• Title, Summary, Keyword: Silage

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Quality and Feed Value of Ensiled Whole Crop Corn with Cage Layer Excreta and Concentrate (배합사료를 혼합한 옥수수-계분 silage의 품질과 사료가치)

  • 고영두;김두환;김재황;강한석;박재학
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.164-171
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    • 1990
  • This study was carried out to enhance the nutritional value of whole crop corn silage and the utilization of animal waste as a ruminant feedstuffs. Whole crop corn were ensiled with cage layer excreta and concentrate. Treatments included whole crop corn silage (control), 10% cage layer excreta and concentrate-corn silage (CES lo), 20% cage layer excreta and 10% concentrate-corn silage (CES 20) and 30% cage layer excreta and 10% concentrate-corn silage (CES 30). The characteristics of silage fermentation was evaluated. Digestibility and palatability of the silage were observed through the feeding trial with four male Corridale sheep. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Cage layer excreta-corn silage showed higher contents of crude protein and crude ash than control silage, while crude fibre content was significantlv lower than that of control silage (P(.01). 2. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen content of the cage layer excreta-corn silage was significantly (P< .01) higher than that of control, but CES 10 silage was good in quality. 3. Lactic acid content of CES 10 silage was the highest, but that of CES 20 and CES 30 silage was lower than that of control. CES 20 and CES 30 silage was lower lactic acid content and higher pH than control. Therefore Flieg's score was wrose than that of control silage. 4. The numbers of total bacteria and lactic fermentation bacteria were estimated lo7-10' and 10"1OH, respectively, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Coliform numbers were not detected with CES 10 silage while were detected lo3 per gram in CES 30 silage. 5. Digestibility of crude protein, crude fibre and ADF was improved significantly in the animals fed the cage layer excreta-corn silage compared with animals fed the control silage. DCP and TDN were the highest in the CES 10 silage. 6. The intake of daily nitrogen and dry matter per metabolic body weight was the highest in animals fed the CES 10 silage.lage.

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Effects of Adding Crushed Fresh Sweet Potatoes on the Quality of Rice Straw, Clover and Sweet Potato Stalk Silages (볏짚, 클로버 및 고구마덩굴 Silage 조제(調製)를 위한 생고구마 첨가(添加)의 효과(效果))

  • Kim, Jong Woo;Kim, Yong Kook
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.114-119
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    • 1984
  • In order to improve the quality of silages made of rice straw, clover and sweet potato stalk, crushed fresh sweet potatoes(CFSP) were added at various levels to each silage. When the fermentation was completed, the chemical composition, pH and main organic acid contents of each silage were analized. The results obtained were summarized. 1. The moisture content of sweet potato stalk silage was highest among all silages tested. The clover silage showed the highest value in crude protein content. On the other hand, the rice straw silages were high in NFE and crude fiber contents. When the level of CFSP increased, the NFE contents tended to increase and crude fiber decrease. 2. The content of total organic was highest in clover silage. However, the percentage of lactic acid in total acid content was highest in sweet potato silage. The percentage of lactic ac id in total acid content was increased in paralled with the levels of CFSP. 3. The sweet potato stalk silages showed the lowest pH value (4.10-4.20). The highest pH values were 4.75-5.22 in rice straw silage. The addition of CFSP tended to lower the pH. 4. It appears the quality of clover and rice straw silages can be imp roved by adding CFSP at 5 and 10% levels, respectively, on fresh weight basis. The addition of CFSP to the sweet potato stalk silage, however, was not effective in this experiment.

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EFFECTS ON EATING AND RUMINATION BEHAVIOUR IN SHEEP OF FORMIC ACID AND FORMALDEHYDE TREATMENT AND METHIONINE-SUPPLEMENTATION TO LADINO CLOVER FIBROUS RESIDUE SILAGE

  • Fujihara, T.;Ichinohe, T.;Nakao, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.477-480
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    • 1995
  • The effects of formic acid and formaldehyde treatment and methionine supplementation to ladino clover fibrous residue silage on eating and rumination behaviour were studied in sheep. From the ladino clover fibrous residue, two silage were prepared, either untreated or treated with formic acid and formaldehyde. Four experimental diets: untreated silage, treated silage, untreated silage with supplementation of methionine and treated silage with supplementation of methionine, were offered to four sheep at a restricted level of DM intake (2% of BW/d) twice daily in a two-way layout design. Methionine supplementation with the treated silage significantly (p < 0.05) reduced daily time spent eating, and consequently, markedly increased rate of eating. However, there was little effect of methionine supplementation on the daily time spent eating and eating rate for sheep offered untreated silage. Methionine supplementation with the treated silage reduced daily time spent ruminating, although the same effect was not observed for untreated silage. The rumination index (time spent ruminating/100 g DM eaten) was remarkably smaller (p < 0.05) with methionine supplement in feeding treated silage, although it did not differ for sheep offered untreated silage. There were no clear effect of methionine supplementation on the rumination efficiency (i.e. number of chews/bolus, bolus time and rumination chewing rate) both feeding untreated silage and treated silage.

BODY WEIGHT GAIN, FEED CONVERSION AND FEED COST OF KOREAN NATIVE GOATS FED CORN-MANURE SILAGES

  • Kim, J.H.;Ko, Y.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.427-431
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to investigatigate feed cost of com-manure silage and growth performance of Korean native goats which was fed com-manure silage. The average weight about 11.6 kg of twenty one Korean native male goats (4 months used to determine the effect of the feeding trial. The goats were individually reared in metabolism cages and fed diet daily of 2% of the body weight on the dry matter basis. The treatments were divided into whole crop com silage(CS silage), whole crop com ensiled with cage layer manure (CLM; Com-manure silage or MS silage) and whole crop com silage supplemented with urea at feeding time (US silage). The content of crude protein, lactic acid and the ratio of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen ($NH_3-N/Total$ N) in MS silage were increased from 7.7 to 14.9%, 5.7 to 7.5% and 8.2 to 16.6%, and the differences were significantly (p < 0.05) different in all observations. Total body weight gain of those goats for 90 days was 6.0 kg (66.7 g/day; MS silage 4.3 kg (47.8 g/day; US silage) and 3.9 kg (43.4 g/day; CS silage), and feed conversion of MS silage (5.98) for 90 days was increased by far the best in the other groups and decreased about 30% in proportion to CS silage. Feed cost per 1 kg MS silage (1,606 won) was the lowest (p < 0.05) in the body weight gain and cut down expenses than fed CS silage by 37% of feed cost.

Development of Mechanized System Model for the Production of Winter Cereal Wrap Silage in the Fallow Paddy Field(4) - Storage property and quality analysis of winter cereal wrap silage - (답리작 맥류 랩-사일리지의 기계화 시스템 모델 개발(4) - 답리작 맥류 랩-사일리지의 저장특성 및 품질평가 -)

  • 김혁주;박경규;하유신;홍동혁
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2004
  • In order to solve the shortage of roughage supply for dairy farm in Korea, the mechanized model system for the production of winter cereal wrap silage in the fellow paddy field was developed in the previous studies. In this study, storage properties after long term storing of the winter cereal wrap silage were investigated. Also, the qualities of the wrap silage which was stored during 4 months were evaluated by sensory testings, analyzing chemical properties(moisture content, pH and organic acids) and investigating the increase of feeding value. The result of this study were summarized as follows; 1. After 300 hours storage, the acid level of the silage decreased slowly to 4.6 -4.8 pH. Also, the temperature was stabilized around 27-28$^{\circ}C$. The silage having below 5.0 pH is a desirable level for the most of good silage. 2. According to the sensory test and chemical property analyzation it was evaluated as the first class silage like a com silage. 3. Also, when the wrap silage are fed to the cattle, the cattle produced milk more 25% than that of conventional feed. 4. As an overall conclusion, winter cereal wrap silage in the fallow paddy field cm be one of the major roughage source in replacement of com and other conventional silage to dairy cattle in Korea.

Moisture Concentration Variation of Silages Produced on Commercial Farms in the South-Central USA

  • Han, K.J.;Pitman, W.D.;Chapple, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1436-1442
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    • 2014
  • Preservation of forage crops as silage offers opportunity to avoid the high risk of rain-damaged hay in the humid south-central USA. Recent developments with baled silage or baleage make silage a less expensive option than typical chopped silage. Silage has been important in the region primarily for dairy production, but baleage has become an option for the more extensive beef cattle industry in the region. Silage samples submitted to the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Forage Quality Lab from 2006 through 2013 were assessed for dry matter (DM) and forage nutritive characteristics of chopped silage and baleage of the different forage types from commercial farms primarily in Louisiana and Mississippi. Of the 1,308 silage samples submitted, 1,065 were annual ryegrass (AR) with small grains (SG), the warm-season annual (WA) grasses, sorghums and pearl millet, and the warm-season perennial (WP) grasses, bermudagrass and bahiagrass, providing the remaining samples. Concentration of DM was used to indicate an effective ensiling opportunity, and AR silage was more frequently within the target DM range than was the WA forage group. The AR samples also indicated a high-quality forage with average crude protein (CP) of 130 g/kg and total digestible nutrient (TDN) near 600 g/kg. The cooler winter weather at harvest apparently complicated harvest of SG silage with chopped SG silage lower in both CP and TDN (104 and 553 g/kg, respectively) than either AR silage or baleage of SG (137 and 624 g/kg for CP and TDN, respectively). The hot, humid summer weather along with large stems and large forage quantities of the WA grasses and the inherently higher fiber concentration of WP grasses at harvest stage indicate that preservation of these forage types as silage will be challenging, although successful commercial silage samples of each forage type and preservation approach were included among samples of silages produced in the region.

Effect of Grass Silage Supplementation on Performance in Lactating Cows Grazing on Pasture

  • Sung, K.I.;Okubo, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1409-1418
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    • 2001
  • Two trials were carried out during two different grazing seasons to evaluate effect of grass silage supplementation, when amount of pasture is limited on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and gross energetic efficiency (GEE) of grazed lactating cows on a high forage-based diet. Fifty-one Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: high pasture group or high silage group. In the spring flush, pasture and silage DMI, milk yield, milk fat percentage, and GEE were not different between the dietary groups. After the spring flush, pasture and silage DMI were higher for the high silage group than for the high pasture group. After the spring flush, although these were the higher total DMI of the high silage group than the high pasture group, milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) higher for the high pasture group than the high silage group. Milk fat percentage tended to be higher for the high silage group than the high pasture group. The GEE was significantly (p<0.05) higher for the high pasture group than the high silage group during after the spring flush. This study indicated that supplementation of grass silage, especially after the spring flush, can have a significant effect of increasing of forage intake and maintenance of the milk fat percentage; but not increase milk yield and GEE.

Effects of Supplementing Organic Citrus in Making Rice Straw Silage (볏짚사일리지 제조를 위한 유기감귤 첨가효과)

  • Ahn, Jong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 2007
  • The effects of supplementation of organic citrus on the quality of rice straw silage was investigated in this study. The aim of the study was to improve the quality of rice straw silage using agricultural by-products and therefore to secure the good quality forage sources. Firstly, looking at chemical composition of citrus added rice straw silage, crude protein content appeared improved with the addition of citrus to rice straw silage compared to control while NDF and ADF contents decreased. pH of the silages were different between control(4.39) and treatments$(3.47\sim3.53)$. Lactic acid content was higher in citrus added silage(4.87mM) than in control (3.65mM). External quality of the silages was also better in citrus added silage when citrus added at the equal ratio with rice straw(1 : 1). This trend was the same as with pH and lactic acid content. Propionate was significantly higher in citrus addd silage but butyrate was significantly lower. DM and NDF disappearance rates in the rumen were highest when citrus added at the equal ratio with rice straw(1:1). In conclusion, supplementation of citrus to rice straw silage with equal ratio contributed the best to the improvement of the quality of silage and it may have been due mainly to abundant content of non-structural carbohydrate in citrus.

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Study on the Quality of Whoie Crop Silage and Yield by Stage of Maturity of Rye Plant II. Quality of whole crop rye silage by stage of maturity (호맥의 생육시기별 수량과 Whole crop silage의 품질에 관한 연구 II. 호맥의 생육시기별 Silage의 품질)

  • 고영두;곽종형;문영식
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.153-156
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    • 1987
  • With a purpose of evaluation rye crop as winter green feed, a cultivar was sown in autumn and harvested at booting, heading, milk, dough and yellow-ripe stages, and processed into silage. The quality of the silage was assessed in terms of ammonia-N, recovery rate in dry matter, pH, and the composition of organic acids. The results obtained are: 1. The recovery rate in dry matter from the silage was the highest when harvested at yellow stage (P<0.01). The ratio of ammonia-N to total-N was low when the rye crop was harvested during milk (9.4%) and dough ( 12.7%) stages (P$NH_3-N$. 3. Silage quality based on the composition of organic acids was highly evaluated when the crop was harvested during milk, and dough stages. 4. Considering both the DM yield and quality of the silage, it was found that rye crop should be harvested at dough stage and ensiled.

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NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WILTED NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) ENSILED WITH OR WITHOUT MOLASSES

  • Yokota, H.;Kim, J.H.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.673-679
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    • 1992
  • To investigate the effects of molasses addition at ensiling on nutritional quality of wilted napier grass, chemical quality and nutrient composition of the silages, digestibility and nitrogen retention at feeding trials were analysed using 4 goats in a cross over design. The results are as follows : 1. Molasses addition at ensiling decreased pH value (3.99) and ammonia nitrogen, and increased lactic acid content by 285% compared to non-additive silage (83.5 g/kg dry matter). 2. There were no differences in digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and cellulose between the silage ensiled with molasses (MS silage) and the silage ensiled without molasses (WS silage). Urinary nitrogen excretion, however, significantly (p<0.05) decreased in goats fed the MS silage, and nitrogen retention was positive in goats fed the MS silages, but negative in goats fed the WS silage. 3. Acetic acid concentration in remained fluids in goats fed the MS silage was lower and propionic and butyric acid concentrations were higher than those in goats fed the WS silage. As water soluble carbohydrate content was higher in the MS silage than in the WS silage, a part of added molasses was still remained in the silage at the feeding trials and could be utilized for energy sources by the goats. Nitrogen may be also effectively utilized in goats fed the MS silage, because the silage were inhibited in proteolysis during ensiling.