• Title, Summary, Keyword: Silage

Search Result 822, Processing Time 0.041 seconds

Study on the Quality of Whoie Crop Silage and Yield by Stage of Maturity of Rye Plant II. Quality of whole crop rye silage by stage of maturity (호맥의 생육시기별 수량과 Whole crop silage의 품질에 관한 연구 II. 호맥의 생육시기별 Silage의 품질)

  • 고영두;곽종형;문영식
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.7 no.3
    • /
    • pp.153-156
    • /
    • 1987
  • With a purpose of evaluation rye crop as winter green feed, a cultivar was sown in autumn and harvested at booting, heading, milk, dough and yellow-ripe stages, and processed into silage. The quality of the silage was assessed in terms of ammonia-N, recovery rate in dry matter, pH, and the composition of organic acids. The results obtained are: 1. The recovery rate in dry matter from the silage was the highest when harvested at yellow stage (P<0.01). The ratio of ammonia-N to total-N was low when the rye crop was harvested during milk (9.4%) and dough ( 12.7%) stages (P$NH_3-N$. 3. Silage quality based on the composition of organic acids was highly evaluated when the crop was harvested during milk, and dough stages. 4. Considering both the DM yield and quality of the silage, it was found that rye crop should be harvested at dough stage and ensiled.

  • PDF

Methane Emissions from Dry Cows Fed Grass or Legume Silage

  • Kasuya, Hirotaka;Takahashi, Junichi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.23 no.5
    • /
    • pp.563-566
    • /
    • 2010
  • Using an open-circuit system, we compared the methane ($CH_4$) emission from dry cows fed first-cut Timothy silage ($1^{st}$ TY), second-cut Timothy silage ($2^{nd}$ TY), second-cut Italian ryegrass silage ($2^{nd}$ IR), third-cut Italian ryegrass silage ($3^{rd}$ IR), or second-cut red clover silage ($2^{nd}$ RC) as the sole feed. The methane emission ranged from 258.2 L $day^{-1}$ to 396.5 L $day^{-1}$. The methane emission from dry cows fed red clover silage was relatively lower than that from dry cows fed grass silage. However, the methane emission per unit digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake (dNDFI) did not differ significantly between the experimental silages. The methane emission was significantly correlated with the NDF intake and digestibility. Methane emission had a significant correlation with the quadratic function of dNDFI. The differences in the daily volume of methane emission from cows fed different forages can be explained by dNDFI.

Studies on Silage Preparation of Vegetable By-products (농가부산물 ( 채소잎 ) Silage 조제시험)

  • 이상범;김원영;유제곤;상병돈
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-27
    • /
    • 1983
  • This experiment was carried out to show how to make the silage of raddish and Chinese cabbage leaves remained after pickling vegetable in autumn. The moisture of raw materials was controlled by the rice straw and barley bran. The results obtaind were as follows; 1. the silage composed of vegetable leaves 70%, rice straw 20% and barley bran 10% showed the best quality and desirable acid content. 2. Adding barley bran increased the crude protein, crude fat, and crude fiber in the silage. 3. 10% of barley bran made the silage more palatable and also have a good colour.

  • PDF

The Effect of Feeding Order on Dry Matter Intake and Ruminal Characteristics Chage of Daily Cattle (젖소에 급여하는 사료의 급여 순서가 사료섭취량 및 반추위내 생리적 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤상기;김현섭;권응기;강우성;차영호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.245-252
    • /
    • 1996
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feeding order bay-concentrate-silage, concentratehay- silage, silage-concentrate-hay, silage-concentrate-hay, concentrate-silage-hay) on ruminal characteristics change with 3 fistulated dry Holstein cows in a Latin square design. The main results obtained were as follows : DM intake in forage hayconcentrate-silage feeding order was 1.65% of body weight, which is the highest of all treatments, but that in concentrate-hay-silage 1.4%, which is the lowest. The difference between max and min rumen pH in hayconcentrate-silage feeding order was lowest as 0.55, but there is no significant. The mean rumen $NH_3N$ content in silage-concentrate-hay feeding order was highest as 6.12mg/100ml, but that in silageconcentrate-hay feeding order lowest as 4.82mg/100ml. Acetic acid and propionic acid content was highest in forage hay-concentrate-silage feeding order. but there is no significant. The ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid averaged 3.47~3.69(NS). In conclusion, the best feeding order fitted in ruminal physiology was forage hay-concentrate-silage.

  • PDF

Quality and Aerobic Deterioration of Italian Ryegrass Silage Prepared with Propionic Acid and Wilting I. Fermentation chracteristics of the silage (Silage의 품질과 호상적 변패에 대한 proponic acid 와 예건의 효과 I. Silage의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 고영두;김두환;송영민
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.53-59
    • /
    • 1991
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of propionic acid and wilting on fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass silage. Grass material was wilted for a day before ensiling and propionic acid(0. 0, 0. 2. 0. 5 and 0.8 7~ of fresh matter) was applicated at ensiling time. Chemical composition, fermentation acids, pH, microbial population and distribution of the nitrogen contents were evaluated. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The contents of dry matter and water soluble carbohydrate in the silage were increased by wilting, and crude fibre, NDF and ADF were decreased with increasing propionic acid levels. 2. The pH values of the silage increased by increasing DM content, but decreased with increasing propionic acid levels. Lactic acid content lowed in wilted silage, and acetic acid and butyric acid formation were decreased with increasing propionic acid levels. 3. Total nitrogen content in the silage was i n ~ r e a s e d ( ~ < . 05) by addition of propionic acid and wilting, and was the highest in the prewilting-0.8 Q propionic acid applicated silage. The production of NHBN was decreased with propionic acid and was the lowest in the 0.8 % treated silage. 4. The number of total bacteria and yeasts were estimated $10^6~10^7$, $10^2~10^3$ respectively. Moulds number were decreased with increasing propionic acid levels.

  • PDF

Influence of microbial additive on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of delayed sealing silage of Napier grass

  • Cai, Yimin;Du, Zhumei;Yamasaki, Seishi;Nguluve, Damiao;Tinga, Benedito;Macome, Felicidade;Oya, Tetsuji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.33 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1103-1112
    • /
    • 2020
  • Objective: To measure whether a microbial additive could effectively improve the fermentation quality of delayed-sealing (DS) silage, we studied the effects of inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase enzyme on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of DS silage of Napier grass in Africa. Methods: Quick-sealing (QS) and DS silages were prepared with and without LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant, cellulase enzymes, and their combination. The QS material was directly chopped and packed into a bunker silo. The DS material was packed into the silo with a delay of 24 h from harvest. Results: In the QS silage, LAB was dominant in the microbial population and produced large amounts of lactic acid. When the silage was treated with LAB and cellulase, the fermentation quality was improved. In the DS silage, aerobic bacteria and yeasts were the dominant microbes and all the silages were of poor quality. The yeast and mold counts in the DS silage were high, and they increased rapidly during aerobic exposure. As a result, the DS silages spoiled faster than the QS silages upon aerobic exposure. Conclusion: DS results in poor silage fermentation and aerobic deterioration. The microbial additive improved QS silage fermentation but was not effective for DS silage.

Effects of Isolated and Commercial Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Silage Quality, Digestibility, Voluntary Intake and Ruminal Fluid Characteristics

  • Ando, Sada;Ishida, M.;Oshio, S.;Tanaka, O.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.386-389
    • /
    • 2006
  • Silage is a major component of cattle rations, so the improvement of silage quality by the inoculation of lactic acid bacteria is of great interest. In this study, commercially distributed Lactobacillus plantram and Lactobacillus rhamnousas NGRI 0110 were used for ensilaging of guinea grass. The four treatments used were a control silage, a silage with cellulase addition, a silage with cellulose+L. plantram addition, and a silage with cellulose + NGRI 0110 addition. Silage quality, voluntary intake, nutrient digestibility, and the characteristics of ruminal fluid of wethers were investigated. Silage to which lactic acid bacteria were added showed low pH and acetic acid concentration and the highest lactic acid content. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility were significantly (p<0.05) increased by cellulase addition and significantly (p<0.05) higher values were observed in L. plantram- and NGRI 0110-added silage. Voluntary intake of NGRI 0110-added silage was the highest and that of control silage was the lowest. We concluded that the observed ability of NGRI 0110 to tolerate low pH and to continue lactic acid fermentation in high lactic acid concentration had also occurred in actual ensilaging. The results indicate that the addition of lactic acid bacteria might improve silage quality and increase digestibility and voluntary intake. The potential for improvement by NGRI 0110 was higher than that to be gained by the use of commercially available lactic acid bacteria.

Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

  • Razak, Okine Abdul;Masaaki, Hanada;Yimamu, Aibibula;Meiji, Okamoto
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.25 no.4
    • /
    • pp.471-478
    • /
    • 2012
  • The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (${\pm}10.3$). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization to the Sward on Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Gatton) Silage Fermentation

  • Namihira, Tomoyuki;Shinzato, Naoya;Akamine, Hikaru;Nakamura, Ichiro;Maekawa, Hideaki;Kawamoto, Yasuhiro;Matsui, Toru
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.358-363
    • /
    • 2011
  • To investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the quality of tropical grass silage, guinea grass grown with 3 types of nitrogen fertilizers, namely, urea, ammonium sulfate, and compound fertilizer 804, at 2 fertilization levels, 0.5 and 2.5 kg $Na^{-1}$ (0.5 N and 2.5 N, respectively), was subjected to silage fermentation. Silage fertilized with 0.5 N showed butyrate-dominant fermentation, irrespective of the type of fertilizer used. On the other hand, fermentation of silage fertilized with 2.5 N was significantly affected by the type of fertilizer used; fertilization with ammonium sulfate and compound fertilizer 804 resulted in silage that contained a large amount of butyrate and no lactate; this silage was considered to be of a significantly low quality as compared with silage fertilized with 0.5 N. Among silage fertilized with 2.5 N, the desirable butyrate-free fermentation was found only in urea-fertilized silage, which had the best quality. Grass material fertilized with a high level of urea accumulated a relatively high concentration of nitrate nitrogen (0.22% dry matter). Our results presented here suggest that nitrogen fertilizer management could affect the quality of tropical grass silage and that a relatively high concentration of nitrate in silage may promote butyrate-free fermentation even in tropical grass silage.

Study on Baled Silage Making of Selected Forage Crop and Pesture Grasses I. Discussion on baled silage making as affected by phtsiological characteristics of tth plants (주요 사료작물의 곤포 Silage 조제이용에 관한 연구 I. 작물의 생리적 특성과 곤포 Silage 조제이용)

  • 김정갑;강우성;한정대;신정남;한민수;김건엽
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.73-79
    • /
    • 1995
  • A simple conservation technique baled silage making of selected froage materials was discussed in Suwon and in Muan county during 1991 - 1992. Eleven species of forage crops and pasture grasses(maize. sorghum, pearl millet, barnyardgrass, rye, barley, spring oat, Italian ryegrass, orchardgrass, alfalfa and grass-legume pasture mixtures) were harvested at different growth stage from young plant to maturity and baled in a self constructed square baling chamber, and wrapped in a 0.05mm thick polyethylene plastic film. Each bales measured by 90cm long, 60cm wide and 50cm height and weighted between 15~20kg in dry matter basis. physio-molphologcal characteristics of the plants, leaf weight ratio(LWR), leaf area ratio(LAR), stalk ratio (SR), stalk hardness(SH) and other growth parameters, were analysed and were used as a parameter to evaluate the suitability of materials for baling. Italian ryegrass including orchardgrass, alfalfa and pasture mixtures produced high quality baled silage. Silage quality point(F1ieg-point) of Italian ryegrass was improved from 63 point in crushed custom silage to 75 piont in baled silage. Meterial of grass-legume pasture mixtures showed 55 point in crushed silage and 67 point in baled silage. Fodder rye, barley, spring oat and barnyardgrass were also evaluated as a good materials for baled silage making. On the other hand, meize including sorghum and peral millet were evaluated as a not suitable materals for baling due to its high value of SR and SH. Quality of maize was excellent with 88 point in clushed silage and medium with 47 point in baled silage making.

  • PDF