• Title, Summary, Keyword: Silage

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Influence of Ripening Stages on the Quality of Whole Crop Silage and Grain Silage of Fodder Rice

  • Maruyama, S.;Yokoyama, I.;Asai, H.;Sakaguchi, S.;Ohtani, T.;Yokota, H.;Kita, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.340-344
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    • 2005
  • In high-income Asian countries like Korea and Japan, per capita rice consumption has declined because of the change in consumer' favorite foods from rice to high-cost quality foods. This has forced farmers to reduce rice production. Although fodder rice could be another option to be cultured by farmers, available information concerning rice grain silage has been limited. In the present study, therefore, the difference in the quality of fodder rice silage prepared from either whole crop or grain at different ripening stages was compared. Various supplements were also added into whole crop and grain silages of fodder rice before ensiling, and thereafter, the palatability of prepared silages was determined by beef cattle. At ear emergence stage, the pH values for both grain and whole crop silages were approximately 4.5. In both grain and whole crop silages, the pH values were significantly increased by progressing ripening stages from milk-ripe stage to yellow-ripe stages, and the increase in pH value for grain silage was faster than that for whole crop silage. In the grain silage, the higher lactic acid (LA) content in grain silage seemed to be, the lower pH value was. Both in grain and whole crop silages, pH was significantly decreased by supplementation with LA bacteria. There were no significant differences in feed intake among any treatment groups.

Evaluation of Mixtures of Certain Market Wastes as Silage

  • Ozkul, H.;Kilic, A.;Polat, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.1243-1248
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    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of vegetable wastes as silage for ruminants. Varying amounts of wheat straw (WS), wheat bran (WB) and salt (S) were combined with minced vegetable wastes (VW) during ensilage. Seven different ingredient combinations were investigated viz: 100% VW (Group I, control), 90% VW+9% WS+1% S (Group II), 80% VW+15% WS+4% WB+1% S (Group III), 70% VW+20% WS+9% WB+1% S (Group IV), 90% VW+9% WB+1% S (Group V), 80% VW+15% WB+4% WS+1% S (Group VI) and 70% VW+20% WB+9% WS+1% S (Group VII). The inclusion of straw and bran increased (p<0.01) the DM content of silage. The highest contents of the pure silage were CP (p<0.001), EE (p<0.01) and NFE (p<0.05). NDF contents of VW silage and group V were significantly lower and especially the VW silage was found to have the lowest ADL content (p<0.01). The in vitro ME values of VW silage and bran added silage were higher than other groups (p<0.01). pH, lactic acid and acetic acid values of silage groups were changed between 4.09-4.20, 2.43-3.46% and 0.60-0.86%, respectively. In conclusion, different mixtures of VW have a high ensilage capacity and can serve as an alternative roughage source for ruminants. The addition of 9% bran significantly improved the silage in view of both dry matter content and nutritive value.

Comparison among methods of effective energy evaluation of corn silage for beef cattle

  • Wei, Ming;Chen, Zhiqiang;Wei, Shengjuan;Geng, Guangduo;Yan, Peishi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.851-858
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was conducted to compare different methods on effective energy evaluation of corn silage for beef cattle. Methods: Twenty Wandong bulls (Chinese indigenous yellow cattle) with initial body weight of $281{\pm}15.6kg$, were assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 4 animals per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Five dietary treatments included group 1 with corn silage only diet, group 2 with corn silage-concentrate basal diet (BD) and 3 groups with 3 test diets, which were the BD partly substituted by corn silage at 10%, 30%, and 60%. The total collection digestion trial was conducted for 5 d for each block after a 10-d adaptation period, and then an open-circuit respiratory cage was used to measure the gas exchange of each animal in a consecutive 4-d period. Results: The direct method-derived metabolizable energy and net energy of corn silage were 8.86 and 5.15 MJ/kg dry matter (DM), expressed as net energy requirement for maintenance and gain were 5.28 and 2.90 MJ/kg DM, respectively; the corresponding regression method-derived estimates were 8.96, 5.34, 5.37, and 2.98 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The direct method-derived estimates were not different (p>0.05) from those obtained using the regression method. Using substitution method, the nutrient apparent digestibility and effective energy values of corn silage varied with the increased corn silage substitution ratio (p<0.05). In addition, the corn silage estimates at the substitution ratio of 30% were similar to those estimated by direct and regression methods. Conclusion: In determining the energy value of corn silage using substitution method, there was a discrepancy between different substitution ratios, and the substitution ratio of 30% was more appropriate than 10% or 60% in the current study. The regression method based on multiple point substitution was more appropriate than single point substitution on energy evaluation of feedstuffs for beef cattle.

The Effect of Addition of Grape Pomace on Chemical Composition and Quality of Silage (포도박 첨가가 사일리지의 화학적 성분과 발효품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 조익환;이주삼
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.73-83
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    • 2001
  • The qualities of the rice straw, black locust and orchardgrass silage added with grape pomace were investigated in this study and the amount of grape pomace added in different treatments were 0, 20, 40 and 50%, respectively. Crude protein contents of rice straw(6.5-10.6%) and orchardgrass silage(13.2-14.8%) added with grape pomace were significantly higher(p<0.05) than that of 100% rice straw(5.3%) and orchard grass silage(12.8%), however the crude protein contents(14.9-15.6%) of black locust silage in supplementation were lower than that of 100% black locust silage(16.3%). With higher amount of addition of grape pomade to rice straw, black locust and orchardgrass silages, ADF, NDF and crude ash contents decreased significantly(p<0.75). Moisture contents decreased according to the higher proportion of grape pomace in the rice straw silages, but increased according to the higher proportion of grape pomace in the black locust and orchardgrass silage. Values of pH in 20∼60% addition of grape pomace in rice straw(4.0∼4.2), black locust(4.1∼4.3) and orchardgrass silages(4.2∼4.4) were lower than that of 100% in rice straw(4.6), black locust(5.4) and orchardgrass silages(4.7). The contents of acetic acid and total volatile fatty acid significantly increased according to higher levels of addition of grape pomace compared to the respective values of silage. However the contents of lactic acid in supplementation of grape pomace were lower than that of 100% black locust silage.

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NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WHOLE CROP CORN FORAGE ENSILED WITH CAGE LAYER MANURE. I. QUALITY, VOLUNTARY FEED INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF THE SILAGES IN GOATS

  • Kim, J.H.;Yokota, H.;Ko, Y.D.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 1993
  • With the purpose to utilize cage layer manure (CLM), whole crop corn forage was ensiled with 30% CLM (MS silage) and without CLM (CS silage). MS silage was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in pH value, total VFA, propionic and butyric acids, and the ratio of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen, but lower (p < 0.05) in lactic acid and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents than CS silage. Digestibility was evaluated using Shiba strain Japanese goats. Urea was supplemented to CS silage at feeding to adjust nitrogen intake to MS silage (US silage). There were no differences in digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and energy among the three silages. However, US silage showed higher (p < 0.05) digestibility of crude protein, but digestibilities of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose were higher (p < 0.05) in MS silage. Nitrogen retention was positive in US and MS silages, but it was negative in CS silage. Voluntary feed intake of goats was 11.02, 12.03 and 13.34 g of DM per metabolic body weight ($kg^{0.75}$) for 10 minutes, for CS, US and MS silages, respectively.

NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WHOLE CROP CORN FORAGE ENSILED WITH CAGE LAYER MANURE. II. IN SITU DEGRADABILITY AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS IN THE RUMEN OF GOATS

  • Kim, J.H.;Yokota, H.;Ko, Y.D.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 1993
  • In situ degradability and fermentation characteristics in the rumen of goats fed whole crop corn forage ensiled with (MS silage) or without (CS silage) 30% of cage layer manure (CLM) were investigated. The two silages were well preserved. To adjust nitrogen intake of CS silage to that of MS silage, the 3rd group of goats was given urea with CS silage at feeding time (US silage). Each goat was given a diet of 2% of the body weight (dry matter basis) daily. In situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of MS silage in the rumen were higher than those of CS and US silages. Total potentially degradable portions of DM and CP in MS silage were also higher than those in CS and US silages. Blood urea nitrogen and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration of goats fed US and MS silages were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of goats fed CS silage. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids in ruminal fluids of goats fed MS silage were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of goats fed CS and US silages.

A Study on Utilization of Mixed Wild Flowers as a Silage Materials (Silage 재료로서 혼합 야생화의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Hyun-Min;Lee, In-Duk;Shin, Yong-Jun;Kim, Sung-Bok;Choi, Hyun-Su;Lee, Bong-Duk;Lee, Soo-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.383-386
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the quality of wild flowers and mixed wild flower silages. Silage materials employed ochardgrass and mixed wild flower (orchardgrass, white clover, Achillea sibirica Ledeb., Coreopsistinctoria Nutt., Rudbeckiabicolor Nutt., Centaureacyanus L.). Six kilograms of silage materials cut from each treatment were divided into 3 containers, packed by vacuum, and fermented for 40 days. The orchardgrass silage showed significantly higher contents of crude protein than that of mixed wild flower silage. But the neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber contents of orchardgrass silage were significantly lower than those of mixed wild flower silage. pH and butyric acid of orchardgrass silage were significantly lower than those of mixed wild flower silage, and significantly higher in lactic acid contents. It appears that water soluble carbohydrates needs to be supplemented, being grounded on the results above, into wild flower materials both with high fiber materials and with low substances which need lactic acid fermentation.

Feeding Value of Jambo Grass Silage and Mott Grass Silage for Lactating Nili Buffaloes

  • Touqir, N.A.;Khan, M. Ajmal;Sarwar, M.;Mahr-un-Nisa, Mahr-un-Nisa;Ali, C.S.;Lee, W.S.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of jambo grass (Sorghum $bicolour{\times}Sorghum$ sudanefe) silage and mott grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (jambo grass) in the diet of lactating Nili buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Thirty early-lactating ($45{\pm}4$ days), multi-parous Nili buffaloes, ten in each group, were allotted to three experimental diets. Jambo grass and mott grass were ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM) in two trench silos for 30 days. The control diet (JG) contained 75% jambo grass while the other two diets contained 75% jambo grass silage (JGS) and 75% mott grass silage (MGS). The remaining 25% DM in each diet was supplied by concentrates. Diets were mixed daily and fed twice a day ad libitum for 120 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher with the JG diet compared with JGS and MGS diets. However, DMI as % body weight did not differ significantly in buffaloes fed either fodder or silage based diets. Crude protein (CP), digestible CP and NDF intakes were significantly higher on JG compared with silage-based diets. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were similar in buffaloes fed JG, JGS and MGS diets. Milk yield (4% FCM) was similar in buffaloes fed JG and silage based diets. Fat, total solids, solid not fat, CP, true protein and non-protein nitrogen content of milk were similar in buffaloes fed fodder or silage based diets. The present results indicated that jambo grass and mott grass ensiled with 2% molasses for 30 days could safely replace the conventional fresh grass fodder (75% DM) in the diet of lactating Nili buffaloes without affecting their milk yield.

Influence of microbial additive on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of delayed sealing silage of Napier grass

  • Cai, Yimin;Du, Zhumei;Yamasaki, Seishi;Nguluve, Damiao;Tinga, Benedito;Macome, Felicidade;Oya, Tetsuji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1103-1112
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To measure whether a microbial additive could effectively improve the fermentation quality of delayed-sealing (DS) silage, we studied the effects of inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase enzyme on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of DS silage of Napier grass in Africa. Methods: Quick-sealing (QS) and DS silages were prepared with and without LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant, cellulase enzymes, and their combination. The QS material was directly chopped and packed into a bunker silo. The DS material was packed into the silo with a delay of 24 h from harvest. Results: In the QS silage, LAB was dominant in the microbial population and produced large amounts of lactic acid. When the silage was treated with LAB and cellulase, the fermentation quality was improved. In the DS silage, aerobic bacteria and yeasts were the dominant microbes and all the silages were of poor quality. The yeast and mold counts in the DS silage were high, and they increased rapidly during aerobic exposure. As a result, the DS silages spoiled faster than the QS silages upon aerobic exposure. Conclusion: DS results in poor silage fermentation and aerobic deterioration. The microbial additive improved QS silage fermentation but was not effective for DS silage.

Year-long Feeding of Silage and Stability of Feed Quality (사일리지의 연간급여와 사료성분의 안정성)

  • 성경일
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 1992
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate chemical composition change and fermentation characteristics of orchardgrass, alfalfa or corn silage in the airtight silo for one year of storage. Two trials were conducted for two years. Fermentation characteristics of silages were evaluated by color, oder, texture and taste. Chemical composition of corn silage was not changed, and fermentation characteristics of this silage was favorable for 7 months of storage from December to June of the following year. In the aspect of dry matter loss and fermentation characteristics of silages, it is essential to maintain less than 70 or 60% of moisture contents in orchardgrass silage or alfalfa silage, respectively, for long term storage and feed quality stabilization. It is suggested that wilting treatment of orchardgrass or alfalfa and moisture contents of these silages are most important factors to determine silage quality.

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