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Evaluation of Herbage Yield and Silage - Guality of Corn ( Suweon 19 , Kwanganok ) and Sweet Sorghum ( Ramiki sorgo , Silage sorgo ) (옥수수 ( 수원 19호 , 광안옥 ) 와 단수수 ( 라미끼솔고 , 사일리지솔고 ) 의 생산량과 Silage의 품질 평가)

  • 고영두;이호재;김재황;유성오
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.265-276
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    • 1997
  • This study was investigated the herbage productivity and nutrient contents of corn (Suweon 19 and Kwanganok) and sweet sorghum (Ramiki sorgo and Silage sorgo) at the stage of maturity (10-DBS, silking, milky and dough stages) to identify the utility value of sweet sorghum as a substituting crop for corn. The silage materials (dough stage) were chopped and were storaged for 90 days in polyethlene bag with O.lmm thickness. Chemical composition, nitrogen content and in vitm dry matter digestibility were evaluated. Also, daily intake and palatability were checked in the feeding trial with four male sheep in average weight about 57kg. Both fresh and dry matter yield of corn and sweet sorghum were increased as the maturity processed (P< 0.05), and sweet sorghum showed higher total yield potential than corn. Crude protein content of the cultivars was decreased as the maturity was processed (P< 0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of the cultivars, in general, showed highest at silking stage, followed by 10 days before silking (10-DBS), and milky and dough stages (Pi0.05) in order. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) content was increased as the maturity processed, and it showed the highest value at milk stage. However, the contents of ADF in sorghum plant was decreased during the late maturity. Crude protein content of the silage was not significantly different among cultivars used, while NDF content was highest in Ramiki sorgo, followed by Silage sorgo, Kwanganok and Suweon 19. In v i m DM digestibility of the silage was highest in Kwanganok, followed by Suweon 19, Silage sorgo and Ramiki sorgo. Total N content of the silage was highest in Ramiki sorgo, followed by Suweon 19, Silage sorgo and Kwanganok. DM intake of the silage was highest in Ramiki sorgo, followed by Suweon 19, Silage sorgo and Kwanganok and it was closely related to the palatability value.

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Altering undigested neutral detergent fiber through additives applied in corn, whole barley crop, and alfalfa silages, and its effect on performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows

  • Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen;Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh;Vakili, Ali Reza;Naserian, Abbas Ali;Khafipour, Ehsan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.375-386
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    • 2019
  • Objective: We hypothesized that silage additives may alter the undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) content through ensiling. Therefore, urea and formic acid were applied to corn, whole barley crop (WBC) and alfalfa to change uNDF content of the ensiled forages. Methods: Six experimental diets at two groups of high uNDF (untreated corn and alfalfa silages [CSAS] and untreated whole barley and alfalfa silages [BSAS]) and low uNDF (urea-treated corn silage+untreated alfalfa silage [$CS_UAS$], urea-treated whole barley silage+untreated alfalfa silage [$BS_UAS$], untreated corn silage+formic acid-treated alfalfa silage [$CSAS_F$], and untreated whole barley silage+formic acid-treated alfalfa silage [$BSAS_F$]), were allocated to thirty-six multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows. Results: The untreated silages were higher in uNDF than additive treated silages, but the uNDF concentrations among silages were variable (corn silage0.05). Milk yield tended to increase in the cows fed high uNDF diets than those fed low uNDF (p = 0.10). The cows fed diet based on urea-treated corn silage had higher milk yield than those fed other silages (p = 0.05). The substitution of corn silage with the WBC silage tended to decrease milk production (p = 0.07). Changing the physical source of NDF supply and the uNDF content from the corn silage to the WBC silage caused a significant increase in ruminal $NH_3-N$ concentration, milk urea-N and fat yield (p<0.05). The cows fed diets based on WBC silage experienced greater rumination time than the cows fed corn silage (p<0.05). Conclusion: Administering additives to silages to reduce uNDF may improve the performance of Holstein dairy cows.

Effect of Ground Corn as an Additive for Silages from Red Ginseng Residue (홍삼박 Silage 제조시 첨가제로서 분쇄옥수수의 효과)

  • Back, Seung-Hoon;Bea, Hyoung-Churl;Kim, Yong-Kook
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.205-214
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ground corn as an additive to ginseng residue silages. The silages were made with corn (CS), red ginseng (GS), red ginseng residue +0.5% ground corn (GS0.5), w/w bases, red ginseng residue+1.0% ground corn (GS1.0) and red ginseng residue+silage inoculant, lactic acid bacteria (GSL). The raw materials were cut only for corn forage in 2cm length. The ginseng residue without cutting were mixed without or with additives, ground corn and inoculant, and ensiled each into two 2,000ml glass bottles. The bottles with silages were stored at a dark place at room temperature and formented for 60 days. The crude protein contents were higher for all red ginseng silages as 17.7, 18.8, 18.3 and 17.8% for GS, GS0.5, GS1.0 and GSL than that of corn silage as 8.8% (p<0.05). The calcium content were higher in GS, GS0.5, GS1.0 and GSL as 0.99, 1.13, 0.99 and 1.03% than that in CS as 0.31% (p<0.05). The pH of silages fermented for 60 days was similar each other; CS, GS, GS0.5, GS1.0 and GSL as 3.8, 3.7, 3.3, 3.5 and 3.7, respectively. However the pH of GS0.5 was the lower than that of corn silage. The total concentration of volatile fatty acids were higher for CS as 87.3 mM/dl than those of GS, GS0.5, GS1.0 and GSL as 44.7, 37.8, 46.3 and 47.2 nM/dl. However, the percentage of lactic acid concentration of ginseng silages such as GS, GS0.5, GS1.0 and GSL, 60.2, 77.2, 83.4 and 77.3% was higher than that in CS, 53.7% (p<0.05). The in vivo dry matter digestibilities for 72hr fermentation was higher in ginseng silages (GS, GS0.5, GS1.0 and GSL as 76.5, 75.8, 72.9 and 77.3%, respetively) than that in for CS as 52.1% (p<0.05). It can be concluded that silage added with ground corn (GS0.5 and GS1.0) and lactic acid inoculant were high in its quality, and the GS0.5 can be suggested as a practical method for red ginseng residues silage making.

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FEEDLOT FATTENING OF SHEEP IN PAKISTAN

  • Jadoon, J.K.;Syed, A.H.;Mirza, I.H.;Naqvi, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 1990
  • Ninety six Rambouillet ${\times}$ Kaghani intact male lambs of 18 months of age were divided into 6 groups of 16 lambs each, groups being G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5 and G-6. Average liveweight of animals on different treatments at day 0 of the experiment was G-1 (24.68 S.D 3.35), G-2 (24.56 S.D 2.55), G-3 (24.53 S.D 2.90), G-4 (24.51 S.D 3.38), G-5 (24.58 S.D 3.58) and G-6 (24.81 S.D 3.43). Animals on treatment G-1 were fed only maize silage ad libitum, G-2 had been offered maize silage ad libitum plus 4.8 kg of commercial concentrate (Sona Vanda) per group, G-3 maize silage ad libitum plus 4.8 kg of crushed maize grain per group. G-4 lambs were fed oat silage ad libitum plus 4.8 kg of crushed maize per group, G-5 oat silage plus 4.8 kg of commercial concentrate per group and G-6 only oat silage ad libitum. The results showed highly significant differences (p<0.01) among treatment groups in silage intake throughout the feeding trial. G-2 group showed the highest silage intake while treatment G-4 showed the lowest silage intake for the first two months and treatment G-6 for the last two months. The results of growth rates (g/d/animal) showed that treatments G-1 and G-6, where no supplementation was given, had a weight loss throughout the feeding trial. However, weight loss in treatment G-6 was more severe than treatment G-1. Treatments G-2, G-3, G-4 and G-5 all showed weight gain however, treatment G-2 had the most gain. G-2 group also showed the highest wool production while G-6 the lowest. These results indicated that silage when made from full bloom crops of oats and silage fed alone without any supplementation causes weight loss in sheep. Supplementation with concentrates having 19% CP is far better than the crushed maize grain and maize silage is better than oats silage. Maize silage is superior than oat silage however, better performance could be expected if silages were made at the early bloom (dough) stage of plant maturity. The results indicate that treatment G-2 shows highest response while treatment G-6 the lowest. So the response of different treatments on both the parameters of weight gain and wool production is almost similar.

The Effect of Moisture Control on Fermentation Characteristics of Barley and Rye Silages (수분 조절이 보리와 호밀 silage의 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Chan;Kim, Sam-Churl
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2010
  • This study examined the effect of moisture level at ensiling on fermentation characteristics of barley and rye silage. The moisture levels, 60 (low; LM), 70(medium; MM) and 80% (high; HM), were controled by adding water or pre-wilting. Barley silage had higher pH and latate:acetate ratio in LM than the other treatments, but those of rye in MM were higher. The concentrations of lactate, total FA and acetate in HM were higher than the other treatments, but propionate concentration in LM was higher than HM. Total N concentrations of barley and rye were highest in MM and LM, respectively. The $NH_3-N$ concentration and total N:$NH_3-N$ ratio of barley were higher in HM than those in LM and MM. With increasing moisture content, buffering capacity of barley and rye silages increased, whereas decreased by increase of pH. There was a negative correlation between moisture content vs. pH of barley and rye silages. However, moisture content vs. the concentrations of total VFA and $NH_3-N$ and the ratio of total N:$NH_3-N$ had a positive correlation. Tn conclusion, the ideal moisture content of barley and rye for silage was 70-80%, but silage quality could be rapidly decreased by pre-wilting to 60% moisture content.

Effects of Aspergillus oryzae Inclusion on Corn Silage Fermentation

  • Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg;Ku, Hsiao-Che;Chen, Chao-Ren;Yu, Bi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1568-1579
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    • 2001
  • This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (AFE) on corn silage fermentation characteristics. Trial included two groups of treatments, with or without AFE inclusion in corn ensilage. Sixty corn silage containers, including two treatments with thirty replicates each, were processed in a laboratory scale mini-silo of 21 cm radius by 45 cm height. Three replicate containers were opened and sampled for analysis at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 18 and 34 days after being ensiled. One silage container from each treatment was installed with a remote controlled electronic thermometer to record the temperature changes. Analysis included silage temperature, pH, fermentation acids, the water-soluble carbohydrates and chemical compositions and the silage protein fractions. Results showed that on the first day, the temperature of the ensiled corn was slightly higher than room temperature, but returned to room temperature on the second day. The pH and concentrations of WSC, ADF, lignin and acetic acid in the AFE treated silage were significantly lower than the control groups (p<0.05). The lactic acid and crude protein on the other hand were significantly higher in the AFE treated silage as compared to the control (p<0.05) at the end of the ensilage period. The DM content was significantly higher (p<0.05) whereas the butyric acid content of the AFE treated silage was significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control at the end of the 34 day ensilage period. Titratable acid and buffering capacity in the corn silage were not significantly different between treatment groups (p>0.05). Ammonia N concentration in the AFE treated silage showed a trend of decrease (p>0.05). NPN and the protein fraction A in both groups increased during the conservation period, but fraction A in the AFE treated corn silage was significantly higher than the control silage (p<0.05). During the conservation period, the AFE treated corn silage showed a trend toward a decrease in fractions $B_1$, $B_3$ and C (p<0.05). The protein fraction B2 showed a trend toward increase in the control group and an inconsistent trend in the AFE treated silage during the ensiling period. The AFE treated silage showed a better Flieg score over the control silage (97 vs. 75) as calculated from the concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid.

Nutritional Quality of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) Silage Supplemented with Molasses and Rice Bran by Goats

  • Yokota, H.;Fujii, Y.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.697-701
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    • 1998
  • In order to improve silage quality and utilization of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) by goats, the grass was ensiled with molasses (MOL) and/or defatted rice bran (DRB). Napier grass was harvested at the growing stage in July and cut into 3 cm length. The grass was mixed with 4% MOL and/or 15% DRB, ensiled 15 kg each into plastic bags and stored for 9 months. Dry matter content of the silage ensiled with MOL (MOL-silage) was 13.4%, but increased to 20% with DRB addition. The addition of MOL decreased pH value and ammonia nitrogen content, but increased lactic acid content. MOL-silage contained about 6% spoilage, but addition of DRB decreased spoilage to less than 1%. Goats were fed the silage at a level of 2.25% (DM basis) of their body weight. Goats fed DRB- or MOL/DRB-silages maintained nitrogen retention, but goats fed MOL-silage did not. The rumen fluid of goats fed DRB-silage tended to be higher in acetic acid and lower in propionic acid than those fed the other silages. Ammonia in the rumen fluids, urea nitrogen in the blood and the urinary nitrogen excretion were the lowest in goats fed MOL/DRB-silage. As the result, the ratio of retained nitrogen to nitrogen intake was the highest in goats fed MOL/DRB-silage. In conclusion, addition of DRB to napier grass increased DM of silage and decreased the volume of spoilage. The combination of MOL and DRB can improve the fermentation quality and thus enhance the utilization of the silage by goats, more than the MOL or DRB being as a single treatment.

Evaluation of Organic Sudangrass for Feed Value, Silage Quality and Palatability in Korea (유기 수단그라스의 사료가치, 사일리지 품질 및 기호성 평가)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Shim, Keum-Seob;Joo, Jong-Cheol;Lee, Hyun-Jiun;Jeon, Gyeong-Hyeop;Youn, Young-You;Oh, Eung-Yong;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2011
  • The main nutritional problem of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor${\times}$Sorghum sudanese) silage is low quality and palatability. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether organic com grain and crushed rice addition of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage increases forage quality of the silage. The sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages with added com grain and crushed rice were similar to conventional com silage in moisture content. However organic sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage had low pH values. Silage added with gain and byproduct had higher crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents than control com silages, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) showed the opposite results. Lactic acid, butyric acid and lactic percentage of total organic acid (L/T) of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages were higher than those of com silage, but acetic acid was higher than control. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of com silage was higher than other sorghum silages. Feed intake of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage added with crushed rice was highest among silages. Therefore, these data indicate that crushed rice and com grain added sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing silage quality and palatability.

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) as a roughage source for beef cattle

  • Oh, Seongjin;Mbiriri, David Tinotenda;Ryu, Chaehwa;Lee, Kangheon;Cho, Sangbuem;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.1598-1603
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate kenaf as a roughage source in vitro and its effects on meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native) cattle. Methods: Three roughage materials, rice straw silage, ryegrass silage, and kenaf silage, were tested in a batch culture and feeding trial. Rumen fermentation parameters, including gas, pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and ammonia were analyzed. In the feeding trial, Hanwoo steers ($373.5{\pm}5.1kg$, n = 36, 11 month of age) were divided into three feeding groups (n = 12 each). Animals were fed with each silage and concentrate until the fattening stage. Results: Crude protein, ether extract, and non-structural carbohydrates were greater in kenaf silage. Total gas production was higher in ryegrass silage, followed by kenaf silage and rice straw silage (p<0.05). Total VFA and individual VFA (acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate) were greater in kenaf silage than rice straw silage (p<0.05). In vitro dry matter digestibility showed a similar trend to that of total gas and VFA production; it was higher in ryegrass silage and lower in rice straw (p<0.05). Throughout the feeding trial, the rice straw silage group showed significantly greater average daily gain than did the others (p<0.05). The feed conversion ratio in the group fed kenaf silage was significantly greater than that of others (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed in yield or quality traits, including carcass weight, ribeye area, backfat thickness, and scores for marbling, meat color, and fat color (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that no negative effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics occurred across treatments. Therefore, kenaf could be substituted for rice straw, which is most widely used as a roughage source in Korea.

Effects of Maturing Stage of Corn Hybrids on Silage Yield, Feeding Value for Dairy Cows and Milk Production in a Cold Region of Japan

  • Oshita, Tomoko;Takayama, Hideki;Otsuka, Hiroshi;Igarashi, Hiroaki;Nonaka, Kazuhisa;Kume, Shinichi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.511-516
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of differently maturing corn hybrids on silage production and milk production per unit area in the northern part of Japan, where grain development occurs under decreasing ambient temperature. Both hybrids were harvested at the same time. The stages of maturity for the early-maturing hybrids (EH; 80 d relative maturity) and the mid-maturing hybrids (MH; 93 d relative day) were early dent and late dough stage, respectively. The plant yields for MH were higher than those for EH. The dry matter (DM) content of MH was lower than that for EH, and the effluent loss for MH silage was greater than that for EH silage. Therefore, the DM yields of prepared silage per area were similar for both treatments. Twelve multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows ($58{\pm}13$ days in milk) were fed diets based on EH or MH silage in a crossover design with two 3-week periods. Cows were fed 3 kg of hay crop silage (DM basis) and either EH or MH silage ad libitum, and concentrates were supplied to meet NRC requirement for dairy cows. Silage DM intake for EH was found to be higher (p<0.05) than that for MH (10.0 vs. 9.1 kg/day). Milk production and milk composition for EH were similar to those for MH. Feed efficiency per total feed intake was similar in both treatments, although the feed efficiency per concentrate intake tended to be higher for the EH than that for the MH diet. These results indicate that differences in maturation in corn hybrids affect the effluent production of silage and the silage intake of dairy cows. It may be advantageous to plant early hybrid corn with a reduction in effluent production of silage as well as a reduction in purchased feed costs for dairy cows under the climatic conditions of the northern part of Japan.