• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sika deer

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A Nutritional Study of Yeso Sika Deer (Cervus Nippon Yesoensis) under Farming - Review -

  • Masuko, T.;Ishijima, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.701-709
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    • 2001
  • Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) grazed on various types of plants, and the fiber content in these plants was low. The tastes of yeso sika deer for existing feeds for ruminant livestock resembled those of sheep. Though the digestibility of these feeds in yeso sika deer was slightly lower than that in sheep, the nutritive values of DCP and TDN were similar between the two species, suggesting that feed for sheep can be utilized. Therefore, in small-scale farming of yeso sika deer, the feeding amount in feeding planning can be determined using the feeding standards for sheep. However, when concentrates are fed, correction of TDN is necessary. In large-scale pasturage, the nutritional intake in summer is adequate because yeso sika deer graze on various types of wild plants. In winter, they mainly graze on sasa (Sasa senanensis), and supplementary food may be necessary to supply TDN. Thus, since yeso sika deer graze on many types of wild plants, existing feeds for ruminant livestock can be used. In addition, plant biomasses except concentrates that do not cause competition with existing livestock may be effectively utilized in yeso sika deer, suggesting their importance as animal resources. The data on the intake and nutritive values of Sasa senanensis can be parameters for estimating the appropriate inhabitant number of wild yeso sika deer in wintering areas.

Retrospective study of the medical status of 34 Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanu) at the Taipei Zoo from 2003 to 2014

  • Kang, Chu-Lin;Yu, Jane-Fang;Lai, Hsueh;Guo, Jun-Cheng;Wang, Lih-Chiann
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.169-173
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    • 2015
  • The Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus) is an endemic subspecies in Taiwan. The original wild deer has been extinct since the late 1960s. The largest captive population is located at the Taipei Zoo. Except for infectious disease outbreaks, no systemic medical research has been reported for this subspecies. This study was conducted to analyze the medical status of the captive Formosan sika deer population, including the hematological and serum chemistry characteristics. To accomplish this, medical records for 34 Formosan sika deer from January 2003 to January 2014 were acquired and analyzed. The most common illness and cause of death was trauma, followed by gastrointestinal and respiratory disease, respectively. The hematologic and serum chemical values of healthy adults were quite different from those of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis). This study provides a closer medical understanding of this subspecies and the results will facilitate its management.

Studies on the Utilization of Browse by the Sika Deer(Cervus nippon) I. Food habits of the sika deer (꽃사슴(Cervus nippon)의 수옆류 이용에 관한 연구 I. 꽃사슴의 채식습성)

  • Lee J. H.;Lee I. D.;Lee H. S.
    • Korean Deer Journal
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    • no.9
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 1990
  • In order to investigate the food habits of the sika deer. 21 spring, summer and autumn browse(leaves of trees and shrubs) species in northern part of Korea were evaluated by Using four sika deer(Cervus nippon) bucks from 1988 to 1989. The most frequently

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A study on the food habits of Sika Deer (Saanen) fed with roughage sources (조사료원에 따른 꽃사슴(Servus nippon)의 채식습성에 관한 연구)

  • Gang, Byung-Ho;Lee, In-Duk;Lee, Soo-Kee;Lee, Hyung-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.437-444
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    • 2011
  • The object of this experiment was to investigate the food habits of sika deer fed with various roughage sources. The experimental trials were conducted at Unbong Animal Genetic Resources Station in 2008. The experimental roughages include five sources and 25 species in all; grasses and legumes: 5 species (mixed grasses, orchardgrass, tall fescue, alfalfa, white clover), native grasses and weeds: 5 species (mixed native grasses, Miscanthus sinensis Anderss, Arundinella hirta (Thunb.) Tanaka, barnyard grass, short awn, forage crops (hay, silages and straw): 5 species (barley + hairy vetch, Wheat + hairy vetch, rye silage, barley silage, baled rice straw), browse and fallen leaves: 5 species (mixed browse, oriental white oak, Quercus serrta Thunb., oriental cherry fallen leaves, Japanese chestnut fallen leaves), and imported hays and straws: 5 species (timothy hay, tall fescue straw, annual ryegrass straw, klinegrass hay, alfalfa hay). Five sika deer were used as experimental animals and the averaged body weight was 95+5.4kg. The chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of each roughage source and species were significantly different at the sampling area, plant species, growth stages and cutting period(p<0.05). The sika deer ate more roughages which had low fibrous contents, but high dry matter digestibility. Among all the 25 species of roughages, the favorite intake roughage sources ranking by sika deer was observed like this: browse and fallen leaves (32.2%), grass and legumes (27.0%), native grasses and weeds (22.0%), imported hays (12.9%) and forages crops (5.5%) respectively. Although, the sika deer ate more browse leaves, but ate more roughage which had low fibrous contents (NDF and ADF), but high drymatter digestibility. On the other hand, compared to each roughage source, total intake amount by sika deer was showed as browse and fallen leaves (32.2%). Based on the result, the food habit of sika deer seems to be closer to the typical browser.

Physico-Chemical Properties and Composition of Venison in Deer Breeds. (사슴 품종별 녹육의 이화학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이길왕
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.525-530
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    • 2004
  • This study has been performed to examine physico-chemical properties and composition of venison in Deer breeds. According the results, moisture content in the venison ranged between 74% and 75%, and there were no significant differences among the breeds, or among the cutting parts. Fat content in the meats was estimated as less than 1% except in loin, protein contents was estimated as more than 22%, and ash content was estimated as more than 1.5%. For the contents of inorganic material in the loin, Fe$^{3+}$ content was higher in Elk than in other breeds, the contents of $Cu^{2+}$, $Mn^{2+}$, $K^{+}$, $Mg^{2+}$ and $Ca^{2+}$were higher in Red deer than in others, and the contents of $Fe^{3+}$, $K^{+}$, and $P^{+}$ were higher in Sika deer than in others. For the contents of inorganic material in the leg, the contents of $Cu^{2+}$, $Zn^{2+}$, $K^{+}$, $Ca^{2+}$ and $Mg^{2+}$ were higher in Elk than in other breeds, the contents of $Fe^{3+}$ and$P^{+}$ were higher in Red deer than in others, and the contents of $Cu^{2+}$ and $Fe^{3+}$were higher in Sika deer than in others. Amino acid contents in the venison alanine, proline, glycine, lycine and histidine were highly contained. and the contents of asparagine, cysteine, isoleucine and threonine were low. For the differences of amino acid contents among the breeds, the level was the higher in Sika deer than those of others. For the fatty acid in loin, the contents of myristic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid in Sika deer were higher than those of others, the contents of myristic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and arachidonic acid in Red deer were higher than those of others and in Elk, the contents of palmitic acid and stearic acid were higher than those of others. For the contents of unsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, the level was higher in Red deer than those of others. For the fatty acid in leg, the contents of oleic acid, linolenic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonine acid in Sika deer were higher than those of others, the contents of myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in Red deer were higher than those of others and in Elk, the contents of stearic acid and linolenic acid were higher than those of others. For the contents of saturated fatty acid, the level was lowest in Sika deer. For the contents of unsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids were respectively highest in Sika deer. Comparing the contents inorganic materials between loin and leg, the concentrations in leg were generally higher than that of loin.n.

Effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane production in growing goats (Capra hircus hircus) and Sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum)

  • Na, Youngjun;Li, Dong Hua;Lee, Sang Rak
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.967-972
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio on the nutrient digestibility and enteric methane ($CH_4$) emission in growing goats and Sika deer. Methods: Three male growing goats (body weight $[BW]=19.0{\pm}0.7kg$) and three male growing deer ($BW=19.3{\pm}1.2kg$) were respectively allotted to a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design with an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. Respiration-metabolism chambers were used for measuring the enteric $CH_4$ emission. Treatments of low (25:75), moderate (50:50), and high (73:27) F:C ratios were given to both goats and Sika deer. Results: Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility decreased linearly with increasing F:C ratio in both goats and Sika deer. In both goats and Sika deer, the $CH_4$ emissions expressed as g/d, g/kg $BW^{0.75}$, % of gross energy intake, g/kg DM intake (DMI), and g/kg OM intake (OMI) decreased linearly as the F:C ratio increased, however, the $CH_4$ emissions expressed as g/kg digested DMI and OMI were not affected by the F:C ratio. Eight equations were derived for predicting the enteric $CH_4$ emission from goats and Sika deer. For goat, equation 1 was found to be of the highest accuracy: $CH_4(g/d)=3.36+4.71{\times}DMI(kg/d)-0.0036{\times}neutral$ detergent fiber concentrate (NDFC,g/kg)+$0.01563{\times}dry$ matter digestibility (DMD,g/kg)-$0.0108{\times}neutral$ detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD, g/kg). For Sika deer, equation 5 was found to be of the highest accuracy: $CH_4(g/d)=66.3+27.7{\times}DMI(kg/d)-5.91{\times}NDFC(g/kg)-7.11{\times}DMD(g/kg)+0.0809{\times}NDFD(g/kg)$. Conclusion: Digested nutrient intake could be considered when determining the $CH_4$ generation factor in goats and Sika deer. Finally, the enteric $CH_4$ prediction model for goats and Sika deer were estimated.

Seed contents of sika deer (Cervus nippon) dung and the fate of seeds in a temperate short grassland in an urban park in Japan

  • Ishikawa, Haruna
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.295-305
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    • 2011
  • Many studies have suggested the positive effects of grazing by large herbivorous mammals on seed dispersal, but little is known about how herbivores could affect the fate of ingested seeds. This study examined the effects of seed ingestion by sika deer (Cervus nippon) on seed fate in a temperate grassland established in an urban park long resided by high densities of sika deer. I compared species composition and seasonal traits of seed abundance and maturity in the grassland community with those in deer fecal pellets. In total, 27 herbaceous species were observed, including the predominant Zoysia japonica. Seed phenology and production differed among the three dominant species (Z. japonica, Digitaria violascens, and Hydrocotyle maritima). Pellets contained at least 26 species of herbaceous seeds, and their abundance differed among species. Of the 26 species, 15 were observed in the vegetation at the study site. The peak of seed abundance in pellets for the dominant species appeared 1 month after the peak of inflorescence production (but most of the inflorescences were immature and susceptible to digestion) and consequently corresponded to the peak of mature inflorescence. Because sika deer are likely to ingest seeds at any maturity stage in the grassland and immature seeds are less hardened, ingested immature seeds can suffer great losses. The results suggested that the survival of germable seeds with great losses of immature seeds may be a factor determining which plant species can be successfully dispersed by herbivores.

Effects of feeding level on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane production in growing goats (Capra hircus hircus) and Sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum)

  • Na, Youngjun;Li, Dong Hua;Choi, Yongjun;Kim, Kyoung Hoon;Lee, Sang Rak
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1238-1243
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding level on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane ($CH_4$) emissions in growing goats and Sika deer. Methods: Three growing male goats (initial body weight [BW] of $22.4{\pm}0.9kg$) and three growing male deer (initial BW of $20.2{\pm}4.8kg$) were each allotted to a respiration-metabolism chamber for an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. An experimental diet was offered to each animal at one of three feeding levels (1.5%, 2.0%, and 2.5% of BW) in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design. The chambers were used for measuring enteric $CH_4$ emission. Results: Nutrient digestibility decreased linearly in goats as feeding level increased, whereas Sika deer digestibility was not affected by feeding level. The enteric production of $CH_4$ expressed as g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), g/kg organic matter intake, and % of gross energy intake decreased linearly with increased feeding level in goats; however, that of Sika deer was not affected by feeding level. Six equations were estimated for predicting the enteric $CH_4$ emission from goats and Sika deer. For goat, equation 1 was found to be of the highest accuracy: $CH_4(g/d)=6.2({\pm}14.1)+10.2({\pm}7.01){\times}DMI(kg/d)+0.0048({\pm}0.0275){\times}dry$ matter digestibility (DMD, g/kg)-0.0070 (${\pm}0.0187$)${\times}$neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD; g/kg). For Sika deer, equation 4 was found to be of the highest accuracy: $CH_4(g/d)=-13.0({\pm}30.8)+29.4({\pm}3.93){\times}DMI(kg/d)+0.046(0.094){\times}DMD(g/kg)-0.0363({\pm}0.0636){\times}NDFD(g/kg)$. Conclusion: Increasing the feeding level increased $CH_4$ production in both goats and Sika deer, and predictive models of enteric $CH_4$ production by goats and Sika deer were estimated.

Effects of Medroxy Progesterone Acetate (MPA) Treatment on Growth of Velvet Antler in Sika Deer and Elk Deer (MPA 투여가 사슴뿔의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, S.W.;Choi, S.H.;Sang, B.D.;Kim, Y.K.;Yoo, C.H.;Seo, K.W.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.905-912
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    • 2005
  • The study was conducted to determine the effects of hormone injection on casting day of antler, velvet antler yield, and blood hormone concentration in elk deer and Sika deer. The study revealed that the casting day of Elk and Sika deer at medroxy progesterone acetate(MPA) injection averaged 21 days after MPA injection, which was earlier 38 and 24 days, respectively, compared control(P<0.01). The regrowth of antler in both Sika deer and Elk occurred in the MPA injection and the duration of antler growth was 2 times longer than control. The total yield of velvet antler of Elk in the control and MPA injection was 7.31 and 10.11kg and the that of sika deer was 1.00 and 1.41kg, respectively. Blood testosterone concentration of Sika deer and Elk was less than 4.0ng/ml for both at the casting and during the antler growing. Blood IGF-1 concentrations of Sika deer and Elk during the antler growing tended to increase with the same as growth curve of antler.

Studies on the Utilization of Browse by the Sika Deer(Cervus nippon) II. Chemical composition, digestibility and dry matter yield of browse (꽃사슴(Cervus nippon)의 수옆류 이용에 관한 연구 II.수옆류의 화학적성분, 생산율 섭취율)

  • Lee J. H.;Lee I. D.;Lee H. S.
    • Korean Deer Journal
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    • no.10
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    • pp.26-35
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    • 1990
  • Seaeonal Changes in chemical composition, in vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD). dry matter(DM) yields and DM intake of browse(leaves of trees and shrubs) by four sika deer(Cervus nippon) bucks were studied from 1998 to 1989 under deforested slope moun

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