• Title, Summary, Keyword: Silage

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Improving quality of common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) silage with additives

  • Asano, Keigo;Ishikawa, Takahiro;Araie, Ayako;Ishida, Motohiko
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1747-1755
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) could potentially provide an alternative resource for silage; however, its silage quality is poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors in reed that contribute to poor quality and determine how the use of additives at ensiling could improve fermentation quality. Methods: In Experiment 1, we determined the chemical composition and the presence of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in reed. We further examined fermentation quality of reed silage under conditions without additives (NA) and treated glucose (G), lactic acid bacteria (L), and their combination (G+L). In Experiment 2, silage of NA, and with an addition of cellulase and lactic acid bacteria (CL) were prepared from harvested reed. The harvested reeds were fertilized at nitrogen concentrations of 0, 4, 8, and $12g\;N/m^2$ and were harvested thrice within one year. Results: The indigenous LAB and fermentable carbohydrates are at extremely low concentrations in reed. Reed silage, to which we added G+L, provided the highest quality silage among treatments in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, N fertilization had no negative effect on silage quality of reed. The harvest times decreased fermentable carbohydrate content in reed. The CL treatment provided a higher lactic acid content compared to the NA treatment. However, the quality of CL treated silage at the second and third harvests was significantly lower than at the first harvest, due to a reduction in carbohydrates caused by frequent harvesting. Conclusion: The causes of poor quality in reed silage are its lack of indigenous LAB and fermentable carbohydrates and its high moisture content. In addition, reed managed by frequent harvesting reduces carbohydrate content. Although the silage quality could be improved by adding CL, higher-quality silage could be prepared by adding fermentable carbohydrates, such as glucose (rather than adding cellulases).

Effects of New Inoculants on In vitro Digestibility and Fermentation Indices of High Moisture Rye Silage

  • Lee, Seong Shin;Paradhipta, Dimas H.V.;Joo, Young Ho;Lee, Hyuk Jun;Son, Hyun;Han, Ouk Kyu;Kim, Dong Hyeon;Kim, Sam Churl
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to examine the effect of new inoculants on in vitro digestibility and fermentation characteristics of high moisture rye silage. Rye was harvested at heading stage and divided into 5 treatments, following: No additives(CON); L. plantarum R48-27(NI1); L. buchneri R4-26(NI2); mixture of NI1 and NI2 at 1:1 ratio(MIX); and L. buchneri(LB). The rye forage was ensiled into 10 L bucket silo for 100 days. In vitro digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber were highest(p<0.05) in NI2 silage. The pH in NI2 and LB silages were lower(p<0.05) than CON silage. Lactate concentration was highest(p<0.05) in NI1 silage. While concentrations of acetate and propionate were highest(p<0.05) in MIX silage. Lactates : acetate ratio was highest(p<0.05) in NI1 silage, but lowest in LB silage. Butyrate concentrations of NI2 and LB silages were lower(p<0.05) than that in CON and NI1 silages. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count in all inoculated silages was higher(p<0.05) than that in CON silage, while yeast count in LB silage was lower than in CON, NI1, and MIX silages. In conclusion, application of NI2 inoculant could improve potentially fermentation quality and digestibility of high moisture rye silage.

Studies on the Quality of Silage from Domestic Herbage II. Comparative experiment of feeding value of Arundinella hirta silage on additives. (야초 사일리지의 품질향상에 관한 연구 II. 안고초 사일리지의 첨가제에 따른 사료가치의 비교)

  • Kim, Dae-Jin;Leem, Wan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 1988
  • An experiment was conducted to determine the feeding value of Arundinella hirat silage making by different methods ie., added starch 3%, formic acid 1% (FA), anhydrous ammonia ($NH_3$) 3%, and dried poultry waste (DPW) 3%. The samples were analyzed organic acid, cell wall constituent (NDF), cell contents (NDS), lignincutin-silica (ADL), hemicellulose (H: CHO) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) by pepsin-cellulase technique. The feeding value of silages were compared with corn siiage. The results are summarized as follows; 1.Formic acid treated to silage was lower pH(4.0), but anhydrous ammonia (8.37) and DPW added silage (8.72) were higher than that of the other treatment silages. 2.Fermentative quality of corn silage, starch, DPW, $NH_3$, control and FA treated silage were marked 100,81, 77,63,62 and 58, respectively. 3.Silage with $NH_3$, (23.57%) and DPW (10.42%) of content of protein were higher than that of other treated silages. 4.Silage with $NH_3$, was significantly lower contents of NDF, but did not ADF of among the treated silages. 5.In the contents of ADL, starch added silage was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), but did not the other treatment. 6.DMD of in vitro by pepsin-cellulase of silage with starch was increased three folds as equal to corn silage but did not increased the other treated silages. 7.Correlationship of latic acid an total acid, and NDS were a positive but lactic acid and NDF was a negative correlation.

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Moisture Effect on Fermentation Characteristics of Cup-Plant Silage

  • Han, K.J.;Albrecht, K.A.;Muck, R.E.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.636-640
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    • 2000
  • Cup-plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) has potential to produce high biomass and highly digestible forage in the wetlands where other productive forages do not grow or produce well. However, high moisture content at harvest is a considerable disadvantage of cup-plant for the production of high quality silage. This study was conducted to determine the effect of moisture content on the characteristics of cup-plant silage. Harvested cup-plant was ensiled in farm scale plastic bag silos and laboratory silos. In the plastic bag silos, first growth (FG) and regrowth (RG) cup-plant was harvested, wilted and ensiled. Dry matter content of FG and RG was 280 g/kg and 320 g/kg after 48 hr of wilting. The silage made with FG had pH 5.3 and 5.63 g/kg DM of acetate as a major volatile fatty acid. The composition of lactate, butyrate and acetate production was 1.0: 0.9: 2.3. The pH of silage made with RG was 4.5 and lactate was a major fermentation end product (16.8 g/kg DM). In the laboratory silos, wilted and unwilted first growth cup-plant material was ensiled to compare the early fermentation end products at days 2, 4, 11, and 40. Wilting increased dry matter content by 42% in the harvested material. Wilted silage showed about one unit lower pH until day 11. The contents of ammonia nitrogen and acetate were higher in un wilted silage, while that of lactate was higher in wilted silage (p<0.05). Butyrate and propionate were not detected in the wilted silage until day 40. We conclude from the results that moisture control is essential for the production of high quality cup-plant silage and high pH of cup-plant silage is due to low concentrations of fermentation end products.

SILAGE FERMENTATION AND SILAGE ADDITIVES - Review -

  • Bolsen, K.K.;Ashbell, G.;Weinberg, Z.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.483-493
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    • 1996
  • Advances in silage technology, including precision chop forage harvesters, improved silos, polyethylene sheeting, shear cutting silo unloaders, and the introduction of total mixed rations, have made silage the principal method of forage preservation. A better understanding of the biochemistry and microbiology of the four phases of the ensiling process has also led to the development of numerous silage additives. Although acids and acid salts still are used to ensile low-DM forages in wet climates, bacterial inoculants have become the most widely used silage additives in the past decade. Commercial inoculants can assure a rapid and efficient fermentation phase; however, in the future, these products also must contribute to other areas of silage management, including the inhibition of enterobacteria, clostridia, and yeasts and molds. Nonprotein nitrogen additives have the problems of handling, application, and reduced preservation efficiency, which have limited their wide spread use. Aerobic deterioration in the feedout phase continues to be a serious problem, especially in high-DM silages. The introduction of competitive strains of propionic acid-producing bacteria, which could assure aerobically stable silages, would improve most commercial additives. New technologies are needed that would allow the farmer to assess the chemical and microbial status of the silage crop on a given day and then use the appropriate additive(s).

Beneficial Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculation on Oat Based Silage in South Korea

  • Ilavenil, Soundharrajan;Srigopalram, Srisesharam;Park, Hyung Soo;Kim, Won Ho;Lee, Kyung Dong;Choi, Ki Choon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.207-211
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    • 2015
  • The objective of the study was to measure the beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculation on the nutritive value of oat silage collected from thirteen regions in the Republic of Korea. The contents of crude protein, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude ash (CA) were slightly lower in LAB inoculated silage when compared with the control silage, whereas inoculation of LAB resulted in increased total digestible nutrient (TDN). Higher number of LAB, but lower count of yeast and fungi indicated the effectiveness of the LAB inoculation on oat silage fermentation. LAB inoculation resulted in low pH silage, which may prevent undesirable microbial growth. The LAB inoculation promoted lactic acid dominant fermentation with marginal levels of acetic acid and butyric acid in oat silage. These data suggest that the LAB inoculation may preserve oat silage at better quality for ruminant animal production.

Effect of Formic acid and Caproic acids on the Quality and Aerobic Deterioration of Reed Canarygrass Silage (Formic acid와 Caproic acid 첨가가 Reed Canarygrass Silage의 품질과 호기적 변패에 미치는 영향)

  • 김재황;고영두
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.132-141
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    • 1994
  • In order to study the effects of silage additive on the quality and in preventing aerobic deterioration, reed canarygrass silages were made with various levels of formic acid, caproic acid and a mixture of the two acids. Preparation of silages cutted into about 1.5 cm length with the forage cutter and packed in vinyl bags(50 kg of capacity, 0.1 mrn of thickness), and it also divided nine types of experimental treatments. Aerobic deterioration in the silages were investigated for 7 days of aerobic exposure periods, and the plastic vessel of diameter 25 cm, a height 30 cm used as a tool. The results obtained from this experiment are summarized as fellow. 1. Crude protein and NFE contents at the time if opening were increased in the silage with mixture of formic and caproic acids(P<0.01). Crude fiber and ADF contents during the 7 days of aerobic exposure periods were the decreased in the sslages with mixture of two acods treatment(P<0.01). 2. Temperature of the silage treated with fromic acid alone during the 2 days of aerobic exposure period reached$34.4^{\circ}C$, while that of the silage with caproic acid and mixture formic and caproic acids were not rapidly increased resulting by reduced aerobic deteriorarion. 3. The pH of silages treated with formic acid alone during 7 days of aerobic exposure was not effectively changed, while solages treated with caproic acid were effectively stabilized. 4. The ratio of amminia nitrogen to total nitrogen was significantly decreased in silages with formic acid>caproic acid>mixture of both in the order(P<0.01). 5. Microbiological population of the silage were positively changed during the 7 days of aerobic exposure period. Solages with formic acid were deteriorated at ensiling observed, while applicarion of 1.2% caproic acid was partially reduced deteriorarion by precenting of the growth moulds.

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Effect of Yeast Addition in Rice Straw Silage Fermentation (볏짚 Silage 발효를 위한 효모의 첨가 효과)

  • 옥지운;이상민;이신자;임정화;강태원;정희영;문여황;이성실
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.691-698
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    • 2006
  • Three species of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Humicola grisea and Candida glabrata were assumed as microbial inoculants for fermentation of rice straw silage. Four types of silage innoculated with three yeasts including control (non-treatment) were opened on day 1, 3, 6, 9, 15 and 20 after ensiling, and analyzed for fermentation status (pH, crude protein, microbial counts) and the microbial population attached with silage texture using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The results obtained were summarized as fallow; The pH of silage juice was decreased to 4.3 after 6th day of fermentation in the treatments innoculated with yeast, but was not changed at the ranges of 5.47 to 5.67 in control. Crude protein concentration of silage was increased by 38~41% with yeast inoculation compared to control. From SEM observation, it could be confirmed that crude protein concentration of silage was increased by microbial growth and SCP synthesis. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata could be used as useful fermenters of rice straw silage.

Studies on the Utilization of Wastes from Fish Processing I - Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Preparing Skipjack Tuna Viscera Silage (수산물 가공부산물의 이용에 관한 연구 I -가다랭이 내장 발효 silage 제조를 위한 유산균주의 배양특성)

  • YOON Ho-Dong;LEE Doo-Seog;JI Cheong-Il;SUH Sang-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1997
  • In order to utilize fish by-products from the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) canning manufactures Lactobacillus buigaricus KCTC 3188 and L. piantarum KCTC 1048 were used as a starter culture for the preparation of fermented fish silage with skipjark tuna viscera. The optimum temperature and pH on barterial growth and lactic acid production of L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum in MRS broth were $35^{\circ}C$ and around pH 6.0, respectively. And the optimum concentrations of the carbohydrate sources added to the broths were $7\%$ for dextrose and $10\%$ for molasses on the basis of total weights of skipjack tuna viscera. The pH of acid treated skipjack tuna viscera silage (ASS) slightly increased from 4.0 to 4.5, while that of fermented skipjack tuna viscera silages by the use of lactic acid bacterias (FSS) was significantly declined from 5.9 to about 40 after 42 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$. Though the content of volatile basie nitrogen (VBN) in ASS was lower than those of FSS after 42 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$, VBN content in silages slightly increased from an initial value of $62\~65{\cdot}mg/100g$ to final value of $113\~155\;mg/100g$ over 42 days. The fermented silage by L. piantarum reached a maximum concentration of amino nitrogen and showed $81\%$ of hydrolysis degree after 4 days of storage at $35^{\circ}C$.

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Effects of Alfalfa and Brown Mid-rib Corn Silage and Level of Forage Neutral Detergent Fiber on Animal Performance of Lactating Cows in Michigan

  • Min, Doo-Hong;Bucholtz, Herb;Naasz, Paul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.373-377
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    • 2007
  • Alfalfa silage and corn silage are the major dairy feeds in most dairy operations in Michigan, USA. In recent years, the need to improve digestible fiber and dry matter intake of forages to meet the nutrient requirements of high yielding dairy cows and the willingness to plant corn specifically for silage has led plant breeders to focus on the brown mid-rib (BMR) trait. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different ratio of alfalfa to BMR corn silage and ration level of forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on animal performance of lactating cows in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This study was conducted at the Upper Peninsula Experiment Station of Michigan State University in Chatham, Michigan, USA. Two different ratios of forage type (high alfalfa silage/low BMR corn silage, AS, and high BMR corn silage/low alfalfa silage, BMRCS) and two different dietary NDF contents (27% NDF, 27 = low forage/high grain feeding, and 33% NDF, 33 = high forage/low grain feeding) were used. The experimental design was a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square with 20 milking cows (12 multiparous and 8 primiparous). This trial had four 21-day periods with 14 d adaptation and 7 d data collection. Milk yield and body condition score (BCS) on the AS-27, BMRCS-27 and BMRCS-33 treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than on the AS-33 treatment. Dry matter intake of the AS-27 and BMRCS-27 treatments was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for the AS-33 and BMRCS-33 treatments. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) on the AS-33 treatment was significantly (p<0.05) higher than on the other diet treatments. A key finding of this study was that the BMRCS-33 (higher amounts of brown mid-rib corn silage than alfalfa silage, high forage and low grain feeding diet at 33% NDF) led to the equal highest milk production whilst having the equal lowest dry matter intake. This study demonstrated that the diet with higher ratio of highly digestible NDF forage such as brown mid-rib corn silage to alfalfa silage could lower grain feeding in the ration.