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Synthesis of Garnet in the Ca-Ce-Gd-Zr-Fe-O System (Ca-Gd-Ce-Zr-Fe-O계에서의 석류석 합성 연구)

  • Chae Soo-Chun;Jang Young-Nam;Bae In-Kook;Yudintsev S.V.
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.187-196
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    • 2005
  • Structural sites which cations can occupy in garnet structure are centers of the tetrahedron, octahedron, and distorted cube sharing edges with the tetrahedron and octahedron. Among them, the size of cation occuping at tetrahedral site (the center of tetrahedron) is closely related with the size of a unit cell of garnet. Accordingly, garnet containing iron with relative large ionic radii in tetrahedral site can be considered as a promising matrix for the immobilization of the elements with large ionic radii, such as actinides in radioactive wastes. We synthesized several garnets with the batch composition of $Ca_{1.5}GdCe_{0.5}ZrFeFe_3O_{12}$, and studied their properties and phase relations under various conditions. Mixed samples were fabricated in a pellet form under a pressure of $200{\~}400{\cal}kg/{\cal}cm^2$ and were sintered in the temperature range of $1100\~1400^{\circ}C$ in air and under oxygen atmospheres. Phase identification and chemical analysis of synthesized samples were conducted by XRD and SEM/EDS. In results, garnet was obtained as the main phase at $1300^{\circ}C$, an optimum condition in this system, even though some minor phases like perovskite and unknown phase were included. The compositions of garnet and perovskite synthesized from the batch composition of $Ca_{1.5}GdCe_{0.5}ZrFeFe_3O_{12}$ were ranged $[Ca_{l.2-1.8}Gd_{0.9-1.4}Ce_{0.3-0.5}]^{VIII}[Zr_{0.8-1.3}Fe_{0.7-1.2}]^{VI}[Fe_{2.9-3.1}]^{IV}O_{12}$ and $Ca_{0.1-0.5}Gd_{0.0-0.8}Ce_{0.1-0.5}\;Zr_{0.0-0.2}Fe_{0.9-1.1}O_3$, respectively. Ca content was exceeded and Ce content was depleted in the 8-coordinated site, comparing to the initial batch composition. This phenomena was closely related to the content of Zr and Fe in the 6-coordinated site.

Landscape Composition Based on Placement and Harmony in the Namgea Suhwon (치(置)와 화(和)의 개념으로 분석한 남계서원의 경관짜임)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Shin, Sang-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.72-85
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    • 2009
  • This study attempts to examine the principles of landscape composition for a 'Suhwon(書院)' and the meaning and value of its traditional landscape architecture, in order to apply the results to the design of modern landscape architecture. A 'Suhwon' is a vital space containing the form and meaning of human activity. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape composition in the construction of the Namgea Suhwon, located in Hamyang, by examining the form and meaning of its area and composition. The Namgea Suhwon was constructed with a suitable configuration and harmony in a good location, neither field nor mountain, and which encompasses transcendence and a return after passage through a period of birth and abundance. Its appearance means 'life existence and hidden death(生居死幽)'. Its spatial system is a reflection of the idea of Samshinoje(三神五帝: The three abilities of Providence and its five subjects) connected with Ilsangje -Samshin -Ohje. It was built based on the idea of Biryebudong(非禮不動) meaning that one should follow only good decorum and avoid discourtesy, complying with "the frame of decorum" developed by the family rites of Chu Hsi. The environmental design of the Namgea Suhwon was interrupted by the material confrontation between mountains and water and a binary code system, such as front to rear, length to breadth, and movement to stillness. The design did not adhere to stiff axes, but pursued the harmonic principles of asymmetric balance in the building and the yard, which are very naturalistic. The name 'Namgea Suhwon' is closely related with the view of placement(置) and harmony(和), which are unified with the function and meaning formed by connecting Sung Confucianism with the Pungsu-Sasinsa structure in the layout of the grounds. When examining the D/H ratio of the building and yard, it can be seen that the spaces of Ganghak, Yusang and Jehyang were built appropriately, according to the natural characteristics of each space, such as a sense of openness, enclosure, tension, relief, enhancement, and hierarchical order. The spaces also reflect human scale concepts that take advantage of auditory features. The transition process after the construction of 'Namgea Suhwon' reveals the intentions of the builder to create an ecological landscape composition based on Placement and Harmony. Placement embodies' a purposeful space in which nature and the building are connected naturally, 'incomplete open space pursuing completion', and 'potential beauty in which tension and relaxation are repeated'. Harmony embodies 'order and continuity having a sense of unity with the natural environment' and the 'sharing of daily life and memory'. 'Namgea Suhwon' contains many ideas for landscape planning, land use and the design of a campus environment.

Effects of Private Insurance on Medical Expenditure (민간의료보험 가입이 의료이용에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Hee Suk
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.99-128
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    • 2008
  • Nearly all Koreans are insured through National Health Insurance(NHI). While NHI coverage is nearly universal, it is not complete. Coverage is largely limited to minimal level of hospital and physician expenses, and copayments are required in each case. As a result, Korea's public insurance system covers roughly 50% of overall individual health expenditures, and the remaining 50% consists of copayments for basic services, spending on services that are either not covered or poorly covered by the public system. In response to these gaps in the public system, 64% of the Korean population has supplemental private health insurance. Expansion of private health insurance raises negative externality issue. Like public financing schemes in other countries, the Korean system imposes cost-sharing on patients as a strategy for controlling utilization. Because most insurance policies reimburse patients for their out-of-pocket payments, supplemental insurance is likely to negate the impact of the policy, raising both total and public sector health spending. So far, most empirical analysis of supplemental health insurance to date has focused on the US Medigap programme. It is found that those with supplements apparently consume more health care. Two reasons for higher health care consumption by those with supplements suggest themselves. One is the moral hazard effect: by eliminating copayments and deductibles, supplements reduce the marginal price of care and induce additional consumption. The other explanation is that supplements are purchased by those who anticipate high health expenditures - adverse effect. The main issue addressed has been the separation of the moral hazard effect from the adverse selection one. The general conclusion is that the evidence on adverse selection based on observable variables is mixed. This article investigates the extent to which private supplementary insurance affect use of health care services by public health insurance enrollees, using Korean administrative data and private supplements related data collected through all relevant private insurance companies. I applied a multivariate two-part model to analyze the effects of various types of supplements on the likelihood and level of public health insurance spending and estimated marginal effects of supplements. Separate models were estimated for inpatients and outpatients in public insurance spending. The first part of the model estimated the likelihood of positive spending using probit regression, and the second part estimated the log of spending for those with positive spending. Use of a detailed information of individuals' public health insurance from administration data and of private insurance status from insurance companies made it possible to control for health status, the types of supplemental insurance owned by theses individuals, and other factors that explain spending variations across supplemental insurance categories in isolating the effects of supplemental insurance. Data from 2004 to 2006 were used, and this study found that private insurance increased the probability of a physician visit by less than 1 percent and a hospital admission by about 1 percent. However, supplemental insurance was not found to be associated with a bigger health care service utilization. Two-part models of health care utilization and expenditures showed that those without supplemental insurance had higher inpatient and outpatient expenditures than those with supplements, even after controlling for observable differences.

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Isolation and Identification of Oceanisphaera sp. JJM57 from Marine Red Algae Laurencia sp. (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae) (해양 홍조류 Laurencia sp. (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae)에서 분리한 Oceanisphaera sp. JJM57의 분리 및 동정)

  • Kim, Man-Chul;Dharaneedharan, S.;Moon, Young-Gun;Kim, Dong-Hwi;Son, Hong-Joo;Heo, Moon-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 2013
  • A taxonomic study was carried out to assess the phylogenetic characteristics of isolate JJM57 from marine red algae Laurencia sp. collected from intertidal zone in Jeju Island, South Korea. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that this isolate belongs to the genus Oceanisphaera. It shows 98.02% and 97.7% sequence similarity with Oceanisphera litoralis DSM $15406^T$ and Oceanisphera donghaensis KCTC $12522^T$, respectively. Strain JJM57 is a Gram-negative, aerobic, moderately halophilic bacterium able to grow in different NaCl concentration ranges from 0.5 to 8.0% and at varying temperatures from 4 to $37^{\circ}C$. Sharing some of the physiological and biochemical properties with O. litoralis and O. donghaensis, JJM57 strain differs in the utilization of ethanol, proline, and alanine. The G+C contents of the strain JJM57 is 61.94 mol% and it is rich in $C_{16:1}$ ${\omega}7c$ and/or iso-$C_{15:0}$ 2-OH, $C_{16:0}$, and $C_{18:1}$ ${\omega}7c$ fatty acids. The DNA-DNA relatedness data separates the strain JJM57 from other species such as O. litoralis and O. donghaensis. On the basis of these polyphasic evidences, present study proposed that strain JJM57 (=KCTC 22371 =AM983543 =CCUG 60764) represents a novel bacterial species of Oceanisphaera.

A Study on Usability of Open Source Software for Developing Records System : A Case of ICA AtoM (공개 소프트웨어를 이용한 기록시스템 구축가능성 연구 ICA AtoM을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Bo-Ram;Hwang, Jin-Hyun;Park, Min-Yung;Kim, Hyung-Hee;Choi, Dong-Woon;Choi, Yun-Jin;Yim, Jin-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.39
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    • pp.193-228
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    • 2014
  • In recent years, as well as management of public records, interest in the private archive of large and small is growing. Dedicated archive has various types. In addition, lack of personnel and budget, personnel records management professional because the absence, that help you maintain these records in a systematic manner is not easy. Request to the system have continued to rise, but the budget and professionals in order to solve this problem are missing. As breakthrough of the burden to the system with archive dedicated, it introduces the trends and meaning of public recording system, and was examined in detail AtoM function. AtoM is public land can be made by a method that requires a Web service, the database server. Without restrictions, including the advantage of being available free of charge, by the application or operating system specific, installation and operation is convenient. In addition, compatibility, and is highly scalable, AtoM use and convenient archive of private experiencing a shortage of personnel and budget. Because in terms of data management, and excellent interoperability and search share, and use, it is possible in the future, it favors also documentary use through a network of inter-agency archives and private. In addition, Enhancements exhibition services through cooperation with Omeka, long-term storage through Archivematica, many discussion is needed. Public centered around the private area of the recording management spilling expanded, open-source software allows to balance the recording system will be able to play an important role. In addition, the efforts of academia and in the field, close collaboration between the open source recording system through a user study should be continued. Furthermore, co-operation and sharing of private archives expect come true.

Implementation Strategy of Global Framework for Climate Service through Global Initiatives in AgroMeteorology for Agriculture and Food Security Sector (선도적 농림기상 국제협력을 통한 농업과 식량안보분야 전지구기후 서비스체계 구축 전략)

  • Lee, Byong-Lyol;Rossi, Federica;Motha, Raymond;Stefanski, Robert
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2013
  • The Global Framework on Climate Services (GFCS) will guide the development of climate services that link science-based climate information and predictions with climate-risk management and adaptation to climate change. GFCS structure is made up of 5 pillars; Observations/Monitoring (OBS), Research/ Modeling/ Prediction (RES), Climate Services Information System (CSIS) and User Interface Platform (UIP) which are all supplemented with Capacity Development (CD). Corresponding to each GFCS pillar, the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM) has been proposing "Global Initiatives in AgroMeteorology" (GIAM) in order to facilitate GFCS implementation scheme from the perspective of AgroMeteorology - Global AgroMeteorological Outlook System (GAMOS) for OBS, Global AgroMeteorological Pilot Projects (GAMPP) for RES, Global Federation of AgroMeteorological Society (GFAMS) for UIP/RES, WAMIS next phase for CSIS/UIP, and Global Centers of Research and Excellence in AgroMeteorology (GCREAM) for CD, through which next generation experts will be brought up as virtuous cycle for human resource procurements. The World AgroMeteorological Information Service (WAMIS) is a dedicated web server in which agrometeorological bulletins and advisories from members are placed. CAgM is about to extend its service into a Grid portal to share computer resources, information and human resources with user communities as a part of GFCS. To facilitate ICT resources sharing, a specialized or dedicated Data Center or Production Center (DCPC) of WMO Information System for WAMIS is under implementation by Korea Meteorological Administration. CAgM will provide land surface information to support LDAS (Land Data Assimilation System) of next generation Earth System as an information provider. The International Society for Agricultural Meteorology (INSAM) is an Internet market place for agrometeorologists. In an effort to strengthen INSAM as UIP for research community in AgroMeteorology, it was proposed by CAgM to establish Global Federation of AgroMeteorological Society (GFAMS). CAgM will try to encourage the next generation agrometeorological experts through Global Center of Excellence in Research and Education in AgroMeteorology (GCREAM) including graduate programmes under the framework of GENRI as a governing hub of Global Initiatives in AgroMeteorology (GIAM of CAgM). It would be coordinated under the framework of GENRI as a governing hub for all global initiatives such as GFAMS, GAMPP, GAPON including WAMIS II, primarily targeting on GFCS implementations.

The Need for Paradigm Shift in Semantic Similarity and Semantic Relatedness : From Cognitive Semantics Perspective (의미간의 유사도 연구의 패러다임 변화의 필요성-인지 의미론적 관점에서의 고찰)

  • Choi, Youngseok;Park, Jinsoo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.111-123
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    • 2013
  • Semantic similarity/relatedness measure between two concepts plays an important role in research on system integration and database integration. Moreover, current research on keyword recommendation or tag clustering strongly depends on this kind of semantic measure. For this reason, many researchers in various fields including computer science and computational linguistics have tried to improve methods to calculating semantic similarity/relatedness measure. This study of similarity between concepts is meant to discover how a computational process can model the action of a human to determine the relationship between two concepts. Most research on calculating semantic similarity usually uses ready-made reference knowledge such as semantic network and dictionary to measure concept similarity. The topological method is used to calculated relatedness or similarity between concepts based on various forms of a semantic network including a hierarchical taxonomy. This approach assumes that the semantic network reflects the human knowledge well. The nodes in a network represent concepts, and way to measure the conceptual similarity between two nodes are also regarded as ways to determine the conceptual similarity of two words(i.e,. two nodes in a network). Topological method can be categorized as node-based or edge-based, which are also called the information content approach and the conceptual distance approach, respectively. The node-based approach is used to calculate similarity between concepts based on how much information the two concepts share in terms of a semantic network or taxonomy while edge-based approach estimates the distance between the nodes that correspond to the concepts being compared. Both of two approaches have assumed that the semantic network is static. That means topological approach has not considered the change of semantic relation between concepts in semantic network. However, as information communication technologies make advantage in sharing knowledge among people, semantic relation between concepts in semantic network may change. To explain the change in semantic relation, we adopt the cognitive semantics. The basic assumption of cognitive semantics is that humans judge the semantic relation based on their cognition and understanding of concepts. This cognition and understanding is called 'World Knowledge.' World knowledge can be categorized as personal knowledge and cultural knowledge. Personal knowledge means the knowledge from personal experience. Everyone can have different Personal Knowledge of same concept. Cultural Knowledge is the knowledge shared by people who are living in the same culture or using the same language. People in the same culture have common understanding of specific concepts. Cultural knowledge can be the starting point of discussion about the change of semantic relation. If the culture shared by people changes for some reasons, the human's cultural knowledge may also change. Today's society and culture are changing at a past face, and the change of cultural knowledge is not negligible issues in the research on semantic relationship between concepts. In this paper, we propose the future directions of research on semantic similarity. In other words, we discuss that how the research on semantic similarity can reflect the change of semantic relation caused by the change of cultural knowledge. We suggest three direction of future research on semantic similarity. First, the research should include the versioning and update methodology for semantic network. Second, semantic network which is dynamically generated can be used for the calculation of semantic similarity between concepts. If the researcher can develop the methodology to extract the semantic network from given knowledge base in real time, this approach can solve many problems related to the change of semantic relation. Third, the statistical approach based on corpus analysis can be an alternative for the method using semantic network. We believe that these proposed research direction can be the milestone of the research on semantic relation.

A Case Study on the Risk Sharing Structure of Service Contracts in Global Logistics Outsourcing: Comparison of Korea with Foreign Companies (국제물류 계약에서 리스크 공유에 대한 계약서 조항 사례연구 : 국내와 해외 기업 간 비교를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jin-Su;Song, Sang-Hwa
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.35-65
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    • 2013
  • In December 2012, the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs and Ministry of Knowledge Economy held a commission and distributed a standardized logistics contract between the shipper and the logistics companies in order to spread and to promote contract standardization. With such background in place, this study examines the leading research on different types and attributions in present logistics contracts in order to propose guidelines for creating contract clauses that would lead to a win-win relationship among the parties involved in the logistics outsourcing relationships. This study further compares and contrasts the concreteness of local and international logistics contracts through case studies, and provides practical thought-provoking points on concretization of clauses on potential risks and additional expenses for local logistics companies when signing logistics contracts. Firstly, the composition and contents of both local and international logistics contracts are similar in the way that both deal with the basic principles between the concerned parties such as the following: contract terms, validity, scope of work, operational procedures, payment terms, and dispute resolutions. Secondly, for flexibility of potential dispute resolution, both logistics contracts define the definition of dispute and follow the classical contractual approach of dispute resolution through third-party arbitration. Thirdly, compared to local contracts, international logistics contracts provide more concretized and specific clauses on the occurrence of potential risks and hazards; on the other hand, compared to international logistics contracts, it seemed that local contracts contained more clauses in favor of the shipper. This research then suggests ideas to eliminate the classic tradition - logistics companies enduring the damages that occur as a result of the structural differences between the shipper and the logistics companies - through efforts to actively negotiate in advance the predictable problems and risks and by reflecting the mutually agreed points in the contract, and further offers guidelines on contract concretization for distribution of standardized logistics contracts in the future.

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Study on the establishment of an efficient disaster emergency communication system focused on the site (현장중심의 효율적 재난통신체계 수립 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Yongsoo;Kim, Dongyeon
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.518-527
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    • 2014
  • Our society is changed and diversified rapidly and such tendency is accelerated day after day and has made a lot of problems in the many fields. The important thing we have to recognize is such tendency has a bad effect recently on the safety system in Korea. So it is time to enhance the national safety system and moreover recently Sewol-ho(passenger ship) went down in the sea, it made people remind the importance of national safety system. With this incident, Korean government decided to establish the national safety communication network against the disaster. At this time, I will propose several ideas about the national safety communication network. 1. It must to be established an unified network to contact people who is on a disaster site anytime and anywhere. This is most important element on all disaster sites. 2. PS-LTE technology must to be adopted to the network because it has many advantages including various multimedia services compared to the TETRA in the past. 3. 700MHz is the most efficient band for the network because it has wide cell sites coverage compared to 1.8GHz. 4. Satellite communication system is needed to the network for back-up. 5. It will be effective to adopt Social Media to the communication network system like a Twitter or Facebook for sharing many kinds of information and notifying people of warning message. 6. It can make the network more useful to introduce the latest technology like a sensor network. And Korean government has to improve the system related to the disaster including law and operating organization.

Development of Landscape Urbanism in Practice (랜드스케이프 어바니즘의 실천적 전개 양상)

  • Kim, Youngmin;Jeong, Wookju
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2014
  • The Practice of Landscape Urbanism has been criticized on two aspects; Landscape Urbanism does not yet provide differentiated forms of planning and design neither able to fill the gap between theory and practice. In response to these criticisms, Landscape Urbanists have tried to provide additional cases that can exemplify achievements of Landscape Urbanism in practice. There has been another type of effort to suggest distinct planning and design strategies of Landscape Urbanism from theoretical texts. However, these approaches overlooked the fact that professional practice actually gave huge influence on the theoretical framework of Landscape Urbanism. Based on this observation, the study examined the development process of Landscape Urbanism by verifying the correlation between its practice and theory. Through an extensive literature review, the study suggested horizontality, infrastructure, process, ecology, media, hybrid, site, and scale as eight major concepts of Landscape Urbanism. Afterwards, the study classified 51 projects cited in major essays and articles of Landscape Urbanism into four categories: Archetypal projects, precedent projects, exemplary projects, and progressive projects. The correlation between strategies of the selected projects and main theoretical concepts was analyzed. The study found out that the early stage of the theory was focused on defining and explaining the new design and planning approaches of contemporary design projects related with landscape. However, these days, Landscape Urbanism became a more productive in providing diverse types of practice sharing the direction and vision proposed by the theory. Various projects influenced in constructing theoretical structure of Landscape Urbanism as well as proved that the suggestions of Landscape Urbanism could be effective to reorganize contemporary cites in the form of design and planning strategies. The observation of this study can contribute to provide proper answers to the criticism on practice of Landscape Urbanism and be helpful in understanding the limits and unrealized potentials of Landscape Urbanism as a practical theory.