• Title, Summary, Keyword: Signatures of Selection

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Genome-wide scans for detecting the selection signature of the Jeju-island native pig in Korea

  • Lee, Young-Sup;Shin, Donghyun;Won, Kyeong-Hye;Kim, Dae Cheol;Lee, Sang Chul;Song, Ki-Duk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.539-546
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The Jeju native pig (JNP) found on the Jeju Island of Korea is a unique black pig known for high-quality meat. To investigate the genetic uniqueness of JNP, we analyzed the selection signature of the JNP in comparison to commercial pigs such as Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs. Methods: We surveyed the genetic diversity to identify the genetic stability of the JNP, using the linkage disequilibrium method. A selective sweep of the JNP was performed to identify the selection signatures. To do so, the population differentiation measure, Weir-Cockerham's Fst was utilized. This statistic directly measures the population differentiation at the variant level. Additionally, we investigated the gene ontologies (GOs) and genetic features. Results: Compared to the Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs, the JNP had lower genetic diversity in terms of linkage disequilibrium decays. We summarized the selection signatures of the JNP as GO. In the JNP and Berkshire pigs, the most enriched GO terms were epithelium development and neuron-related. Considering the JNP and Yorkshire pigs, cellular response to oxygen-containing compound and generation of neurons were the most enriched GO. Conclusion: The selection signatures of the JNP were identified through the population differentiation statistic. The genes with possible selection signatures are expected to play a role in JNP's unique pork quality.

A whole genomic scan to detect selection signatures between Berkshire and Korean native pig breeds

  • Edea, Zewdu;Kim, Kwan-Suk
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.56 no.7
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    • pp.23.1-23.7
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    • 2014
  • Background: Scanning of the genome for selection signatures between breeds may play important role in understanding the underlie causes for observable phenotypic variations. The discovery of high density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provide a useful starting point to perform genome-wide scan in pig populations in order to identify loci/candidate genes underlie phenotypic variation in pig breeds and facilitate genetic improvement programs. However, prior to this study genomic region under selection in commercially selected Berkshire and Korean native pig breeds has never been detected using high density SNP markers. To this end, we have genotyped 45 animals using Porcine SNP60 chip to detect selection signatures in the genome of the two breeds by using the $F_{ST}$ approach. Results: In the comparison of Berkshire and KNP breeds using the FDIST approach, a total of 1108 outlier loci (3.48%) were significantly different from zero at 99% confidence level with 870 of the outlier SNPs displaying high level of genetic differentiation ($F_{ST}{\geq}0.490$). The identified candidate genes were involved in a wide array of biological processes and molecular functions. Results revealed that 19 candidate genes were enriched in phosphate metabolism (GO: 0006796; ADCK1, ACYP1, CAMK2D, CDK13, CDK13, ERN1, GALK2, INPP1; MAK, MAP2K5, MAP3K1, MAPK14, P14KB, PIK3C3, PRKC1, PTPRK, RNASEL, THBS1, BRAF, VRK1). We have identified a set of candidate genes under selection and have known to be involved in growth, size and pork quality (CART, AGL, CF7L2, MAP2K5, DLK1, GLI3, CA3 and MC3R), ear morphology and size (HMGA2 and SOX5) stress response (ATF2, MSRB3, TMTC3 and SCAF8) and immune response (HCST and RYR1). Conclusions: Some of the genes may be used to facilitate genetic improvement programs. Our results also provide insights for better understanding of the process and influence of breed development on the pattern of genetic variations.

Genomic analysis reveals selection signatures of the Wannan Black pig during domestication and breeding

  • Zhang, Wei;Yang, Min;Wang, Yuanlang;Wu, Xudong;Zhang, Xiaodong;Ding, Yueyun;Yin, Zongjun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.712-721
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The Wannan Black pig is a typical Chinese indigenous, disease-resistant pig breed with high fertility, and a crude-feed tolerance that has been bred by artificial selection in the south of Anhui province for a long time. However, genome variation, genetic relationships with other pig breeds, and domestication, remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on elucidating the genetic characteristics of the Wannan Black pig and identifying selection signatures during domestication and breeding. Methods: We identified the whole-genome variation in the Wannan Black pig and performed population admixture analyses to determine genetic relationships with other domesticated pig breeds and wild boars. Then, we identified the selection signatures between the Wannan Black pig and Asian wild boars in 100-kb windows sliding in 10 kb steps by using two approaches: the fixation index (FST) and π ratios. Results: Resequencing the Wannan Black pig genome yielded 501.52 G of raw data. After calling single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/deletions (InDels), we identified 21,316,754 SNVs and 5,067,206 InDels (2,898,582 inserts and 2,168,624 deletions). Additionally, we found genes associated with growth, immunity, and digestive functions. Conclusion: Our findings help in explaining the unique genetic and phenotypic characteristics of Wannan Black pigs, which in turn can be informative for future breeding programs of Wannan Black pigs.

Identification of Recently Selected Mutations Driven by Artificial Selection in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

  • Lim, Dajeong;Gondro, Cedric;Park, Hye Sun;Cho, Yong Min;Chai, Han Ha;Seong, Hwan Hoo;Yang, Bo Suk;Hong, Seong Koo;Chang, Won Kyung;Lee, Seung Hwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.603-608
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    • 2013
  • Hanwoo have been subjected over the last seventy years to intensive artificial selection with the aim of improving meat production traits such as marbling and carcass weight. In this study, we performed a signature of selection analysis to identify recent positive selected regions driven by a long-term artificial selection process called a breeding program using whole genome SNP data. In order to investigate homozygous regions across the genome, we estimated iES (integrated Extended Haplotype Homozygosity SNP) for the each SNPs. As a result, we identified two highly homozygous regions that seem to be strong and/or recent positive selection. Five genes (DPH5, OLFM3, S1PR1, LRRN1 and CRBN) were included in this region. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection, we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the iES value of SNPs localized close or within them. We also described the detection of the adaptive evolution at the molecular level for the genes of interest. As a result, this analysis also led to the identification of OLFM3 as having a strong signal of selection in bovine lineage. The results of this study indicate that artificial selection which might have targeted most of these genes was mainly oriented towards improvement of meat production.

Signatures of positive selection underlying beef production traits in Korean cattle breeds

  • Edea, Zewdu;Jung, Kyoung Sub;Shin, Sung-Sub;Yoo, Song-Won;Choi, Jae Won;Kim, Kwan-Suk
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.3
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    • pp.293-305
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    • 2020
  • The difference in the breeding programs and population history may have diversely shaped the genomes of Korean native cattle breeds. In the absence of phenotypic data, comparisons of breeds that have been subjected to different selective pressures can aid to identify genomic regions and genes controlling qualitative and complex traits. In this study to decipher genetic variation and identify evidence of divergent selection, 3 Korean cattle breeds were genotyped using the recently developed high-density GeneSeek Genomic Profiler F250 (GGP-F250) array. The three Korean cattle breeds clustered according to their coat color phenotypes and breeding programs. The Heugu breed reliably showed smaller effective population size at all generations considered. Across the autosomal chromosomes, 113 and 83 annotated genes were identified from Hanwoo-Chikso and Hanwoo-Heugu comparisons, respectively of which 16 genes were shared between the two pairwise comparisons. The most important signals of selection were detected on bovine chromosomes 14 (24.39-25.13 Mb) and 18 (13.34-15.07 Mb), containing genes related to body size, and coat color (XKR4, LYN, PLAG1, SDR16C5, TMEM68, CDH15, MC1R, and GALNS). Some of the candidate genes are also associated with meat quality traits (ACSF3, EIF2B1, BANP, APCDD1, and GALM) and harbor quantitative trait locus (QTL) for beef production traits. Further functional analysis revealed that the candidate genes (DBI, ACSF3, HINT2, GBA2, AGPAT5, SCAP, ELP6, APOB, and RBL1) were involved in gene ontology (GO) terms relevant to meat quality including fatty acid oxidation, biosynthesis, and lipid storage. Candidate genes previously known to affect beef production and quality traits could be used in the beef cattle selection strategies.

Whole-Genome Resequencing Analysis of Hanwoo and Yanbian Cattle to Identify Genome-Wide SNPs and Signatures of Selection

  • Choi, Jung-Woo;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Seung-Soo;Kim, Hyeong-Cheol;Yu, Dayeong;Chung, Won-Hyong;Lee, Kyung-Tai;Chai, Han-Ha;Cho, Yong-Min;Lim, Dajeong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.466-473
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    • 2015
  • Over the last 30 years, Hanwoo has been selectively bred to improve economically important traits. Hanwoo is currently the representative Korean native beef cattle breed, and it is believed that it shared an ancestor with a Chinese breed, Yanbian cattle, until the last century. However, these two breeds have experienced different selection pressures during recent decades. Here, we whole-genome sequenced 10 animals each of Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (20 total) using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. A total of approximately 3.12 and 3.07 billion sequence reads were mapped to the bovine reference sequence assembly (UMD 3.1) at an average of approximately 10.71- and 10.53-fold coverage for Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 17,936,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were yielded, of which 22.3% were found to be novel. By annotating the SNPs, we further retrieved numerous nonsynonymous SNPs that may be associated with traits of interest in cattle. Furthermore, we performed whole-genome screening to detect signatures of selection throughout the genome. We located several promising selective sweeps that are potentially responsible for economically important traits in cattle; the PPP1R12A gene is an example of a gene that potentially affects intramuscular fat content. These discoveries provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds.

Prevalence of negative frequency-dependent selection, revealed by incomplete selective sweeps in African populations of Drosophila melanogaster

  • Kim, Yuseob
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.1-2
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    • 2018
  • Positive selection on a new beneficial mutation generates a characteristic pattern of DNA sequence polymorphism when it reaches an intermediate allele frequency. On genome sequences of African Drosophila melanogaster, we detected such signatures of selection at 37 candidate loci and identified "sweeping haplotypes (SHs)" that are increasing or have increased rapidly in frequency due to hitchhiking. Based on geographic distribution of SH frequencies, we could infer whether selective sweeps occurred starting from de novo beneficial mutants under simple constant selective pressure. Single SHs were identified at more than half of loci. However, at many other loci, we observed multiple independent SHs, implying soft selective sweeps due to a high beneficial mutation rate or parallel evolution across space. Interestingly, SH frequencies were intermediate across multiple populations at about a quarter of the loci despite relatively low migration rates inferred between African populations. This invokes a certain form of frequency-dependent selection such as heterozygote advantage. At one locus, we observed a complex pattern of multiple independent that was compatible with recurrent frequency-dependent positive selection on new variants. In conclusion, genomic patterns of positive selection are very diverse, with equal contributions of hard and soft sweeps and a surprisingly large proportion of frequency-dependent selection in D. melanogaster populations.

Analysis of extended haplotype in Korean cattle (Hanwoo) population

  • Lim, Dajeong;Choi, Bong Hwan;Cho, Yong Min;Chai, Han Ha;Jang, Gul Won;Gondro, Cedric;Jeoung, Yeoung Ho;Lee, Seung Hwan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.9
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    • pp.514-519
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    • 2016
  • Korean cattle (Hanwoo) are categorized into three breeds based on color: brown, brindle, and black. Among these breeds, brown Hanwoo has been subjected to intensive selection to improve meat traits. To identify genetic traces driven by recent selection in brown Hanwoo, we scanned the genomes of brown and brindle Hanwoo using a bovine SNP chip. We identified 17 candidate selection signatures in brown Hanwoo and sequenced four candidate regions from 10 individuals each of brown and brindle Hanwoo. In particular, non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene (K88M, L189H, and R302Q) might have had mutational effects on protein structure as a result of altering the purine pathway during nucleotide breakdown. The ADSL gene was previously reported to affect meat quality and yield in livestock. Meat quality and yield are main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, and our results support a potential causal influence of non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene.

Genome-wide analyses of the Jeju, Thoroughbred, and Jeju crossbred horse populations using the high density SNP array

  • Kim, Nam Young;Seong, Ha-Seung;Kim, Dae Cheol;Park, Nam Geon;Yang, Byoung Chul;Son, Jun Kyu;Shin, Sang Min;Woo, Jae Hoon;Shin, Moon Cheol;Yoo, Ji Hyun;Choi, Jung-Woo
    • Genes and Genomics
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.1249-1258
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    • 2018
  • The Jeju horse is an indigenous Korean horse breed that is currently registered with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, there is severe lack of genomic studies on Jeju horse. This study was conducted to investigate genetic characteristics of horses including Jeju horse, Thoroughbred and Jeju crossbred (Jeju${\times}$Thoroughbred) populations. We compared the genomes of three horse populations using the Equine SNP70 Beadchip array. Short-range Linkage disequilibrium was the highest in Thoroughbred, whereas $r^2$ values were lowest in Jeju horse. Expected heterozygosity was the highest in Jeju crossbred (0.351), followed by the Thoroughbred (0.337) and Jeju horse (0.311). The level of inbreeding was slightly higher in Thoroughbred (-0.009) than in Jeju crossbred (-0.035) and Jeju horse (-0.038). $F_{ST}$ value was the highest between Jeju horse and Thoroughbred (0.113), whereas Jeju crossbred and Thoroughbred showed the lowest value (0.031). The genetic relationship was further assessed by principal component analysis, suggesting that Jeju crossbred is more genetically similar to Thoroughbred than Jeju horse population. Additionally, we detected potential selection signatures, for example, in loci located on LCORL/NCAPG and PROP1 genes that are known to influence body. Genome-wide analyses of the three horse populations showed that all the breeds had somewhat a low level of inbreeding within each population. In the population structure analysis, we found that Jeju crossbred was genetically closer to Thoroughbred than Jeju horse. Furthermore, we identified several signatures of selection which might be associated with traits of interest. To our current knowledge, this study is the first genomic research, analyzing genetic relationships of Jeju horse, Thoroughbred and Jeju crossbred.

Look-Up Table Based Implementations of SHA-3 Finalists: JH, Keccak and Skein

  • Latif, Kashif;Aziz, Arshad;Mahboob, Athar
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.6 no.9
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    • pp.2388-2404
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    • 2012
  • Cryptographic hash functions are widely used in many information security applications like digital signatures, message authentication codes (MACs), and other forms of authentication. In response to recent advances in cryptanalysis of commonly used hash algorithms, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announced a publicly open competition for selection of new standard Secure Hash Algorithm called SHA-3. One important aspect of this competition is evaluation of hardware performances of the candidates. In this work we present efficient hardware implementations of SHA-3 finalists: JH, Keccak and Skein. We propose high speed architectures using Look-Up Table (LUT) resources on FPGAs, to minimize chip area and to reduce critical path lengths. This approach allows us to design data paths of SHA-3 finalists with minimum resources and higher clock frequencies. We implemented and investigated the performance of these candidates on modern and latest FPGA devices from Xilinx. This work serves as performance investigation of leading SHA-3 finalists on most up-to-date FPGAs.