage was significantly higher than the control silage (p<0.05). During the conservation period, the AFE treated corn silage showed a trend toward a decrease in fractions $B_1$, $B_3$ and C (p<0.05). The protein fraction B2 showed a trend toward increase in the control group and an inconsistent trend in the AFE treated silage during the ensiling period. The AFE treated silage showed a better Flieg score over the control silage (97 vs. 75) as calculated from the concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid.

Effects on microbial diversity of fermentation temperature (10℃ and 20℃), long-term storage at 5℃, and subsequent warming of corn silage

  • Zhou, Yiqin;Drouin, Pascal;Lafreniere, Carole
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.32 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1528-1539
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objective: To evaluate the effects on microbial diversity and biochemical parameters of gradually increasing temperatures, from $5^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$ on corn silage which was previously fermented at ambient or low temperature. Methods: Whole-plant corn silage was fermented in vacuum bag mini-silos at either $10^{\circ}C$ or $20^{\circ}C$ for two months and stored at $5^{\circ}C$ for two months. The mini-silos were then subjected to additional incubation from $5^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$ in $5^{\circ}C$ increments. Bacterial and fungal diversity was assessed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling and biochemical analysis from mini-silos collected at each temperature. Results: A temperature of $10^{\circ}C$ during fermentation restricted silage fermentation compared to fermentation temperature of $20^{\circ}C$. As storage temperature increased from $5^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$, little changes occurred in silages fermented at $20^{\circ}C$, in terms of most biochemical parameters as well as bacterial and fungal populations. However, a high number of enterobacteria and yeasts (4 to $5\;log_{10}$ colony forming unit/g fresh materials) were detected at $15^{\circ}C$ and above. PCR-DGGE profile showed that Candida humilis predominated the fungi flora. For silage fermented at $10^{\circ}C$, no significant changes were observed in most silage characteristics when temperature was increased from $5^{\circ}C$ to $20^{\circ}C$. However, above $20^{\circ}C$, silage fermentation resumed as observed from the significantly increased number of lactic acid bacteria colonies, acetic acid content, and the rapid decline in pH and water-soluble carbohydrates concentration. DGGE results showed that Lactobacillus buchneri started to dominate the bacterial flora as temperature increased from $20^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$. Conclusion: Temperature during fermentation as well as temperature during storage modulates microorganism population development and fermentation patterns. Silage fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ indicated that these silages should have lower aerobic stability at opening because of better survival of yeasts and enterobacteria.

Development of Mechanized System Model for the Production of Winter Cereal Wrap Silage in the Fallow Paddy Field(4) - Storage property and quality analysis of winter cereal wrap silage - (답리작 맥류 랩-사일리지의 기계화 시스템 모델 개발(4) - 답리작 맥류 랩-사일리지의 저장특성 및 품질평가 -)

  • 김혁주;박경규;하유신;홍동혁
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.293-300
    • /
    • 2004
  • In order to solve the shortage of roughage supply for dairy farm in Korea, the mechanized model system for the production of winter cereal wrap silage in the fellow paddy field was developed in the previous studies. In this study, storage properties after long term storing of the winter cereal wrap silage were investigated. Also, the qualities of the wrap silage which was stored during 4 months were evaluated by sensory testings, analyzing chemical properties(moisture content, pH and organic acids) and investigating the increase of feeding value. The result of this study were summarized as follows; 1. After 300 hours storage, the acid level of the silage decreased slowly to 4.6 -4.8 pH. Also, the temperature was stabilized around 27-28$^{\circ}C$. The silage having below 5.0 pH is a desirable level for the most of good silage. 2. According to the sensory test and chemical property analyzation it was evaluated as the first class silage like a com silage. 3. Also, when the wrap silage are fed to the cattle, the cattle produced milk more 25% than that of conventional feed. 4. As an overall conclusion, winter cereal wrap silage in the fallow paddy field cm be one of the major roughage source in replacement of com and other conventional silage to dairy cattle in Korea.

Effect of inoculants and storage temperature on the microbial, chemical and mycotoxin composition of corn silage

  • Wang, Musen;Xu, Shengyang;Wang, Tianzheng;Jia, Tingting;Xu, Zhenzhen;Wang, Xue;Yu, Zhu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.31 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1903-1912
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objective: To evaluate the effect of lactic acid bacteria and storage temperature on the microbial, chemical and mycotoxin composition of corn silage. Methods: Corn was harvested at 32.8% dry matter, and chopped to 1 to 2 cm. The chopped material was subjected to three treatments: i) control (distilled water); ii) $1{\times}10^6$ colony forming units (cfu)/g of Lactobacillus plantarum; iii) $1{\times}10^6cfu/g$ of Pediococcus pentosaceus. Treatments in triplicate were ensiled for 55 d at $20^{\circ}C$, $28^{\circ}C$, and $37^{\circ}C$ in 1-L polythene jars following packing to a density of approximately $800kg/m^3$ of fresh matter, respectively. At silo opening, microbial populations, fermentation characteristics, nutritive value and mycotoxins of corn silage were determined. Results: L. plantarum significantly increased yeast number, water soluble carbohydrates, nitrate and deoxynivalenol content, and significantly decreased the ammonia N value in corn silage compared with the control (p<0.05). P. pentosaceus significantly increased lactic acid bacteria and yeast number and content of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, while decreasing mold population and content of nitrate and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalneol in corn silage when stored at $20^{\circ}C$ compared to the control (p<0.05). Storage temperature had a significant effect on deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone level in corn silage (p<0.05). Conclusion: Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus did not decrease the contents of mycotoxins or nitrate in corn silage stored at three temperatures.

Effects of Microbial Inoculants on the Fermentation, Nutrient Retention, and Aerobic Stability of Barley Silage

  • Zahiroddini, H.;Baah, J.;McAllister, T.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.19 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1429-1436
    • /
    • 2006
  • Fermentation characteristics, nutrient retention and aerobic stability of barley silages prepared using 6 commercial inoculants were evaluated using 126 mini-silos (3-L) in a completely randomized design. Whole barley forage was chopped, wilted to 39% DM and treated with water (control, S) or one of six inoculants: A (containing Lactobacillus plantarum); B (L. plantarum and Enterococcus faecium); C (L. plantarum and Pediococcus cerevisiae); D (L. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii, plus hydrolytic enzymes); E (Lactobacillus buchneri plus hydrolytic enzymes); F (L. buchneri and P. pentosaceus plus hydrolytic enzymes). Samples of treated forage were collected for analysis at the time of ensiling, and then 18 silos of each treatment were filled, capped and weighed. Triplicate silos were weighed and opened after 1, 3, 5, 7, 33, and 61 d. On d 61, $400{\pm}5g$ of material from each silo was placed in 1-L styrofoam containers, covered with cheesecloth and held at room temperature. Silage temperature was recorded hourly for 14 d via implanted thermocouple probes. Chemical composition of the forage at ensiling was consistent with previously reported values. At d 61, pH was lowest (p<0.01) in silage S. Ammonia-N was lower (p<0.05) in silage A than in silages S, B, E, or F. Compared to pre-ensiling values, water soluble carbohydrate concentrations were elevated in silages S, A, B, C and D, and decreased in E and F. Lactic acid concentrations were similar (p>0.10) across treatments. Acetic acid levels were highest (p<0.01) in silage E and lowest (p<0.01) in silage D. Recovery of DM was lower (p<0.01) in silage F than in silages S, A, B, C, or D. On d 61, yeasts were most numerous (p<0.01) in silage D, which was the only silage in which temperature rose more than $2^{\circ}C$ above ambient during aerobic exposure. Silage D also had the highest (p<0.01) pH and ADIN content after aerobic exposure. Lactic acid and WSC content of silage D decreased dramatically during the 14-d aerobic exposure period. Yeast counts (at d 14 of exposure) were lowest (p<0.01) in silages E and F. In general, the commercial inoculants did not appear to enhance the fermentation of barley silage to any appreciable extent in laboratory silos.

Quality Analysis of Fresh Rice Straw Wrapping Silage by Softening Treatment of Fresh Rice Straw and Colors Effects of Wrapping Stretch Film (생볏짚의 연화처리와 피복스트레치 필름의 색깔에 따른 랩사일리지의 품질분석)

  • 이성현;김종근;최광재;유병기;오권영
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
    • /
    • v.27 no.4
    • /
    • pp.335-340
    • /
    • 2002
  • Recently, in Korea, round bale wrapping silage made by fresh rice straw are partially utilized. The colors of stretch film using far wrapping the fresh rice straw round bale are white, green and black. The light transmittance of green and white color stretch film was not founded the difference. However, the light transmittance of black color stretch film was largely difference of two stretch films. This study was carried out to measure qualities of fresh rice straw wrapping silage by softening processing of fresh rice straw and colors effects of wrapping stretch film. The analyzed factors were the light transmittance of stretch film, variation of the temperature in fresh rice straw round bale and qualities of the silage in crude protein, ADF, NDF, organic acid, etc. It was difficult to find in this study the colors effects of stretch film on silage qualities by the silage wrapping. But, when make fresh rice straw wrapping silage, wrapping silage fermentation effect goes well more if handle softening the fresh rice straw.

Effects of Pine Silage Feeding on Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics, and Blood Concentrations of Stress-Related Hormones in HANWOO Steers (잣나무 생지엽(生枝葉) 사일리지 급여가 거세한우의 반추위 발효성상 및 스트레스 관련 Hormone의 혈 중 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, S.C.;Jung, C.S.;Oh, Y.K.;Kim, K.H.;Cho, S.B.;Kim, T.G.;Lee, S.S.;Moon, Yea-Hwang
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.47 no.2
    • /
    • pp.253-260
    • /
    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to utilize the wastes produced from thinning the forest as a roughage source for ruminants. Four ruminally cannulated Korean steers were used to investigate the ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood concentrations of stress-related hormones. Treatments were composed of the rice straw only (Control) and the 30% pine silage plus 70% rice straw(Pine silage) as roughages. The experiment was conducted with four replicates by a double tum over design. For sampling of blood under high temperature steers were accommodated in respiratory chamber. Concentrations of ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia were not affected by substitution of pine silage. Mean concentration of blood thyroxine was significantly(P < 0.01) lower in the pine silage than the control. However, blood cortisol concentration was not affected by substitution of pine silage, even though it was significantly(P < 0.05) decreased after exposure for 6 hrs in high temperature. It was concluded that the pine silage using the wastes produced from thinning the forest could be use as a substitute roughage for reduction of heat stress in ruminant.

Effects of Maturing Stage of Corn Hybrids on Silage Yield, Feeding Value for Dairy Cows and Milk Production in a Cold Region of Japan

  • Oshita, Tomoko;Takayama, Hideki;Otsuka, Hiroshi;Igarashi, Hiroaki;Nonaka, Kazuhisa;Kume, Shinichi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.4
    • /
    • pp.511-516
    • /
    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of differently maturing corn hybrids on silage production and milk production per unit area in the northern part of Japan, where grain development occurs under decreasing ambient temperature. Both hybrids were harvested at the same time. The stages of maturity for the early-maturing hybrids (EH; 80 d relative maturity) and the mid-maturing hybrids (MH; 93 d relative day) were early dent and late dough stage, respectively. The plant yields for MH were higher than those for EH. The dry matter (DM) content of MH was lower than that for EH, and the effluent loss for MH silage was greater than that for EH silage. Therefore, the DM yields of prepared silage per area were similar for both treatments. Twelve multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows ($58{\pm}13$ days in milk) were fed diets based on EH or MH silage in a crossover design with two 3-week periods. Cows were fed 3 kg of hay crop silage (DM basis) and either EH or MH silage ad libitum, and concentrates were supplied to meet NRC requirement for dairy cows. Silage DM intake for EH was found to be higher (p<0.05) than that for MH (10.0 vs. 9.1 kg/day). Milk production and milk composition for EH were similar to those for MH. Feed efficiency per total feed intake was similar in both treatments, although the feed efficiency per concentrate intake tended to be higher for the EH than that for the MH diet. These results indicate that differences in maturation in corn hybrids affect the effluent production of silage and the silage intake of dairy cows. It may be advantageous to plant early hybrid corn with a reduction in effluent production of silage as well as a reduction in purchased feed costs for dairy cows under the climatic conditions of the northern part of Japan.

Temperature and microbial changes of corn silage during aerobic exposure

  • Lee, Seong Shin;Lee, Hyuk Jun;Paradhipta, Dimas Hand Vidya;Joo, Young Ho;Kim, Sang Bum;Kim, Dong Hyeon;Kim, Sam Churl
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.32 no.7
    • /
    • pp.988-995
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was conducted to estimate the temperature and microbial changes of corn silages during aerobic exposure. Methods: Kwangpyeongok (KW) and Pioneer 1543 (PI) corn hybrids were harvested at 29.7% of dry matter and chopped to 3 to 5 cm lengths. Homo (Lactobacillus plantarum; LP) or hetero (Lactobacillus buchneri; LB) fermentative inoculants at $1.2{\times}10^5$ colony forming unit/g of fresh forage was applied to the chopped corn forage which was then ensiled in quadruplicate with a $2{\times}2$ (hybrid${\times}$inoculant) treatment arrangement for 100 days. After the silo was opened, silage was sub-sampled for analysis of chemical compositions, in vitro digestibility, and fermentation indices. The fresh silage was continued to determine aerobic exposure qualities by recorded temperature and microbial changes. Results: The KW silages had higher (p<0.01) in vitro digestibilities of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber than those of PI silages. Silages applied with LB had higher (p<0.001) acetate concentration, but lower (p<0.01) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than those of LP silages. The interaction effect among hybrid and inoculant was detected in acetate production (p = 0.008), aerobic stability (p = 0.006), and lactic acid bacteria count (p = 0.048). The yeast was lower (p = 0.018) in LB silages than that in LP silages. During the aerobic exposure, PI silages showed higher (p<0.05) temperature and mold than KW silages, while LP silages had higher (p<0.05) lactic acid bacteria and yeast than LB silages. Conclusion: The results indicated that the changes of silage temperature during aerobic exposure seems mainly affected by mold growth, while applied LB only enhanced aerobic stability of PI silages.

Effects of supplementation of hairy vetch on the quality of whole crop barley silage (헤어리베치의 첨가가 맥류 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Won-Sup;Yang, Byung-Mo;Heo, Jung-Min;Lee, Hyung-Suk;Lee, Soo-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.42 no.4
    • /
    • pp.383-388
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of hairy vetch supplementation on quality of winter crop silage. There were 4 treatments (addition levels of hairy vetch ; 0, 5, 15, and 30%) with 3 replicates. Experimental silages stored for 40 days at room temperature ($20-25^{\circ}C$). THe silage crude protein level was improved (P<0.05) while hairy vetch supplementation increased. However, no difference was found (P>0.05) in crude fat, NDF and ADF of the silage while hairy vetch supplementation increased. The silage pH was increased (P<0.05) but lactic acid level was decreased (P<0.05) while hairy vetch supplementation increased. Nonetheless, acetic and butyric acids concentrations were increased (P<0.05) while hairy vetch supplementation increased. Sucrose, glucose and fructose levels were increased (P<0.05) while hairy vetch supplementation increased. Although negative effects were detected in whole crop barley silage while hairy vetch supplementation increased, optimum level of hairy vetch supplementation could be overwhelmed its negative effects on whole crop barley silage. Thus, the results of present study suggested that 15% hairy vetch supplementation of whole crop barley silage would be beneficial its quality maintenance compared to whole crop barley silage per se.