• Title, Summary, Keyword: Silage

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Cassava Tops Ensiled With or Without Molasses as Additive Effects on Quality, Feed Intake and Digestibility by Heifers

  • Van Man, Ngo;Wiktorsson, Hans
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.624-630
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments on the effects of molasses additive on cassava tops silage quality to its feed intake and digestibility by growing Holstein$\times$local crossbred heifers were carried out. Sixteen plastic bags of one meter diameter and two meters length were allocated in a $2{\times}2$ factorial design with four replicates in the ensiling study, with and without the molasses additive and with two storage times (2 and 3 months). The silage produced in the first experiment was used in the feed intake and digestibility study. Six crossbred Holstein heifers, 160-180 kg live weight, were randomly allocated in a $3{\times}2$ change-over design to three treatments: Guinea grass ad libitum, 70% of grass ad libitum with a supplement of non-molasses cassava silage ad libitum, and 70% of grass ad libitum with a supplement of molasses cassava silage ad libitum. Ensiling was shown to be a satisfactory method for preservation of cassava tops. The HCN content was significantly reduced from $840mg\;kg^{-1}$ to 300 or $130mg\;kg^{-1}$, depending on storage period. The tannin content was not significantly changed. Molasses additive resulted in lower pH, Crude Protein (CP), NDF and higher DM content but did not otherwise affect chemical composition. The voluntary feed intake per 100 kg live weight of the heifers was 2.59, 2.65 and 2.91 kg DM of Guinea grass, non-molasses cassava tops silage and molasses cassava tops silage diet, respectively. Crude protein intake was significantly improved in the cassava tops silage diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF decreased with the silage supplement diets. No significant difference in digestibility was found between the non-molasses and molasses silage diets. The digestibility coefficient of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF in non-molasses cassava tops silage and molasses cassava tops silage was 49.4, 52.1, 45.81, 36.6, 27.7 and 49.7, 51.9, 47.55, 28.1, 19.5, respectively. It is concluded that cassava tops can be preserved successfully by ensiling and that cassava tops silage is a good feed resource for cattle.

Effects of Management Practices on the Quality of Round Baled Oat Silage (제조 방법이 라운드베일 연맥 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.G.;Cheung, E.S.;Seo, S.;Kang, W.S.;Ham, J.S.;Lee, S.C.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was canied out to determine the effect of management practices on the quality of round baled oat silage at experimental field of Grassland and Forage Crops division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon from 1997 to 1998. The experiments are consist of randomized block design with 3 replications. The treatments are 3 wilting dates(0, 2 and 4 days), 3 wrap colors(white, black and green and 3 inoculant(untreated, Inoculant A and Inocuant B). The crude protein(CP) content was increased by prolonged wilting periods, but the effect of wrap color and inoculant were not founded. Acid detergent fiber(ADF) and neutral detergent fiber(NDF) content of all silages were not founded significant difference, but in vitro dry matter digestibility of oat silage with inoculant was significantly higher compare with control. Wilting treatment increased the mean silage acidity compare with control and inoculant treatment significantly reduced silage acidity. Wrap color did not influence the silage acidity. Wilting or inoculant treatments increased lactic acid content but, decreased the content of acetic and butyric acid. The quality grade of all silage were grade 3, except inoculant treated silage. Wilting or inoculant decreased silage DM loss, but wrap color did not effect on siage DM loss. The result of this study indicate that wilting for 2-4 days and inoculant will improve the silage fermentation and quality of round baled oat silage. (Key words : Oat, Wilting, Inoculant, Wrap color, Round bale silage)

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NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NAPIER GRASS (PENNISETUM PURPUREUM SCHUM.) SILAGE ENSILED WITH MOLASSES BY GOATS

  • Yokota, H.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 1992
  • Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) harvested at an early growth stage was ensiled with 4% of molasses in a polyethylene bag silo which contained 15 kg of chopped forage each. Dry matter (DM) content of the silage was so low as 14.75%, although chemical quality of the silage was very high. Ratio of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen was 6.59%, and the pH value of the silage was 3.79. Nutritive value of the silage was estimated using goats and compared to that of a timothy hay as a reference ration. Feeding level of each rations was adjusted to a level of nitrogen (N) recommendation. DM and N digestibilities of the silage were 65.0 and 54.5%, respectively, but those of the timothy hay were 37.6 and 37.2%. Feeding of the napier grass silage maintained body weight and kept positive N retention. Ammonia N concentration in the rumen fluid in goats fed the napier grass silage increased after feeding, but blood urea concentration was constant. Feeding of the timothy hay did not increase ammonia N concentration in the rumen fluid, but increased blood urea concentration. These facts indicated that the napier grass silage had enough digestible DM and N for maintenance ration to goats.

Feeding of Sugar Cane Silage to Dairy Cattle during the Dry Season

  • Suksombat, Wisitiporn;Junpanichcharoen, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1125-1129
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    • 2005
  • A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding sugar cane silage compared to chopped whole sugar cane or grass silage on performances of lactating dairy cows during the dry season. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 15.4${\pm}$3.2 kg of milk, 120${\pm}$23 days in milk, 50.5${\pm}$6.5 months old and 432${\pm}$39 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups (8 cows in each group). All cows were fed 7.5 kg/d commercial concentrate plus ad libitum roughage according to treatment groups, which were grass silage, sugar cane silage or chopped whole sugar cane respectively. All cows consumed similar DM and produced similar milk and milk composition yields. However, cows on grass silage lost more weight than the other cows. The present study indicated that, during the dry season, sugar cane silage can be fed to lactating dairy cows, while giving similar milk yield to grass silage or chopped whole sugar cane.

Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration

  • Li, Y.;Wang, F.;Nishino, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.516-522
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    • 2016
  • We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56- day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents.

A Study on the Quality of Tuber silage of Jerusalem Artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L. ) (배합사료를 혼합한 돼지감자 ( Helianthus tuberosus L. ) 사일리지 제조시험)

  • 고영두;안병관
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 1987
  • In order to utilize the tuber of Jerusalem artichoke (Jerusalem tuberosus L.) which has been considered one of the most economical resources for bioenergy, the tubers of the plant were processed into silage in 11 lab-silo with three levels of mixture of concentrates i.e. 10, 20, 30%. The silage was stored for 20 to 40 days before analyses. The quality of silage was compared with those of the tube-only silage without concentrates. Aproximate composition, pH, ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen, and organic acids were analyzed. The results obtained are summarized ; 1. With the mixture of concentrates, the water content of the silage was able to be adjusted to 70 percent and NDF significantly increased (P<0.05) while ADF significantly decreased. 2. The content of water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) was significantly decreased in silages of the mixture of concentrate and the tuber (P<0.05), while total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen increased. 3. Tube-only silage gave satisfaction in fermentation, particularly organic-acid fermentation. As the storage period extended, Flieg's score of the silage was improved. Conclusively, the tuber of Jerusalem artichoke found to satisfy the requirements of good silage and to be recommended as a good resource for all-inane silage provided the tuber was ensilaged with 20 to 30 percent concentrate.

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Quality Analysis of Fresh Rice Straw Wrapping Silage by Softening Treatment of Fresh Rice Straw and Colors Effects of Wrapping Stretch Film (생볏짚의 연화처리와 피복스트레치 필름의 색깔에 따른 랩사일리지의 품질분석)

  • 이성현;김종근;최광재;유병기;오권영
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2002
  • Recently, in Korea, round bale wrapping silage made by fresh rice straw are partially utilized. The colors of stretch film using far wrapping the fresh rice straw round bale are white, green and black. The light transmittance of green and white color stretch film was not founded the difference. However, the light transmittance of black color stretch film was largely difference of two stretch films. This study was carried out to measure qualities of fresh rice straw wrapping silage by softening processing of fresh rice straw and colors effects of wrapping stretch film. The analyzed factors were the light transmittance of stretch film, variation of the temperature in fresh rice straw round bale and qualities of the silage in crude protein, ADF, NDF, organic acid, etc. It was difficult to find in this study the colors effects of stretch film on silage qualities by the silage wrapping. But, when make fresh rice straw wrapping silage, wrapping silage fermentation effect goes well more if handle softening the fresh rice straw.

Effects of Intake on Digestibility of Grass Silage Harvested at Different Cutting Dates (예취시기를 달리한 Silage의 섭취량이 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • 성경일;김창주;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.176-179
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    • 1985
  • Digestion trials were conducted to evaluate intake and digestibility of grass harvested at different dates. Silage was prepared from first-growth forage (predominantly timothy) which cutting dates; 4 June (vegetative, called early-cut) and 30 June (heading, called late-cut). The silage was fed to wethers at restricted and ad libitum levels of intake. The crude protein and crude fat of silage decreased with advancing maturity, while contents of fibre increased. DM intake of early-cut and late-cut silage were $99g/W_{kg}^{0.75}\;and\;75g/W_{kg}^{0.75}$, respectively. In digestibility and TDN, significant differences (p<0.01) between early-cut and late-cut silage were found. There was no significant difference in DM digestibility of early-cut silage between restricted and ad libitum feeding, but DM digestibility was decreased markedly in ad libitum feeding that out of account in fecal condition. Digestibility of all composition in early-cut silage, except for hemicellulose, was not observed with increasing levels of intake. Digestibility of crude protein, NDF and hemicellulose in late-cut silage were decreased (p<0.05) in ad libitum when compared with restricted feeding. Results of this study suggest that digestibility of early and late forages harvested as silage varies with levels of intake. Thus, relationship levels of intake and digestibility must be considered cautiously.

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Studies on the Utilization of Wastes from Fish Processing II -Changes of Chemical Properties of Skipjack Tuna Viscera Silage during Storage by the Processing Method (수산물 가공부산물의 이용에 관한 연구 II-가공방법에 따른 가다랭이 내장 silage의 저장 중 성분변화)

  • YOON Ho-Dong;LEE Doo-Seog;SUH Sang-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 1997
  • For an effective use of fish by-products from the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) canning manufactures, the changes of chemical properties of skipjark tuna viscera silage by the processing method during storage were investigated. The acid treated skipjack tuna viscera silage (ASS) were higher in the contents of moisture, lipid, protein and mineral but lower in the contents of carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of fermented skipjack tuna viscera silage (FSS) by L. bulgaricus, KCTC 3188 and L. plantarum, KCTC 1048. Especially, the contents of total n-3 fatty acids in FSS increased remarkably during storage. The dominant amino acids in ASS and FSS were glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp), leucine (Leu), glycine (Gly) and alanine (Ala). And the contents of tryptophan (Trp) decreased by $30\%$ in ASS and $5\%$ in FSS in comparision with that of raw skipjack tuna viscera after 42 days of storage. The concentration of vitamin $B_1\;and\;B_2$ in FSS increased gradually during storage but the concentration of vitamin $B_2$ in ASS decreased. In the organoleptic evaluation, ASS gave a grayish brown color and a fishy odor. On the other hand, FSS had reddish brown color and sour taste by the production of lactic arid during storage.

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Studies on the Quality and Utilization of Pumpkin Silages (호박 Silage의 품질(品質) 및 이용성(利用性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Y.K.;Kim, S.K.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 1976
  • The preservation efficiency, quality and utilization of silage from 3 species of pumpkins (Mammoth pumpkin, Queensland blue pumpkin, Korean pumpkin) without and with 10, and 20% wheat bran additive were studied in this experiment. Silages were analysised and tested the chemical composition, pH and quality of silages between at 40-60 days and egg performance were carried out with mammoth pumpkin silage without additive. The results were summaried as follows. 1. The losses of all silage ware lower and similar as about 15% at 6 monthes following after silage-making but all raw pumpkins were spoilaged during the winter storaging. 2. The moisture content of silages were higher as about 97% in mammoth pumpkin silage, 94% in Queensland pumpkin silage and 91% in Korean pumpkin silage without additive and all nutrient content of silage without and with additive were depended on its content of raw silage material of pumpkins and wheat bran. The contents of moisture and N-free extract were slightly decrease but not significantly difference during the silaging and other contents were not so much changed. 3. Good quality of silage were made from all pumpkins with and without additive. Organic acid contents were 2.09-2.93% of lactic acid, 0.68-1.71% of acetic acid and 0% of butyric acid and it was pH 3.8-4.0 in silages. 4. Feed intakes, egg production and quality of egg were showed good result in 5.0 and 7.5% silage feeding group as D.M. base for egg performance. (P<0.01) 5. It was concluded that good quality of silage were made from pumpkins with and without wheat bran additive and it was suggested that poor quality feedstuff may be improved it feeding value by extended palatability with pumpkin additive silage.

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