• Title, Summary, Keyword: Silage

Search Result 822, Processing Time 0.037 seconds

NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WHOLE CROP CORN FORAGE ENSILED WITH CAGE LAYER MANURE. II. IN SITU DEGRADABILITY AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS IN THE RUMEN OF GOATS

  • Kim, J.H.;Yokota, H.;Ko, Y.D.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.6 no.1
    • /
    • pp.53-59
    • /
    • 1993
  • In situ degradability and fermentation characteristics in the rumen of goats fed whole crop corn forage ensiled with (MS silage) or without (CS silage) 30% of cage layer manure (CLM) were investigated. The two silages were well preserved. To adjust nitrogen intake of CS silage to that of MS silage, the 3rd group of goats was given urea with CS silage at feeding time (US silage). Each goat was given a diet of 2% of the body weight (dry matter basis) daily. In situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of MS silage in the rumen were higher than those of CS and US silages. Total potentially degradable portions of DM and CP in MS silage were also higher than those in CS and US silages. Blood urea nitrogen and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration of goats fed US and MS silages were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of goats fed CS silage. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids in ruminal fluids of goats fed MS silage were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of goats fed CS and US silages.

Feeding Value of Jambo Grass Silage and Mott Grass Silage for Lactating Nili Buffaloes

  • Touqir, N.A.;Khan, M. Ajmal;Sarwar, M.;Mahr-un-Nisa, Mahr-un-Nisa;Ali, C.S.;Lee, W.S.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.4
    • /
    • pp.523-528
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of jambo grass (Sorghum $bicolour{\times}Sorghum$ sudanefe) silage and mott grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (jambo grass) in the diet of lactating Nili buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Thirty early-lactating ($45{\pm}4$ days), multi-parous Nili buffaloes, ten in each group, were allotted to three experimental diets. Jambo grass and mott grass were ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM) in two trench silos for 30 days. The control diet (JG) contained 75% jambo grass while the other two diets contained 75% jambo grass silage (JGS) and 75% mott grass silage (MGS). The remaining 25% DM in each diet was supplied by concentrates. Diets were mixed daily and fed twice a day ad libitum for 120 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher with the JG diet compared with JGS and MGS diets. However, DMI as % body weight did not differ significantly in buffaloes fed either fodder or silage based diets. Crude protein (CP), digestible CP and NDF intakes were significantly higher on JG compared with silage-based diets. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were similar in buffaloes fed JG, JGS and MGS diets. Milk yield (4% FCM) was similar in buffaloes fed JG and silage based diets. Fat, total solids, solid not fat, CP, true protein and non-protein nitrogen content of milk were similar in buffaloes fed fodder or silage based diets. The present results indicated that jambo grass and mott grass ensiled with 2% molasses for 30 days could safely replace the conventional fresh grass fodder (75% DM) in the diet of lactating Nili buffaloes without affecting their milk yield.

Influence of Ripening Stages on the Quality of Whole Crop Silage and Grain Silage of Fodder Rice

  • Maruyama, S.;Yokoyama, I.;Asai, H.;Sakaguchi, S.;Ohtani, T.;Yokota, H.;Kita, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.340-344
    • /
    • 2005
  • In high-income Asian countries like Korea and Japan, per capita rice consumption has declined because of the change in consumer' favorite foods from rice to high-cost quality foods. This has forced farmers to reduce rice production. Although fodder rice could be another option to be cultured by farmers, available information concerning rice grain silage has been limited. In the present study, therefore, the difference in the quality of fodder rice silage prepared from either whole crop or grain at different ripening stages was compared. Various supplements were also added into whole crop and grain silages of fodder rice before ensiling, and thereafter, the palatability of prepared silages was determined by beef cattle. At ear emergence stage, the pH values for both grain and whole crop silages were approximately 4.5. In both grain and whole crop silages, the pH values were significantly increased by progressing ripening stages from milk-ripe stage to yellow-ripe stages, and the increase in pH value for grain silage was faster than that for whole crop silage. In the grain silage, the higher lactic acid (LA) content in grain silage seemed to be, the lower pH value was. Both in grain and whole crop silages, pH was significantly decreased by supplementation with LA bacteria. There were no significant differences in feed intake among any treatment groups.

Evaluation of Mixtures of Certain Market Wastes as Silage

  • Ozkul, H.;Kilic, A.;Polat, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.24 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1243-1248
    • /
    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of vegetable wastes as silage for ruminants. Varying amounts of wheat straw (WS), wheat bran (WB) and salt (S) were combined with minced vegetable wastes (VW) during ensilage. Seven different ingredient combinations were investigated viz: 100% VW (Group I, control), 90% VW+9% WS+1% S (Group II), 80% VW+15% WS+4% WB+1% S (Group III), 70% VW+20% WS+9% WB+1% S (Group IV), 90% VW+9% WB+1% S (Group V), 80% VW+15% WB+4% WS+1% S (Group VI) and 70% VW+20% WB+9% WS+1% S (Group VII). The inclusion of straw and bran increased (p<0.01) the DM content of silage. The highest contents of the pure silage were CP (p<0.001), EE (p<0.01) and NFE (p<0.05). NDF contents of VW silage and group V were significantly lower and especially the VW silage was found to have the lowest ADL content (p<0.01). The in vitro ME values of VW silage and bran added silage were higher than other groups (p<0.01). pH, lactic acid and acetic acid values of silage groups were changed between 4.09-4.20, 2.43-3.46% and 0.60-0.86%, respectively. In conclusion, different mixtures of VW have a high ensilage capacity and can serve as an alternative roughage source for ruminants. The addition of 9% bran significantly improved the silage in view of both dry matter content and nutritive value.

A Study on Utilization of Mixed Wild Flowers as a Silage Materials (Silage 재료로서 혼합 야생화의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Hyun-Min;Lee, In-Duk;Shin, Yong-Jun;Kim, Sung-Bok;Choi, Hyun-Su;Lee, Bong-Duk;Lee, Soo-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.37 no.3
    • /
    • pp.383-386
    • /
    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the quality of wild flowers and mixed wild flower silages. Silage materials employed ochardgrass and mixed wild flower (orchardgrass, white clover, Achillea sibirica Ledeb., Coreopsistinctoria Nutt., Rudbeckiabicolor Nutt., Centaureacyanus L.). Six kilograms of silage materials cut from each treatment were divided into 3 containers, packed by vacuum, and fermented for 40 days. The orchardgrass silage showed significantly higher contents of crude protein than that of mixed wild flower silage. But the neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber contents of orchardgrass silage were significantly lower than those of mixed wild flower silage. pH and butyric acid of orchardgrass silage were significantly lower than those of mixed wild flower silage, and significantly higher in lactic acid contents. It appears that water soluble carbohydrates needs to be supplemented, being grounded on the results above, into wild flower materials both with high fiber materials and with low substances which need lactic acid fermentation.

The Effect of Addition of Grape Pomace on Chemical Composition and Quality of Silage (포도박 첨가가 사일리지의 화학적 성분과 발효품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 조익환;이주삼
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.73-83
    • /
    • 2001
  • The qualities of the rice straw, black locust and orchardgrass silage added with grape pomace were investigated in this study and the amount of grape pomace added in different treatments were 0, 20, 40 and 50%, respectively. Crude protein contents of rice straw(6.5-10.6%) and orchardgrass silage(13.2-14.8%) added with grape pomace were significantly higher(p<0.05) than that of 100% rice straw(5.3%) and orchard grass silage(12.8%), however the crude protein contents(14.9-15.6%) of black locust silage in supplementation were lower than that of 100% black locust silage(16.3%). With higher amount of addition of grape pomade to rice straw, black locust and orchardgrass silages, ADF, NDF and crude ash contents decreased significantly(p<0.75). Moisture contents decreased according to the higher proportion of grape pomace in the rice straw silages, but increased according to the higher proportion of grape pomace in the black locust and orchardgrass silage. Values of pH in 20∼60% addition of grape pomace in rice straw(4.0∼4.2), black locust(4.1∼4.3) and orchardgrass silages(4.2∼4.4) were lower than that of 100% in rice straw(4.6), black locust(5.4) and orchardgrass silages(4.7). The contents of acetic acid and total volatile fatty acid significantly increased according to higher levels of addition of grape pomace compared to the respective values of silage. However the contents of lactic acid in supplementation of grape pomace were lower than that of 100% black locust silage.

  • PDF

Comparison among methods of effective energy evaluation of corn silage for beef cattle

  • Wei, Ming;Chen, Zhiqiang;Wei, Shengjuan;Geng, Guangduo;Yan, Peishi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.31 no.6
    • /
    • pp.851-858
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was conducted to compare different methods on effective energy evaluation of corn silage for beef cattle. Methods: Twenty Wandong bulls (Chinese indigenous yellow cattle) with initial body weight of $281{\pm}15.6kg$, were assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 4 animals per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Five dietary treatments included group 1 with corn silage only diet, group 2 with corn silage-concentrate basal diet (BD) and 3 groups with 3 test diets, which were the BD partly substituted by corn silage at 10%, 30%, and 60%. The total collection digestion trial was conducted for 5 d for each block after a 10-d adaptation period, and then an open-circuit respiratory cage was used to measure the gas exchange of each animal in a consecutive 4-d period. Results: The direct method-derived metabolizable energy and net energy of corn silage were 8.86 and 5.15 MJ/kg dry matter (DM), expressed as net energy requirement for maintenance and gain were 5.28 and 2.90 MJ/kg DM, respectively; the corresponding regression method-derived estimates were 8.96, 5.34, 5.37, and 2.98 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The direct method-derived estimates were not different (p>0.05) from those obtained using the regression method. Using substitution method, the nutrient apparent digestibility and effective energy values of corn silage varied with the increased corn silage substitution ratio (p<0.05). In addition, the corn silage estimates at the substitution ratio of 30% were similar to those estimated by direct and regression methods. Conclusion: In determining the energy value of corn silage using substitution method, there was a discrepancy between different substitution ratios, and the substitution ratio of 30% was more appropriate than 10% or 60% in the current study. The regression method based on multiple point substitution was more appropriate than single point substitution on energy evaluation of feedstuffs for beef cattle.

Studies on the Utilization of Wastes from Fish Processing I - Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Preparing Skipjack Tuna Viscera Silage (수산물 가공부산물의 이용에 관한 연구 I -가다랭이 내장 발효 silage 제조를 위한 유산균주의 배양특성)

  • YOON Ho-Dong;LEE Doo-Seog;JI Cheong-Il;SUH Sang-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-7
    • /
    • 1997
  • In order to utilize fish by-products from the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) canning manufactures Lactobacillus buigaricus KCTC 3188 and L. piantarum KCTC 1048 were used as a starter culture for the preparation of fermented fish silage with skipjark tuna viscera. The optimum temperature and pH on barterial growth and lactic acid production of L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum in MRS broth were $35^{\circ}C$ and around pH 6.0, respectively. And the optimum concentrations of the carbohydrate sources added to the broths were $7\%$ for dextrose and $10\%$ for molasses on the basis of total weights of skipjack tuna viscera. The pH of acid treated skipjack tuna viscera silage (ASS) slightly increased from 4.0 to 4.5, while that of fermented skipjack tuna viscera silages by the use of lactic acid bacterias (FSS) was significantly declined from 5.9 to about 40 after 42 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$. Though the content of volatile basie nitrogen (VBN) in ASS was lower than those of FSS after 42 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$, VBN content in silages slightly increased from an initial value of $62\~65{\cdot}mg/100g$ to final value of $113\~155\;mg/100g$ over 42 days. The fermented silage by L. piantarum reached a maximum concentration of amino nitrogen and showed $81\%$ of hydrolysis degree after 4 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$.

  • PDF

Effect of Yeast Addition in Rice Straw Silage Fermentation (볏짚 Silage 발효를 위한 효모의 첨가 효과)

  • 옥지운;이상민;이신자;임정화;강태원;정희영;문여황;이성실
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.48 no.5
    • /
    • pp.691-698
    • /
    • 2006
  • Three species of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Humicola grisea and Candida glabrata were assumed as microbial inoculants for fermentation of rice straw silage. Four types of silage innoculated with three yeasts including control (non-treatment) were opened on day 1, 3, 6, 9, 15 and 20 after ensiling, and analyzed for fermentation status (pH, crude protein, microbial counts) and the microbial population attached with silage texture using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The results obtained were summarized as fallow; The pH of silage juice was decreased to 4.3 after 6th day of fermentation in the treatments innoculated with yeast, but was not changed at the ranges of 5.47 to 5.67 in control. Crude protein concentration of silage was increased by 38~41% with yeast inoculation compared to control. From SEM observation, it could be confirmed that crude protein concentration of silage was increased by microbial growth and SCP synthesis. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata could be used as useful fermenters of rice straw silage.

Effect of Formic acid and Caproic acids on the Quality and Aerobic Deterioration of Reed Canarygrass Silage (Formic acid와 Caproic acid 첨가가 Reed Canarygrass Silage의 품질과 호기적 변패에 미치는 영향)

  • 김재황;고영두
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.132-141
    • /
    • 1994
  • In order to study the effects of silage additive on the quality and in preventing aerobic deterioration, reed canarygrass silages were made with various levels of formic acid, caproic acid and a mixture of the two acids. Preparation of silages cutted into about 1.5 cm length with the forage cutter and packed in vinyl bags(50 kg of capacity, 0.1 mrn of thickness), and it also divided nine types of experimental treatments. Aerobic deterioration in the silages were investigated for 7 days of aerobic exposure periods, and the plastic vessel of diameter 25 cm, a height 30 cm used as a tool. The results obtained from this experiment are summarized as fellow. 1. Crude protein and NFE contents at the time if opening were increased in the silage with mixture of formic and caproic acids(P<0.01). Crude fiber and ADF contents during the 7 days of aerobic exposure periods were the decreased in the sslages with mixture of two acods treatment(P<0.01). 2. Temperature of the silage treated with fromic acid alone during the 2 days of aerobic exposure period reached$34.4^{\circ}C$, while that of the silage with caproic acid and mixture formic and caproic acids were not rapidly increased resulting by reduced aerobic deteriorarion. 3. The pH of silages treated with formic acid alone during 7 days of aerobic exposure was not effectively changed, while solages treated with caproic acid were effectively stabilized. 4. The ratio of amminia nitrogen to total nitrogen was significantly decreased in silages with formic acid>caproic acid>mixture of both in the order(P<0.01). 5. Microbiological population of the silage were positively changed during the 7 days of aerobic exposure period. Solages with formic acid were deteriorated at ensiling observed, while applicarion of 1.2% caproic acid was partially reduced deteriorarion by precenting of the growth moulds.

  • PDF