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Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced

  • Terramoccia, S.;Bartocci, S.;Taticchi, A.;Di Giovanni, S.;Pauselli, M.;Mourvaki, E.;Urbani, S.;Servili, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.971-980
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    • 2013
  • Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs $8.60{\mu}g/g$, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs $2.54{\mu}g/g$, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs $15.05{\mu}g$ MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of $C18:3{\omega}6$. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA ($36.0{\mu}g/L$) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol.

Comparison of Forage Productivity and Quality of Italian Ryegrass and Barley Mono, and Mixtures Sown in Early Spring (이탈리안 라이그라스와 청보리의 이른 봄 단파 및 혼파 재배 시 생산성과 사료가치 비교)

  • Seo, Sung;Chung, Eui-Soo;Kim, Ki-Yong;Choi, Gi-Jun;Ahn, Jong-Nam;Han, Jong-Seok;Park, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Yong-Su
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to determine the forage production and quality of Italian ryegrass (IRG) and forage barley sown in early spring in Suwon, 2009. The five treatments used in this experiment were IRG Kowinearly (early maturity), IRG Kowinmaster (medium maturity), Yuyeon barley, Kowinearly + Yuyeon mixture, and Kowinmaster + Yuyeon mixture. The lodging was observed in IRG, but no lodging was found IRG + barley mixtures. The heading date of Kowinearly and Kowinmaster were 16 May and 22 May, respectively, and that of barley was 13 May. The dry matter (DM) percentage at harvest was 22.2~27.6%. The forage quality among treatments were similar, but the crude protein (CP) content of IRG was higher than that of barley, and in vitro DM digestibility was a little low in Kowinmaster. The yields of DM, CP and digestible DM were high in Kowinearly + Yuyeon barley mixtures as a 13,816 kg, 1,384 kg and 10,387 kg per ha, respectively (p<0.05). In conclusion, the mixture cultivation of IRG and forage barley was very effective, because of preventing of IRG lodging, increasing of forage yield, and stable production of forages. The optimum harvest date for silage manufacture of IRG and barley sown in early spring was recommended early June instead of May.

Yield and Quality of Forage Mixture as Affected by Maturity of Rye Cultivar and Oat-Rye Seeding Rate (호밀품종의 조만성과 연맥-호밀의 파종량이 혼파사초의 수량과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, H.J.;Park, H.S.;Kim, S.G.;Kim, D.A.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.239-250
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    • 2002
  • Evaluation works of oat in mixture with rye on forage yield have not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine yield and quality of forage mixture as affected by maturity of rye cultivar and oat-rye seeding rate at Suweon from 1999 to 2000. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with three replications. Main plots consisted of maturity of rye. such as early(cv. Koolgrazer) and late(cv. Kodiak)maturing cultivars. Sub-plots consisted of seeding rate (T1: Oat 2000 and rye 0kg/ha, Ts: Oat 150 and rye 40kg/ha, T3: Oat100 and rye 80kg/ha, T4: Oat50 and rye 120kg/ha. and T5: Oat0 and rye 160kg/ha). Crude protein(CP) content of oat-rye mixture harvested in the fall was not influenced by maturity of rye cultivar, but that of oat-rye mixture was increased from 13.6 to 19.3% as the seeding rate of rye increased(P<0.05), however, maturity of rye cultivar significantly affected CP content of oat-rye mixture in the spring(P<0.01). Acid detergent fiber(ADF) content of oat-rye mixture harvested in the spring was not significantly affected by rye cultivar, but the ADF was decreased from 27.8 to 20.7% as the seeding rate of rye increased(P$<$0.01). When rye was harveste in the spring, ADF content of late maturing cultivar 'Kodiak' was shown as 28.0%. This was lower than that of early maturing cultivar 'Koolgrazer' which was shown as 35.8%(P$<$0.01). Among treatments, neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) of oat-rye mixture showed a similar trend made on ADF. In this experiment, the highest forage yield (12.356kg/ha) was obtained from early maturing rye cultivar and seeding rates of 100kg/ha of oat and 80kg/ha of rye mixture. A significant interaction between maturity of rye cultivar and seeding rate was found(P$<$0.01). The above results indicate that an early maturing rye cultivar at the seeding rate of 100kd/ha in mixtures with 80kg/ha of oat could be recommended as a succeeding cropping system after corn for silage.

Effects of Different Fat Sources on Fermentative Characteristics and Microbial Efficiency in the Rumen, and Nutrients Digestibility of Dairy Cows (지방첨가원에 따른 젖소의 반추위 발효성상 미생물 합성 효율 및 영양소 소화율 영향 연구)

  • Choi, N.J.;Maeng, H.J.;Kim, H.J.;Lee, H.G.;Ha, J.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2004
  • Four Holstein cows were used in a 4 ${\times}$ 4 Latin square experiment to study effects of fat sources on rumen metabolism and digestibility of nutrients. All cows were fed a total mixed diets containing 60% silage and 40% concentrate. The four concentrates were formulated to contain either Megalac(MEG), formaldehyde-treated whole linseed(LIN), a mixture (50 : 50, oil basis) of fish oil and formaldehyde-treated whole linseed(MIX), or no fat source in the concentrate but 500g per day of linseed oil being infused into the duodemm (OIL). The rumen pH was lowest in OIL among the treatments(P < 0.05), but ammonia N concentration in the rumen was not significantly different among the treatments. The differences of total VFA, acetate, propionate, iso-butyrate and iso-valerate concentrations were not significant among the treatments. While, butyrate and valerate were highest in OIL and lowest in MEG(P < 0.05 and P <0.01, respectively). In addition, A:P ratio was also highest in OIL and lowest in MEG(P < 0.05). As expected, intake of nutrients(DM, OM, NDF and ADF) was lowest in OIL among the treatments(P < 0.01). However, all nutrients flow to the duodenum, and digestion in the rumen and total tract were not significantly different among the treatments. Intake of N was highest in MEG, but lowest in OIL treatment(P < 0.01). Duodenal flow of total N, nonammonia N and microbial N was not significantly different across the treatments. In addition, microbial synthesis and ammonia N and total N digestibility were not affected by different dietary fat sources. The present results show that fermentative characteristic and microbial efficiency in the rumen, and nutrients digestibility in the rumen and total tract were not depressed by supplementation of as much as 6% dietary fat sources.

Effects of Manufacturing Methods of Broiler Litter and Bakery By-product Ration for Ruminants on Physico-chemical Properties (육계분과 제과부산물을 이용한 반추가축용 완전혼합사료(TMR) 제조 시 가공처리 방법이 물리화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, W.S.;Yoon, J.S.;Jung, K.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.593-606
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to develop effective manufacturing methods of a total mixed ration(TMR) composed of broiler litter(BL) and bakery by-product(BB) for ruminants. Five experiments included a small-scaled manufacture of TMR using a deepstacking method(Exp. 1), its pelletization(Exp. 2), its field-scaled manufacture(Exp. 3), a field-scaled manufacture using an ensiling method(Exp. 4), and a mixing process of deepstacked BL and BB prior to feeding(Exp. 5). BL and BB were mixed at a ratio which makes total digestible nutrients of the TMR 69%. For each experiment, temperature, appearance and physico-chemical properties were recorded and analyzed. The chemical composition data revealed that the mixture of BL and BB showed nutritionally additive balance which resulted from a considerable increase(P<0.05) of organic matter and a desirable decrease(P<0.05) of protein and fiber up to the requirement level for growing ‘Hanwoo’ steers. Deepstacking of BL and BB in Exp. 1 and 3 resulted in a sufficient increase of stack temperature for pasteurization, little chemical losses, appearance of white fungi on the surface, and partial charring due to excess stack temperature. For Exp. 2, its pelleting, which was successful using a simple, small-scaled pelletizer, resulted in a little loss(P<0.05) of organic matter and an increase(P<0.05) of indigestible protein(ADF-CP). Ensiling the mixture in Exp. 4 made little effect on chemical composition; however, one month of the ensiling period was not enough for favorable silage parameters. Deepstacking BL alone in Exp. 5 tended(P<0.1) to decrease true protein : NPN ratio and hemicellulose content and increase ADF-CP content due to the heat damage occurred. Deepstacking or ensiling of BL-BB mixtures and simple incorporating of BB into deepstacked BL prior to feeding could be practical and nutrients-preservative methods in TMR manufacture for beef cattle, although ensiling needed further hygienic evaluation.

Transfer and Validation of NIRS Calibration Models for Evaluating Forage Quality in Italian Ryegrass Silages (이탈리안 라이그라스 사일리지의 품질평가를 위한 근적외선분광 (NIRS) 검량식의 이설 및 검증)

  • Cho, Kyu Chae;Park, Hyung Soo;Lee, Sang Hoon;Choi, Jin Hyeok;Seo, Sung;Choi, Gi Jun
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.sup
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2012
  • This study was evaluated high end research grade Near infrared spectrophotometer (NIRS) to low end popular field grade multiple Near infrared spectrophotometer (NIRS) for rapid analysis at forage quality at sight with 241 samples of Italian ryegrass silage during 3 years collected whole country for evaluate accuracy and precision between instruments. Firstly collected and build database high end research grade NIRS using with Unity Scientific Model 2500X (650 nm~2,500 nm) then trim and fit to low end popular field grade NIRS with Unity Scientific Model 1400 (1,400 nm~2,400 nm) then build and create calibration, transfer calibration with special transfer algorithm. The result between instruments was 0.000%~0.343% differences, rapidly analysis for chemical constituents, NDF, ADF, and crude protein, crude ash and fermentation parameter such as moisture, pH and lactic acid, finally forage quality parameter, TDN, DMI, RFV within 5 minutes at sight and the result equivalent with laboratory data. Nevertheless during 3 years collected samples for build calibration was organic samples that make differentiate by local or yearly bases etc. This strongly suggest population evaluation technique needed and constantly update calibration and maintenance calibration to proper handling database accumulation and spread out by knowledgable control laboratory analysis and reflect calibration update such as powerful control center needed for long lasting usage of forage analysis with NIRS at sight. Especially the agriculture products such as forage will continuously changes that made easily find out the changes and update routinely, if not near future NIRS was worthless due to those changes. Many research related NIRS was shortly study not long term study that made not well using NIRS, so the system needed check simple and instantly using with local language supported signal methods Global Distance (GD) and Neighbour Distance (ND) algorithm. Finally the multiple popular field grades instruments should be the same results not only between research grade instruments but also between multiple popular field grade instruments that needed easily transfer calibration and maintenance between instruments via internet networking techniques.

Characteristics and Yield of Recommended Cultivars by Imported Forage Crop Yield Regional Trials in 2002 II. Mid-maturing, Good Quality, and High Yield of Forage Corn Hybrid, “Nc+4880”, “Garst 8396 IT” (2002年 사료작물 수입적응성 인증품종의 생육특성 및 수양성 II. 중숙 양질 다수성 사일리지용 옥수수 교잡종 “Nc+4880” 및 “Garst 8396 IT”)

  • Sung, B.R.;Lim, Y.W.;Lim, Y.C;Kim, K.Y.;Lim, K.B.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.253-258
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    • 2002
  • NC+4880, a forage com hybrid, is bred by NC+hybrids Co. in US, and Gast 8396 IT is by Garst Seeds Co. We have tested these two cultivars in Suwon and Chonan over three years to test their regional yield trial. Through above experiments, the excellence is testified, in result, they are determined as new recommended cultivars by NACF. The main characteristics of these cultivars are as tallows ; 1. NC+4880 a. The seed coat is yellow, the mean tasseling date is 7th of July and it takes about 74 days from emergence to tasseling date. This hybrid is a day ahead and the culm length is 242 cm, moreless shorter comparing with a check hybrid, Suwon 19. The ear height 117 cm which is short and its stay green is moderate. b. It shows resistance to H maydis, and MBSDV is barely observed and its stay green is moderate. c. The fresh yield, dry matter yield, and TDN yield per a ha are 55.4 tons, 18.3 tons, 12.4 tons, respectively, which are increased by 6%, 7%, and 9%, respectively, comparing with a check hybrid, Suwon 19. The percent ear among total dry matter yield is 50.9%. 2. Garst 8396 IT a. The seed coat is yellow, the mean tasseling date is 9th of July and it takes about 76 days from emergence to tasseling date. This hybrid represent a day delayed compared with a check hybrid, Suwon 19. The Culm length and the ear height are 275 cm, and 138 cm, respectively. b. It resists moderately to H. maydis, and highly resists to lodging in the field conditions. MBSDV is barely observed and its stay green is moderate. c. The fresh yield per a ha is 64.9 tons, dry matter yield, 20.9 tons, and TDN, 13.8 tons, respectively, which are increased by 25%, 23%, and 22% comparing with a check hybrid, Suwon 19. The percent ear among total dry matters is 43.3%.

Effects of Mixed Application of Chemical Fertilizer with Liquid Swine Manure on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Sorghum × Sorghum Hybrid for Silage in Paddy Field Cultivation (논 토양에서 사일리지용 수수 × 수수 교잡종 재배시 화학비료와 발효 돈분 액비 혼용 시용이 생육특성 및 영양성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwan, Hwang Joo;Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.290-296
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of the mixed application of chemical fertilizer (CF) with liquid swine manure (LSM) on the agronomic characteristics, dry matter yield, minerals, and free sugar in cultivating Sorghum ${\times}$ Sorghum Hybrid (SSH) on paddy soil. The field experiment was designed in a randomized block design with three replications and consisted of CF 100% (C), CF 70% + LSM 30% (T1), CF 50% + LSM 50% (T2), CF 30% + LSM 70% (T3), and LSM 100% treatment (T4). The application of LSM was based only on the nitrogen (150 kg/ha). Plant length, leaf length, leaf width and stem diameter were significantly the lower in T4 (p<0.05). Stem hardness increased significantly (p<0.05) as the LSM application rate decreased. Fresh yield was the highest in T2, whereas the lowest in T3 (p<0.05). However, dry matter yields and TDN yield did not show significant difference among treatments. Crude protein was the highest in T1 (p<0.05). Crude fat content did not significant differences between the T1, T2, T3 and T4, but C showed a significantly different (p<0.05). NDF and crude fiber were the highest in T3 and C, respectively (p<0.05). However, ADF did not show significant difference among treatments. Total mineral contents were higher in the order of T1> T2> T4> T3> C (p<0.05). Free sugar contents were significantly higher at T1 and C as compared to other treatments. The analysis of all the above results suggests that the application of liquid swine manure is very effective, considering the yield performance and the content of mineral and free sugar. In addition, liquid swine manure may be possible to grow SSH without chemical fertilizer.

'Nokyang', Whole Crop Forage Barley Cultivar with the Stay-Green Character, Resistance to Viral Disease and High-Yielding (내병 다수 후기녹체성 청보리 신품종 '녹양')

  • Park, Tae-Il;Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Park, Jong-Chul;Cho, Sang-Kyun;Noh, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Dae-Wook;Song, Tae-Hwa;Chae, Hyun-Seok;Jeung, Jae-Hyun;Hong, Ki-Heung;Bae, Jeong-Suk;Huh, Jae-Young;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Park, Ki-Hun;Han, Ouk-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2015
  • "Nokyang" (Hordeum vulgare L.), a new whole-crop silage barley cultivar, was developed by the breeding team at the Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, Korea in 2012. It was derived from combining "Nagyoung" and breeding line "SB77368-B-145". Among the combinations made in 2001, a promising line, "SB01T2017", showed good characteristics in terms of potential forage yield in the yield trial at Iksan from 2007 to 2009. In 2009, the promising line was designated as "Iksan457" and placed in regional yield trials at six locations around Korea for three years from 2010 to 2012, and was released under the name of "Nokyang." It has the growth habit of a group III creeping plant type, with a light-green leaf and common spike. Its average heading and maturing dates were on May 6 and June 4, respectively, which were later than cultivar "Youngyang." "Nokyang" also showed strong winter hardiness, and a resistance to shattering and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) similar to those of the check cultivar. The best thing among the traits of one is a new good quality with the plant green at the latter growing period. The average forage dry matter (DM) yields in the regional yield trial were about 12.8 and 11.5 MT $ha^{-1}$ in upland and paddy field, respectively, which were higher than those of the check cultivar, by 7% and 2%, respectively. This cultivar would be suitable for an area of the Korean peninsula where the daily minimum temperature in January is above $-8^{\circ}C$.

"Youhan", New Whole Crop Barley Cultivar of Hooded Spike and Fine Growth Ability in Spring (초기생육이 빠른 삼차망 청보리 신품종 '유한')

  • Park, Tae-Il;Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Park, Jong-Chul;Cho, Sang-Kyun;Noh, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Dae-Wook;Song, Tae-Hwa;Chae, Hyun-Seok;Jeung, Jae-Hyun;Hong, Ki-Heung;Bae, Jeong-Suk;Huh, Jae-Young;Jang, Yun-Woo;Kim, Kee-Jong;Park, Ki-Hun;Han, Ouk-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2015
  • "Youhan" (Hordeum vulgare L.), a new whole-crop barley cultivar, was developed by the breeding team at National Institute of Crop Science, RDA in 2012. Youhan has the growth habit of III, a light green and mid-sized leaf, hooded and lax-type spikes. The cultivar showed 107 cm of culm length, 641 spikes per $m^2$. The heading date of Youhan was May 1, which is one day later than that of the check cultivar "Yuyeon" in upland, and 2 days earlier than that of Yuyeon in paddy field. The maturation time was similar to check cultivar Yuyeon on June 4 in upland and May 31 in paddy field. In terms of winter hardiness and resistance to lodging and disease, Youhan also performed better than the check cultivar. The average forage dry matter (DM) yield in the regional yield trial was approximately 12.6 ton $ha^{-1}$ and 12.0 ton $ha^{-1}$ in upland and paddy field, respectively, which were 6% and 5% higher than that of the check. The yield also showed 7.3% of crude protein, 26.8% of ADF (acid detergent fiber), 47.8% of NDF (neutral detergent fiber), 67.7% of TDN (total digestible nutrients), and a higher grade of silage quality for the whole-crop barley. Fall sowing cropping of Youhan is recommended only in those areas where the average daily minimum-mean temperatures in January are higher than $-8^{\circ}C$, and it should not be cultivated in mountainous areas of Korea.