• Title/Summary/Keyword: Silage

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A Study on Utilization of Mixed Wild Flowers as a Silage Materials (Silage 재료로서 혼합 야생화의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Hyun-Min;Lee, In-Duk;Shin, Yong-Jun;Kim, Sung-Bok;Choi, Hyun-Su;Lee, Bong-Duk;Lee, Soo-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.383-386
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the quality of wild flowers and mixed wild flower silages. Silage materials employed ochardgrass and mixed wild flower (orchardgrass, white clover, Achillea sibirica Ledeb., Coreopsistinctoria Nutt., Rudbeckiabicolor Nutt., Centaureacyanus L.). Six kilograms of silage materials cut from each treatment were divided into 3 containers, packed by vacuum, and fermented for 40 days. The orchardgrass silage showed significantly higher contents of crude protein than that of mixed wild flower silage. But the neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber contents of orchardgrass silage were significantly lower than those of mixed wild flower silage. pH and butyric acid of orchardgrass silage were significantly lower than those of mixed wild flower silage, and significantly higher in lactic acid contents. It appears that water soluble carbohydrates needs to be supplemented, being grounded on the results above, into wild flower materials both with high fiber materials and with low substances which need lactic acid fermentation.

Feeding Value of Jambo Grass Silage and Mott Grass Silage for Lactating Nili Buffaloes

  • Touqir, N.A.;Khan, M. Ajmal;Sarwar, M.;Mahr-un-Nisa, Mahr-un-Nisa;Ali, C.S.;Lee, W.S.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of jambo grass (Sorghum $bicolour{\times}Sorghum$ sudanefe) silage and mott grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (jambo grass) in the diet of lactating Nili buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Thirty early-lactating ($45{\pm}4$ days), multi-parous Nili buffaloes, ten in each group, were allotted to three experimental diets. Jambo grass and mott grass were ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM) in two trench silos for 30 days. The control diet (JG) contained 75% jambo grass while the other two diets contained 75% jambo grass silage (JGS) and 75% mott grass silage (MGS). The remaining 25% DM in each diet was supplied by concentrates. Diets were mixed daily and fed twice a day ad libitum for 120 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher with the JG diet compared with JGS and MGS diets. However, DMI as % body weight did not differ significantly in buffaloes fed either fodder or silage based diets. Crude protein (CP), digestible CP and NDF intakes were significantly higher on JG compared with silage-based diets. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were similar in buffaloes fed JG, JGS and MGS diets. Milk yield (4% FCM) was similar in buffaloes fed JG and silage based diets. Fat, total solids, solid not fat, CP, true protein and non-protein nitrogen content of milk were similar in buffaloes fed fodder or silage based diets. The present results indicated that jambo grass and mott grass ensiled with 2% molasses for 30 days could safely replace the conventional fresh grass fodder (75% DM) in the diet of lactating Nili buffaloes without affecting their milk yield.

NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WHOLE CROP CORN FORAGE ENSILED WITH CAGE LAYER MANURE. I. QUALITY, VOLUNTARY FEED INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF THE SILAGES IN GOATS

  • Kim, J.H.;Yokota, H.;Ko, Y.D.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 1993
  • With the purpose to utilize cage layer manure (CLM), whole crop corn forage was ensiled with 30% CLM (MS silage) and without CLM (CS silage). MS silage was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in pH value, total VFA, propionic and butyric acids, and the ratio of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen, but lower (p < 0.05) in lactic acid and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents than CS silage. Digestibility was evaluated using Shiba strain Japanese goats. Urea was supplemented to CS silage at feeding to adjust nitrogen intake to MS silage (US silage). There were no differences in digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and energy among the three silages. However, US silage showed higher (p < 0.05) digestibility of crude protein, but digestibilities of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose were higher (p < 0.05) in MS silage. Nitrogen retention was positive in US and MS silages, but it was negative in CS silage. Voluntary feed intake of goats was 11.02, 12.03 and 13.34 g of DM per metabolic body weight ($kg^{0.75}$) for 10 minutes, for CS, US and MS silages, respectively.

NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WHOLE CROP CORN FORAGE ENSILED WITH CAGE LAYER MANURE. II. IN SITU DEGRADABILITY AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS IN THE RUMEN OF GOATS

  • Kim, J.H.;Yokota, H.;Ko, Y.D.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 1993
  • In situ degradability and fermentation characteristics in the rumen of goats fed whole crop corn forage ensiled with (MS silage) or without (CS silage) 30% of cage layer manure (CLM) were investigated. The two silages were well preserved. To adjust nitrogen intake of CS silage to that of MS silage, the 3rd group of goats was given urea with CS silage at feeding time (US silage). Each goat was given a diet of 2% of the body weight (dry matter basis) daily. In situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of MS silage in the rumen were higher than those of CS and US silages. Total potentially degradable portions of DM and CP in MS silage were also higher than those in CS and US silages. Blood urea nitrogen and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration of goats fed US and MS silages were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of goats fed CS silage. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids in ruminal fluids of goats fed MS silage were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of goats fed CS and US silages.

Effect of Formic acid and Caproic acids on the Quality and Aerobic Deterioration of Reed Canarygrass Silage (Formic acid와 Caproic acid 첨가가 Reed Canarygrass Silage의 품질과 호기적 변패에 미치는 영향)

  • 김재황;고영두
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.132-141
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    • 1994
  • In order to study the effects of silage additive on the quality and in preventing aerobic deterioration, reed canarygrass silages were made with various levels of formic acid, caproic acid and a mixture of the two acids. Preparation of silages cutted into about 1.5 cm length with the forage cutter and packed in vinyl bags(50 kg of capacity, 0.1 mrn of thickness), and it also divided nine types of experimental treatments. Aerobic deterioration in the silages were investigated for 7 days of aerobic exposure periods, and the plastic vessel of diameter 25 cm, a height 30 cm used as a tool. The results obtained from this experiment are summarized as fellow. 1. Crude protein and NFE contents at the time if opening were increased in the silage with mixture of formic and caproic acids(P<0.01). Crude fiber and ADF contents during the 7 days of aerobic exposure periods were the decreased in the sslages with mixture of two acods treatment(P<0.01). 2. Temperature of the silage treated with fromic acid alone during the 2 days of aerobic exposure period reached$34.4^{\circ}C$, while that of the silage with caproic acid and mixture formic and caproic acids were not rapidly increased resulting by reduced aerobic deteriorarion. 3. The pH of silages treated with formic acid alone during 7 days of aerobic exposure was not effectively changed, while solages treated with caproic acid were effectively stabilized. 4. The ratio of amminia nitrogen to total nitrogen was significantly decreased in silages with formic acid>caproic acid>mixture of both in the order(P<0.01). 5. Microbiological population of the silage were positively changed during the 7 days of aerobic exposure period. Solages with formic acid were deteriorated at ensiling observed, while applicarion of 1.2% caproic acid was partially reduced deteriorarion by precenting of the growth moulds.

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Effect of Yeast Addition in Rice Straw Silage Fermentation (볏짚 Silage 발효를 위한 효모의 첨가 효과)

  • 옥지운;이상민;이신자;임정화;강태원;정희영;문여황;이성실
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.691-698
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    • 2006
  • Three species of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Humicola grisea and Candida glabrata were assumed as microbial inoculants for fermentation of rice straw silage. Four types of silage innoculated with three yeasts including control (non-treatment) were opened on day 1, 3, 6, 9, 15 and 20 after ensiling, and analyzed for fermentation status (pH, crude protein, microbial counts) and the microbial population attached with silage texture using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The results obtained were summarized as fallow; The pH of silage juice was decreased to 4.3 after 6th day of fermentation in the treatments innoculated with yeast, but was not changed at the ranges of 5.47 to 5.67 in control. Crude protein concentration of silage was increased by 38~41% with yeast inoculation compared to control. From SEM observation, it could be confirmed that crude protein concentration of silage was increased by microbial growth and SCP synthesis. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata could be used as useful fermenters of rice straw silage.

Studies on the Utilization of Wastes from Fish Processing I - Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Preparing Skipjack Tuna Viscera Silage (수산물 가공부산물의 이용에 관한 연구 I -가다랭이 내장 발효 silage 제조를 위한 유산균주의 배양특성)

  • YOON Ho-Dong;LEE Doo-Seog;JI Cheong-Il;SUH Sang-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1997
  • In order to utilize fish by-products from the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) canning manufactures Lactobacillus buigaricus KCTC 3188 and L. piantarum KCTC 1048 were used as a starter culture for the preparation of fermented fish silage with skipjark tuna viscera. The optimum temperature and pH on barterial growth and lactic acid production of L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum in MRS broth were $35^{\circ}C$ and around pH 6.0, respectively. And the optimum concentrations of the carbohydrate sources added to the broths were $7\%$ for dextrose and $10\%$ for molasses on the basis of total weights of skipjack tuna viscera. The pH of acid treated skipjack tuna viscera silage (ASS) slightly increased from 4.0 to 4.5, while that of fermented skipjack tuna viscera silages by the use of lactic acid bacterias (FSS) was significantly declined from 5.9 to about 40 after 42 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$. Though the content of volatile basie nitrogen (VBN) in ASS was lower than those of FSS after 42 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$, VBN content in silages slightly increased from an initial value of $62\~65{\cdot}mg/100g$ to final value of $113\~155\;mg/100g$ over 42 days. The fermented silage by L. piantarum reached a maximum concentration of amino nitrogen and showed $81\%$ of hydrolysis degree after 4 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$.

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Effects of Alfalfa and Brown Mid-rib Corn Silage and Level of Forage Neutral Detergent Fiber on Animal Performance of Lactating Cows in Michigan

  • Min, Doo-Hong;Bucholtz, Herb;Naasz, Paul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.373-377
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    • 2007
  • Alfalfa silage and corn silage are the major dairy feeds in most dairy operations in Michigan, USA. In recent years, the need to improve digestible fiber and dry matter intake of forages to meet the nutrient requirements of high yielding dairy cows and the willingness to plant corn specifically for silage has led plant breeders to focus on the brown mid-rib (BMR) trait. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different ratio of alfalfa to BMR corn silage and ration level of forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on animal performance of lactating cows in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This study was conducted at the Upper Peninsula Experiment Station of Michigan State University in Chatham, Michigan, USA. Two different ratios of forage type (high alfalfa silage/low BMR corn silage, AS, and high BMR corn silage/low alfalfa silage, BMRCS) and two different dietary NDF contents (27% NDF, 27 = low forage/high grain feeding, and 33% NDF, 33 = high forage/low grain feeding) were used. The experimental design was a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square with 20 milking cows (12 multiparous and 8 primiparous). This trial had four 21-day periods with 14 d adaptation and 7 d data collection. Milk yield and body condition score (BCS) on the AS-27, BMRCS-27 and BMRCS-33 treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than on the AS-33 treatment. Dry matter intake of the AS-27 and BMRCS-27 treatments was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for the AS-33 and BMRCS-33 treatments. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) on the AS-33 treatment was significantly (p<0.05) higher than on the other diet treatments. A key finding of this study was that the BMRCS-33 (higher amounts of brown mid-rib corn silage than alfalfa silage, high forage and low grain feeding diet at 33% NDF) led to the equal highest milk production whilst having the equal lowest dry matter intake. This study demonstrated that the diet with higher ratio of highly digestible NDF forage such as brown mid-rib corn silage to alfalfa silage could lower grain feeding in the ration.

Year-long Feeding of Silage and Stability of Feed Quality (사일리지의 연간급여와 사료성분의 안정성)

  • 성경일
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 1992
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate chemical composition change and fermentation characteristics of orchardgrass, alfalfa or corn silage in the airtight silo for one year of storage. Two trials were conducted for two years. Fermentation characteristics of silages were evaluated by color, oder, texture and taste. Chemical composition of corn silage was not changed, and fermentation characteristics of this silage was favorable for 7 months of storage from December to June of the following year. In the aspect of dry matter loss and fermentation characteristics of silages, it is essential to maintain less than 70 or 60% of moisture contents in orchardgrass silage or alfalfa silage, respectively, for long term storage and feed quality stabilization. It is suggested that wilting treatment of orchardgrass or alfalfa and moisture contents of these silages are most important factors to determine silage quality.

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Year-long Feeding of Silage and Stability of Feed Quality (사일리지의 연간급여와 사료성분의 안정성)

  • 성경일
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.19.1-19.1
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    • 1992
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate chemical composition change and fermentation characteristics of orchardgrass, alfalfa or corn silage in the airtight silo for one year of storage. Two trials were conducted for two years. Fermentation characteristics of silages were evaluated by color, oder, texture and taste. Chemical composition of corn silage was not changed, and fermentation characteristics of this silage was favorable for 7 months of storage from December to June of the following year. In the aspect of dry matter loss and fermentation characteristics of silages, it is essential to maintain less than 70 or 60% of moisture contents in orchardgrass silage or alfalfa silage, respectively, for long term storage and feed quality stabilization. It is suggested that wilting treatment of orchardgrass or alfalfa and moisture contents of these silages are most important factors to determine silage quality.