• Title, Summary, Keyword: Signal to Noise Ratio

Search Result 2,753, Processing Time 0.08 seconds

Evaluation of Fibrosis in Liver Cirrhosis by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO)-Enhanced MR Imaging: Does the Radiological Non-Invasive Fibrosis Index Correlate with the Laboratory Non-Invasive Fibrosis Index? (Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Enhanced MRI를 이용한 간섬유화의 평가: 영상의학적 비침습적 간섬유화 지표가 AST/혈소판 비와 상관 관계가 있는가?)

  • Kim, Shin-Kee;Lee, Chang-Hee;Kim, Kyeong-Ah;Choi, Jae-Woong;Lee, Jong-Mee;Park, Cheol-Min
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • /
    • v.12 no.2
    • /
    • pp.115-122
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose : To evaluate the correlation between the radiological non-invasive hepatic fibrosis index (RNHFI), as determined by SPIO-enhanced MRI, and the laboratory non-invasive hepatic fibrosis index. Materials and Methods : Patients (99 total: 61 men and 38 women; mean age: 58 years) who underwent SPIO-enhanced MRI (1.5T) during 5 years included. These patients were subdivided into a liver cirrhosis group (LCG) and a non-liver cirrhosis group (non-LCG). Using PACS view, we measured the RNHFI (mean standard deviation of hepatic signal intensity (SD), noise-corrected coefficient of variation (CV)) of three ROIs in the liver parenchyma by SPIO-enhanced MRI. The laboratory non-invasive hepatic fibrosis index (AST-platelet ratio index (APRI)) of all patients was calculated from the laboratory data. We compared the RNHFI and APRI of LCG with those of non-LC group using Student's t-test. A bivariate correlation was performed to investigate the relationship between the RNHFI and APRI in the LCG. Results : For the LCG, mean values of SD and CV by SPIO-enhanced MRI were $10.3{\pm}3.7$ and $0.19{\pm}0.08$, respectively. For the non-LCG, mean values of SD and CV were $6.5{\pm}1.6$ and $0.08{\pm}0.05$, respectively. The mean APRI of the LCG and the non- LCG were $2.04{\pm}1.7$ and $0.32{\pm}0.32$, respectively. The RNHFI and APRI were significantly different between both groups (p<0.05). For the LCG, the bivariate correlation between SD and APRI revealed a statistically significant positive correlation (r=0.5, p<0.001). In both groups, there was no statistically significant correlation between CV and APRI. Conclusion: A measurement of SD can be a simple and useful method for the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis.

  • PDF

No Association between (AAT)n Repeat Polymorphisms in the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement Abnormality in Korean Patients with Schizophrenia (한국인 조현병 환자에서CNR1 유전자의 (AAT)n 삼핵산 반복 다형성과 안구추적운동 이상에 대한 연합 연구)

  • Kim, Min Jae;Kim, Chae-Ri;Park, Jin Wan;Pak, Doo Hyun;Shin, Hyoung Doo;Choi, Ihn-Geun;Hahn, Sang Woo;Hwang, Jaeuk;Lee, Yeon Jung;Woo, Sung-Il
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.148-156
    • /
    • 2016
  • Objectives According to previous studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene could be an important candidate gene for schizophrenia. Some studies have linked the (AAT)n trinucleotide repeat polymorphism in CNR1 gene with the risk of schizophrenia. Meanwhile, smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) has been regarded as one of the most consistent endophenotypes of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the association between the (AAT)n trinucleotide repeats in CNR1 gene and SPEM abnormality in Korean patients with schizophrenia. Methods We measured SPEM function in 167 Korean patients with schizophrenia (84 male, 83 female) and they were divided according to SPEM function into two groups, good and poor SPEM function groups. We also investigated allele frequencies of (AAT)n repeat polymorphisms on CNR1 gene in each group. A logistic regression analysis was performed to find the association between SPEM abnormality and the number of (AAT)n trinucleotide repeats. Results The natural logarithm value of signal/noise ratio (Ln S/N ratio) of the good SPEM function group was $4.34{\pm}0.29$ and that of the poor SPEM function group was $3.21{\pm}0.70$. In total, 7 types of trinucleotide repeats were identified, each containing 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 repeats, respectively. In the patients with $(AAT)7$ allele, the distributions of the good and poor SPEM function groups were 18 (11.1%) and 19 (11.0%) respectively. In the patients with $(AAT)_{10}$ allele, $(AAT)_{11}$ allele, $(AAT)_{12}$ allele, $(AAT)_{13}$ allele, $(AAT)_{14}$ allele and $(AAT)_{15}$ allele, the distributions of good and poor SPEM function groups were 13 (8.0%) and 12 (7.0%), 4 (2.5%) and 6 (3.5%), 31 (19.8%) and 35 (20.3%), 51 (31.5%) and 51 (29.7%), 36 (22.2%) and 45 (26.2%), 9 (5.6%) and 4 (2.3%) respectively. As the number of (AAT) n repeat increased, there was no aggravation of abnormality of SPEM function. Conclusions There was no significant aggravation of SPEM abnormality along with the increase of number of (AAT)n trinucleotide repeats in the CNR1 gene in Korean patients with schizophrenia.

The Study about Application of LEAP Collimator at Brain Diamox Perfusion Tomography Applied Flash 3D Reconstruction: One Day Subtraction Method (Flash 3D 재구성을 적용한 뇌 혈류 부하 단층 촬영 시 LEAP 검출기의 적용에 관한 연구: One Day Subtraction Method)

  • Choi, Jong-Sook;Jung, Woo-Young;Ryu, Jae-Kwang
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
    • /
    • v.13 no.3
    • /
    • pp.102-109
    • /
    • 2009
  • Purpose: Flash 3D (pixon(R) method; 3D OSEM) was developed as a software program to shorten exam time and improve image quality through reconstruction, it is an image processing method that usefully be applied to nuclear medicine tomography. If perfoming brain diamox perfusion scan by reconstructing subtracted images by Flash 3D with shortened image acquisition time, there was a problem that SNR of subtracted image is lower than basal image. To increase SNR of subtracted image, we use LEAP collimators, and we emphasized on sensitivity of vessel dilatation than resolution of brain vessel. In this study, our purpose is to confirm possibility of application of LEAP collimators at brain diamox perfusion tomography, identify proper reconstruction factors by using Flash 3D. Materials and methods: (1) The evaluation of phantom: We used Hoffman 3D Brain Phantom with $^{99m}Tc$. We obtained images by LEAP and LEHR collimators (diamox image) and after 6 hours (the half life of $^{99m}Tc$: 6 hours), we use obtained second image (basal image) by same method. Also, we acquired SNR and ratio of white matters/gray matters of each basal image and subtracted image. (2) The evaluation of patient's image: We quantitatively analyzed patients who were examined by LEAP collimators then was classified as a normal group and who were examined by LEHR collimators then was classified as a normal group from 2008. 05 to 2009. 01. We evaluate the results from phantom by substituting factors. We used one-day protocol and injected $^{99m}Tc$-ECD 925 MBq at both basal image acquisition and diamox image acquisition. Results: (1) The evaluation of phantom: After measuring counts from each detector, at basal image 41~46 kcount, stress image 79~90 kcount, subtraction image 40~47 kcount were detected. LEAP was about 102~113 kcount at basal image, 188~210 kcount at stress image and 94~103 at subtraction image kcount were detected. The SNR of LEHR subtraction image was decreased than LEHR basal image about 37%, the SNR of LEAP subtraction image was decreased than LEAP basal image about 17%. The ratio of gray matter versus white matter is 2.2:1 at LEHR basal image and 1.9:1 at subtraction, and at LEAP basal image was 2.4:1 and subtraction image was 2:1. (2) The evaluation of patient's image: the counts acquired by LEHR collimators are about 40~60 kcounts at basal image, and 80~100 kcount at stress image. It was proper to set FWHM as 7 mm at basal and stress image and 11mm at subtraction image. LEAP was about 80~100 kcount at basal image and 180~200 kcount at stress image. LEAP images could reduce blurring by setting FWHM as 5 mm at basal and stress images and 7 mm at subtraction image. At basal and stress image, LEHR image was superior than LEAP image. But in case of subtraction image like a phantom experiment, it showed rough image because SNR of LEHR image was decreased. On the other hand, in case of subtraction LEAP image was better than LEHR image in SNR and sensitivity. In all LEHR and LEAP collimator images, proper subset and iteration frequency was 8 times. Conclusions: We could archive more clear and high SNR subtraction image by using proper filter with LEAP collimator. In case of applying one day protocol and reconstructing by Flash 3D, we could consider application of LEAP collimator to acquire better subtraction image.

  • PDF

DC Resistivity method to image the underground structure beneath river or lake bottom (하저 지반특성 규명을 위한 전기비저항 탐사)

  • Kim Jung-Ho;Yi Myeong-Jong;Song Yoonho;Cho Seong-Jun;Lee Seong-Kon;Son Jeongsul
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.139-162
    • /
    • 2002
  • Since weak zones or geological lineaments are likely to be eroded, weak zones may develop beneath rivers, and a careful evaluation of ground condition is important to construct structures passing through a river. Dc resistivity surveys, however, have seldomly applied to the investigation of water-covered area, possibly because of difficulties in data aquisition and interpretation. The data aquisition having high quality may be the most important factor, and is more difficult than that in land survey, due to the water layer overlying the underground structure to be imaged. Through the numerical modeling and the analysis of case histories, we studied the method of resistivity survey at the water-covered area, starting from the characteristics of measured data, via data acquisition method, to the interpretation method. We unfolded our discussion according to the installed locations of electrodes, ie., floating them on the water surface, and installing at the water bottom, since the methods of data acquisition and interpretation vary depending on the electrode location. Through this study, we could confirm that the dc resistivity method can provide the fairly reasonable subsurface images. It was also shown that installing electrodes at the water bottom can give the subsurface image with much higher resolution than floating them on the water surface. Since the data acquired at the water-covered area have much lower sensitivity to the underground structure than those at the land, and can be contaminated by the higher noise, such as streaming potential, it would be very important to select the acquisition method and electrode array being able to provide the higher signal-to-noise ratio data as well as the high resolving power. The method installing electrodes at the water bottom is suitable to the detailed survey because of much higher resolving power, whereas the method floating them, especially streamer dc resistivity survey, is to the reconnaissance survey owing of very high speed of field work.

  • PDF

A Study of Characteristics of MicroLion Liquid Ionization Chamber for 6 MV Photon Beam (6 MV 광자빔에 대한 MicroLion 액체이온함의 특성 연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Hyoun;Huh, Hyun-Do;Kim, Seong-Hoon;Ji, Young-Hoon;Kim, Kum-Bae;Kim, Woo-Chul;Kim, Hun-Jeong;Shin, Dong-Oh;Kim, Chan-Hyeong
    • Progress in Medical Physics
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.216-223
    • /
    • 2011
  • Recently PTW developed a MicroLion liquid ionization chamber which is water_equivalent and has a small sensitive volume of $0.002cm^3$. The aim of this work is to investigate such dosimetric characteristics as dose linearity, dose rate dependency, spatial resolution, and output factors of the chamber for the external radiotherapy photon beam. The results were compared to those of Semiflex chamber, Pinpoint chamber and Diode chamber with the sensitive volumes of $0.125cm^3$, $0.03cm^3$ and $0.0025cm^3$, respectively and evaluated to be suitable for small fields. This study was performed in the 6MV photon energy from a Varian 2300 C/D linac accelerator and the MP3 water phantom (PTW, Freiburg) was used. Penumbras in the varios field sizes ranged from $0.5{\times}0.5cm^2$ to $10{\times}10cm^2$ were used to evaluate the spatial resolution. Output factors were measured in the field sizes of $0.5{\times}0.5$ to $40{\times}40cm^2$. Readings of the chamber was linearly proportional to dose. Dose rate dependency was measured from 100 MU/min to 600 MU/min, showed a maximum difference of 5.0%, and outputs decreased with dose rates. The spatial resolutions determined with comparing profiles for the field sizes of $0.5{\times}0.5cm^2$ to $10{\times}10cm^2$ agreed between every detector except the Semiflex chamber to within 2%. Outputs of detectors were compared to that of Semiflex chamber and showed good agreements within 2% for every chamber. This study shows that MicroLion chamber characterized by a high signal-to-noise ratio and water equivalence could be suitable for the small field dosimetry.

Structural Behavior of Mixed $LiMn_2O_4-LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ Cathode in Li-ion Cells during Electrochemical Cycling

  • Yun, Won-Seop;Lee, Sang-U
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.5-5
    • /
    • 2011
  • The research and development of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) are intensified due to the energy crisis and environmental concerns. In order to meet the challenging requirements of powering HEV, PHEV and EV, the current lithium battery technology needs to be significantly improved in terms of the cost, safety, power and energy density, as well as the calendar and cycle life. One new technology being developed is the utilization of composite cathode by mixing two different types of insertion compounds [e.g., spinel $LiMn_2O_4$ and layered $LiMO_2$ (M=Ni, Co, and Mn)]. Recently, some studies on mixing two different types of cathode materials to make a composite cathode have been reported, which were aimed at reducing cost and improving self-discharge. Numata et al. reported that when stored in a sealed can together with electrolyte at $80^{\circ}C$ for 10 days, the concentrations of both HF and $Mn^{2+}$ were lower in the can containing $LiMn_2O_4$ blended with $LiNi_{0.8}Co_{0.2}O_2$ than that containing $LiMn_2O_4$ only. That reports clearly showed that this blending technique can prevent the decline in capacity caused by cycling or storage at elevated temperatures. However, not much work has been reported on the charge-discharge characteristics and related structural phase transitions for these composite cathodes. In this presentation, we will report our in situ x-ray diffraction studies on this mixed composite cathode material during charge-discharge cycling. The mixed cathodes were incorporated into in situ XRD cells with a Li foil anode, a Celgard separator, and a 1M $LiPF_6$ electrolyte in a 1 : 1 EC : DMC solvent (LP 30 from EM Industries, Inc.). For in situ XRD cell, Mylar windows were used as has been described in detail elsewhere. All of these in situ XRD spectra were collected on beam line X18A at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory using two different detectors. One is a conventional scintillation detector with data collection at 0.02 degree in two theta angle for each step. The other is a wide angle position sensitive detector (PSD). The wavelengths used were 1.1950 ${\AA}$ for the scintillation detector and 0.9999 A for the PSD. The newly installed PSD at beam line X18A of NSLS can collect XRD patterns as short as a few minutes covering $90^{\circ}$ of two theta angles simultaneously with good signal to noise ratio. It significantly reduced the data collection time for each scan, giving us a great advantage in studying the phase transition in real time. The two theta angles of all the XRD spectra presented in this paper have been recalculated and converted to corresponding angles for ${\lambda}=1.54\;{\AA}$, which is the wavelength of conventional x-ray tube source with Cu-$k{\alpha}$ radiation, for easy comparison with data in other literatures. The structural changes of the composite cathode made by mixing spinel $LiMn_2O_4$ and layered $Li-Ni_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ in 1 : 1 wt% in both Li-half and Li-ion cells during charge/discharge are studied by in situ XRD. During the first charge up to ~5.2 V vs. $Li/Li^+$, the in situ XRD spectra for the composite cathode in the Li-half cell track the structural changes of each component. At the early stage of charge, the lithium extraction takes place in the $LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ component only. When the cell voltage reaches at ~4.0 V vs. $Li/Li^+$, lithium extraction from the spinel $LiMn_2O_4$ component starts and becomes the major contributor for the cell capacity due to the higher rate capability of $LiMn_2O_4$. When the voltage passed 4.3 V, the major structural changes are from the $LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ component, while the $LiMn_2O_4$ component is almost unchanged. In the Li-ion cell using a MCMB anode and a composite cathode cycled between 2.5 V and 4.2 V, the structural changes are dominated by the spinel $LiMn_2O_4$ component, with much less changes in the layered $LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_2$ component, comparing with the Li-half cell results. These results give us valuable information about the structural changes relating to the contributions of each individual component to the cell capacity at certain charge/discharge state, which are helpful in designing and optimizing the composite cathode using spinel- and layered-type materials for Li-ion battery research. More detailed discussion will be presented at the meeting.

  • PDF

New Fast Block-Matching Motion Estimation using Temporal and Spatial Correlation of Motion Vectors (움직임 벡터의 시공간 상관성을 이용한 새로운 고속 블럭 정합 움직임 추정 방식)

  • 남재열;서재수;곽진석;이명호;송근원
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.247-259
    • /
    • 2000
  • This paper introduces a new technique that reduces the search times and Improves the accuracy of motion estimation using high temporal and spatial correlation of motion vector. Instead of using the fixed first search Point of previously proposed search algorithms, the proposed method finds more accurate first search point as to compensating searching area using high temporal and spatial correlation of motion vector. Therefore, the main idea of proposed method is to find first search point to improve the performance of motion estimation and reduce the search times. The proposed method utilizes the direction of the same coordinate block of the previous frame compared with a block of the current frame to use temporal correlation and the direction of the adjacent blocks of the current frame to use spatial correlation. Based on these directions, we compute the first search point. We search the motion vector in the middle of computed first search point with two fixed search patterns. Using that idea, an efficient adaptive predicted direction search algorithm (APDSA) for block matching motion estimation is proposed. In the experimental results show that the PSNR values are improved up to the 3.6dB as depend on the Image sequences and advanced about 1.7dB on an average. The results of the comparison show that the performance of the proposed APDSA algorithm is better than those of other fast search algorithms whether the image sequence contains fast or slow motion, and is similar to the performance of the FS (Full Search) algorithm. Simulation results also show that the performance of the APDSA scheme gives better subjective picture quality than the other fast search algorithms and is closer to that of the FS algorithm.

  • PDF

The Usefulness of LEUR Collimator for 1-Day Basal/Acetazolamide Brain Perfusion SPECT (1-Day Protocol을 사용하는 Brain Perfusion SPECT에서 LEUR 콜리메이터의 유용성)

  • Choi, Jin-Wook;Kim, Soo-Mee;Lee, Hyung-Jin;Kim, Jin-Eui;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.94-100
    • /
    • 2011
  • Purpose: Basal/Acetazolamide-challenged brain perfusion SPECT is very useful to assess cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve. However, as there is a trade off between sensitivity and spatial resolution in the selection of collimator, the selection of optimal collimator is crucial. In this study, we examined three collimators to select optimal one for 1-day brain perfusion SPECT. Materials and Methods: Three collimators, low energy high resolution-parallel beam (LEHR-par), ultra resolution-fan beam (LEUR-fan) and super fine-fan beam (LESFR-fan), were tested for 1-day imaging using Triad XLT 9 (TRIONIX). The SPECT images of Hoffman 3D brain phantom filled with 99mTc of 170 MBq and a normal volunteer were acquired with a protocol of 50 kcts/frame and detector rotation of 3 degree. Filterd backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with Butterworth filter (cut off frequencies, 0.3 to 0.5) was performed. The quantitative and qualitative assessments for three collimators were performed. Results: The blind tests showed that LESFR-fan provided the best image quality for Hoffman brain phantom and the volunteer. However, images for all the collimator were evaluated as 'acceptable'. On the other hand, in order to meet the equivalent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), total acquisition time or radioactivity dose for LESFR-fan must have been increased up to almost twice of that for LEUR-fan and LEHR-par. The volunteer test indicated that total acquisition time could be reduced approximately by 10 to 14 min in clinical practice using LEUR-fan and LEHR-par without significant loss on image quality, in comparison with LESFR-fan. Conclusion: Although LESFR-fan provides the best image quality, it requires significantly more acquisition time than LEUR-fan and LEHR-par to provide reasonable SNR. Since there is no significant clinical difference between three collimators, LEUR-fan and LEHR-par can be recommended as optimal collimators for 1-day brain perfusion imaging with respect to image quality and SNR.

  • PDF

A Study of Optimized MRI Parameters for Polymer Gel Dosimetry (중합체 겔 선량측정법을 위한 최적의 자기공명영상 변수에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Sam-Ju;Chung, Young-Lip;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Huh, Hyun-Do;Choi, Jin-Ho;Park, Sung-Ill;Shim, Su-Jung;Kwon, Soo-Il
    • Progress in Medical Physics
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.71-80
    • /
    • 2012
  • In order to verify exact dose distributions in the state-of-the-art radiation techniques, a newly designed three-dimensional dosimeter and technique has been took strongly into consideration. The main purpose of our study is to verify the optimized parameters of polymer gel as a real volumetric dosimeter in terms of the various study of MRI. We prepared a gel dosimeter by combing 8% of gelatin, 8% of MAA, and 10 mM of THPC. We used a Co-60 gamma-ray teletherapy unit and delivered doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 Gy to each polymer gel with a solid phantom. We used a fast spin-echo pulse to acquire the characterized T2 time of MRI. The signal noise ratio (SNR) of the head & neck coil was a relatively lower sensitivity than the body coil; therefore the dose uncertainty of head & neck coil would be lower than body coil's. But the dose uncertainty and resolution of the head & neck coil were superior to the body coil in this study. The TR time between 1,500 ms and 2,000 ms showed no significant difference in the dose resolution, but TR of 1,500 ms showed less dose uncertainty. For the slice thickness of 2.5 mm, less dose uncertainty of TE times was at 4 Gy, as well, it was the lowest result over 4 Gy at TE of 12 ms. The dose uncertainty was not critical up to 6 Gy, but the best dose resolution was obtained at 20 ms up to 8 Gy. The dose resolution shows the lowest value was over 20 ms and was an excellent result in the number of excitation (NEX) of three. The NEX of two was the highest dose resolution. We concluded that the better result of slice thickness versus NEX was related to the NEX increment and thin slice thickness.

Semi-automated Tractography Analysis using a Allen Mouse Brain Atlas : Comparing DTI Acquisition between NEX and SNR (알렌 마우스 브레인 아틀라스를 이용한 반자동 신경섬유지도 분석 : 여기수와 신호대잡음비간의 DTI 획득 비교)

  • Im, Sang-Jin;Baek, Hyeon-Man
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.157-168
    • /
    • 2020
  • Advancements in segmentation methodology has made automatic segmentation of brain structures using structural images accurate and consistent. One method of automatic segmentation, which involves registering atlas information from template space to subject space, requires a high quality atlas with accurate boundaries for consistent segmentation. The Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, which has been widely accepted as a high quality reference of the mouse brain, has been used in various segmentations and can provide accurate coordinates and boundaries of mouse brain structures for tractography. Through probabilistic tractography, diffusion tensor images can be used to map comprehensive neuronal network of white matter pathways of the brain. Comparisons between neural networks of mouse and human brains showed that various clinical tests on mouse models were able to simulate disease pathology of human brains, increasing the importance of clinical mouse brain studies. However, differences between brain size of human and mouse brain has made it difficult to achieve the necessary image quality for analysis and the conditions for sufficient image quality such as a long scan time makes using live samples unrealistic. In order to secure a mouse brain image with a sufficient scan time, an Ex-vivo experiment of a mouse brain was conducted for this study. Using FSL, a tool for analyzing tensor images, we proposed a semi-automated segmentation and tractography analysis pipeline of the mouse brain and applied it to various mouse models. Also, in order to determine the useful signal-to-noise ratio of the diffusion tensor image acquired for the tractography analysis, images with various excitation numbers were compared.