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The Long-term Follow-up Study of Therapeutic Effects of 8 French Catheter for Spontaneous Pneumothorax (자연 기흉의 치료에서 8 French 도관삽입의 치료 효과에 대한 장기적 관찰)

  • Shin, Jong-Wook;Lee, Byoung-Hoon;An, Chang-Hyeok;Choi, Jae-Sun;Yoo, Jee-Hoon;Lim, Seong-Yong;Kang, Yoon-Jung;Koh, Hyung-Ki;Kim, Jae-Yeol;Na, Moon-Jun;Park, In-Won;Sobn, Dong-Suep;Choi, Byoung-Whui;Hue, Sung-Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.1094-1104
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    • 1997
  • Background : Spontaneous pneumothoraces(SP) are divided into primary spontaneous pneumothoraces (PSP) which develop in healthy individuals without underlying pulmonary disorders and secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces(SSP) which occur in those who have underlying disorders such as tuberculosis or chronic obstructive lung diseases. Yet there is no established standard therapeutic approach to this disorder, i.e., from the spectrum of noninvasive treatment such as clinical observation with or without oxygen therapy, to aggressively invasive thoracoscopic bullectomy or open thoracotomy. Although chest tube thoracostomy has been most widely used, the patients should overcome pain in the initiation of tube insertion or during indwelling it potential infection and subcutaneous emphysema. Thus smaller-caliber tube has been challenged for the treatment of pneumothorax. Previously, we studied the therapeutic efficacy of 8 French catheter for spontaneous pneumothorax. But there has been few data for effectiveness of small-caliber catheterization in comparison with that of chest tube. In this study, we intended to observe the long-term effectiveness of 8 French catheter for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothoraces in comparison with that of chest tube thoracostomy. Method : From January, 1990 to January, 1996, sixty two patients with spontaneous pneumothoraces treated at Chung-Ang University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were sub-divided into a group treated with 8 French catheter(n=23) and the other one with chest tube insertion(n=39). The clinical data were reviewed(age, sex, underlying pulmonary disorders, past history of pneumothorax, size of pneumothorax, follow-up period). And therapeutic effect of two groups was compared by treatment duration(duration of indwelling catheter or tube), treatment-associated complications and recurrence rate. Results : The follow-up period(median) of 8 French catheter group and chest tube group was 28 and 22 months, which had no statistical significance. Ther was no statistically significant difference of clinical characteristics between two groups with SP, PSP, SSP. The indwelling time of 8 French catheter group was $6.2{\pm}3.8$ days, which was significantly shorter than that of chest tube group in SP, $9.1{\pm}7.5$ days(p=0.047). In comparison of treatment-related complication in PSP, 8 French catheter group as 6.25% of complication showed lower tendency than the other group as 23.8% (p=0.041 ; one-tailed, p=0.053; two-tailed). The recurrence rate in each group of SP was 17.4%, 10.3%, which did not show any statistically significant difference. Conclusion : Treatment with 8 French catheter resulted in shorter indwelling time in sponteous pneumothorax, and lower incidence of treatment-related complication in primary spontaneous pneumothorax. And the recurrence rate in each of treatment group showed no statistically significant difference. So, we can recommend the 8 French small-caliber catheter for the initial therapy for spontaneous pneumothorax for the replacement of conventional chest tube thoracostomy. But further prospective study with more subjects of spontaneous pneumothorax will be needed for the evaluation of effectiveness of 8 French cateter.

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The Results and Prognostic Factors of Chemo-radiation Therapy in the Management of Small Cell Lung Cancer (항암화학요법과 방사선 치료를 시행한 소세포폐암 환자의 치료 성적 -생존율과 예후인자, 실패양상-)

  • Kim Eun-Seog;Choi Doo-Ho;Won Jong-Ho;Uh Soo-Taek;Hong Dae-Sik;Park Choon-Sik;Park Hee-Sook;Youm Wook
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.433-440
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Although small ceil lung cancer (SCLC) has high response rate to chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT), the prognosis is dismal. The authors evaluated survival and failure patterns according to the prognostic factors in SCLC patients who had thoracic radiation therapy with chemotherapy. Materials and Methods : One hundred and twenty nine patients with SCLC had received thoracic radiation therapy from August 1985 to December 1990. Seventy-seven accessible patients were evaluated retrospectively among 87 patients who completed RT. Median follow-up period was 14 months (2-87months). Results : The two years survival rate was 13$\%$ with a median survival time of 14 months. The two year survival rates of limited disease and extensive disease were 20$\%$ and 8$\%$, respectively, with median survival time of 14 months and 9 months, respectively. Twenty two patients (88$\%$) of limited disease showed complete response (CR) and 3 patients (12$\%$) did partial response (PR). The two year survival rates on CR and PR groups were 24$\%$ and 0$\%$, with median survival times of 14 months and 5 months. respectively (p=0.005). No patients with serum sodium were lower than 135 mmol/L survived 2years and their median survival time was 7 months (p=0.002). Patients whose alkaline phophatase lower than 130 IU/L showed 26$\%$ of 2 year survival rate and showed median survival time of 14 months and those with alkaline phosphatase higher than 130 IU/L showed no 2 year survival and median survival time of 5 the months, respectively (p=0.019). No statistical differences were found according to the age, sex, and performance status. Among the patients with extensive disease, two rear survivals according to the metastatic sites were 14$\%$, 0$\%$, and 7$\%$ in brain, liver, and other metastatic sites, respectively, with median survival time of 9 months, 9 months, and 8 months, respectively (p>0.05). Two year survivals on CR group and PR group were 15$\%$ and 4$\%$, respectively, with a median survival time of 11 months and 7 months, respectively (p=0.01). Conclusion : For SCLC, complete response after chemoradiotherapy was the most significant prognostic tactor. To achieve this goal. there should be further investigation about hyperfractionation, dose escalation, and compatible chemo-radiation schedule such as concurrent chemo-radiation and early radiation therapy with chemotherapy.

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Comparative Study on the Regimens with Pyrazinamide or Ofloxacin in the retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (폐결핵 재치료에서 Pyrazinamide 복합처방과 Ofloxacin 복합처방의 효과에 관한 비교 연구)

  • Choi, In Hwan;Park, Seung Kyu;Kim, Kyeong Ho;Kim, Jin Ho;Kim, Cheon Tae;Song, Sun Dae
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.871-881
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    • 1996
  • Objective: In the early short-term therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis, PZA is used for the first two months on 6EHRZ therapy but PZA is not effective in the case of long-tenn use PZA for retreatment in the sensitive relapse or acquired drug resistance for PZA. But in the endemic area as Korea, if we can't use PZA in the retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, we can't expect the success for retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, therefore we need new drugs substituting for PZA. In these days, 4 - fluoroquinolone derivatives were investigated and only ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin of derivatives were known to be effective but the effectiveness was also not certain because the result was experimental or combined with other bacteriocidal drugs and datas on effectiveness of pulmonary tuberculosis were so little. Therefore these drugs should be use with other two or three strong-acting drugs in the last period of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. The ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin is used in some area in Korea but randomly and needed more study. We did this study for proving the effectiveness of these drugs and establishment of retreatment regimen for pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 83 drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis patients at National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital from Jan. 1994 to dec. 1995 was made. All the patients taken medicine for 2nd ami-tuberculosis regimens for the first lime. We separated the patients by two groups.(Group I : OFX+ PTA + CS+PAS + Injection, Group II: PZA + PTA+ CS + PAS + Injection). We compared the difference between two groups and tested the confidence limit about results after treatment by $\chi$2-test and T-test. Results : 1. The age distribution was most frequent in fourth decade(29.2% in Group I, 37.1% in Group II) and the mean age was 43.9 year in Group I, and 39.0 year in Group II, but had no significant difference between two groups. The sex distribution was more frequent in the males(68.8% in Group I, 85.7% in Group II), but had no significant difference. 2. Family history was 29.2% in Group I, 28.6% in Group II, but had no significant difference. 3. In the respect of extent of disease, far-advanced stare was 60.4% in Group I, 74.3% in Group II, but had no significant difference. 4. The side effects for drugs showed in 58.3% in Group I and 65.7% in Group II, and the gastrointestinal trouble showed 25.0% in Group and arthralgia 34.3% in Group II predominantly respectively and had the significant difference(p<0.05). 5. The negative conversion rate on sputum AFB smear was 87.5% in Group I and 80.0% in Group II, but had no significant difference. But the negative conversion rate on sputum AFB culture was 83.3% in Group I and 57.1 % in Group II and had the significant difference(p<0.05). 6. The success rate of treatment was 87.5 % in Group I and 83.3 % in Group II but had no significant difference. Conclusion : In the retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, ofloxacin is useful drug for the patients who are not available to use PZA and can be use effectively substituting for PZA.

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Long-term Survival Analysis of Bronchioloalveolar Cell Carcinoma (기관세지폐포암의 장기결과분석)

  • Lee Seung Hyun;Kim Yong Hee;Moon Hye Won;Kim Dong Kwan;Kim Jong Wook;Park Seung Il
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.106-110
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    • 2006
  • Background: Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is an uncommon primary malignancy of the lung, and it accounts for $2{\~}14\%$ of all pulmonary malignancies. According to World Health Organization (WHO) categorisation, BAC is a subtype of adenocarcinoma. The current definition of BAC includes the following: malignant neoplasms of the lung that have no evidence of extrathoracic primary adenocarcinoma, an absence of a central bronchogenic source, a peripheral parenchymal location, and neoplastic cells growing along the alveolar septa. Previous reports had demonstrated a better prognosis following surgery for patients affected by BAC than those affected by other type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aim to analyse Asan Medical Center experiences of BAC. Material and Method: Between 1990 and 2002, 31 patients were received operations for BAC. We analyse retrosepectively sex, age, disease location, preoperative clinical stage, postoperative pathologic stage & complications, survival according to medical record. Result: There were 12 men and 19 women, the average age was 61.09$\pm$10.63 ($31{\~}79$) years. Tumor locations were 7 in RUL, 1 in RML, 4 in RLL, 8 in LUL, 11 in LLL. Operations were 28 lobectomies, 2 pneumonectomies. Postoperative pathologic stage were 12 T1N0M0, 15 T2N0M0, 1 T1N1M0, 1 T1N2M0, 1 T2N2M0, 1 T1N0M1. Mortality were 4 cases ($12.9\%$) and there were no early mortality. Cancer free death was 1 cases, other 3 were cancer related deaths. All of them were affected by distal metastasis and received chemotherapy and each metastatic locations were right rib, brain, and both lung field. The average follow up periods were 50.87$\pm$24.77 months. The overall 3, 5-year survival rate among all patients was $97.1\%,\;83.7\%$, stage I patients overall 2, 5year survival rate was $96.3\%$. The overall disease free 1, 2, 5-year survival rate among all patients was $100\%,\;90\%,\;76\%$ and 2, 5-year survival rate in cases of stage I was $96.4\%,\;90.6\%$. 7 cases ($22.58\%$) were chemotherapies, 1 case ($3.22\%$) was radiation therapy, and 2 cases ($6.45\%$) were chemoradiation therapies. Metastatic locations were 3 cases in lung, 1 case in bone, 1 cases in brain. Conclusion: BAC has a favourable survival and low recurrence rate compare with reported other NSCLC after operative resections.

Breeding and Development of the Tscherskia triton in Jeju Island (제주도 서식 비단털쥐(Tscherskia triton)의 번식과 발달)

  • Park, Jun-Ho;Oh, Hong-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.152-165
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    • 2017
  • The greater long-tail hamster, Tscherskia triton, is widely distributed in Northern China, Korea and adjacent areas of Russia. Except for its distribution, biological characteristics related to life history, behavior, and ecological influences for this species are rarely studied in Korea. This study was conducted to obtain biological information on breeding, growth and development that are basic to species-specific studies. The study adopted laboratory management of a breeding programme for T. triton collected in Jeju Island from March, 2015 to December, 2016. According to the study results, the conception rate was 31.67% and the mice in the large cages had a higher rate of conception than those in the small cages (56.7 vs. 6.7%). The gestation period was $22{\pm}1.6days$ (ranges from 21 to27 days), and litter size ranged from 2 to 7, with a mean of $4.26{\pm}1.37$ in the species. The minimum age for weaning was between $19.2{\pm}1.4days$ (range of 18-21 days). There were no significant differences by sex between mean body weight and external body measurements at birth. However, a significant sexual difference was found from the period of weaning (21 days old) in head and body length, as well as tail length (HBL-weaning, $106.50{\pm}6.02$ vs. $113.34{\pm}4.72mm$, p<0.05; HBL-4 months, $163.93{\pm}5.42$ vs. $182.83{\pm}4.32mm$, p<0.05; TL-4 months, $107.23{\pm}3.25$ vs. $93.95{\pm}2.15mm$, p<0.05). Gompertz and Logistic growth curves were fitted to data for body weight and lengths of head and body, tail, ear, and hind foot. In two types of growth curves, males exhibited greater asymptotic values ($164.840{\pm}7.453$ vs. $182.830{\pm}4.319mm$, p<0.0001; $163.936{\pm}5.415$ vs. $182.840{\pm}4.333mm$, p<0.0001), faster maximum growth rates ($1.351{\pm}0.065$ vs. $1.435{\pm}0.085$, p<0.05; $2.870{\pm}0.253$ vs. $3.211{\pm}0.635$, p<0.05), and a later age of maximum growth than females in head and body length ($5.121{\pm}0.318$ vs. $5.520{\pm}0.333$, p<0.05; $6.884{\pm}0.336$ vs. $7.503{\pm}0.453$, p<0.05). However, females exhibited greater asymptotic values ($105.695{\pm}5.938$ vs. $94.150{\pm}2.507mm$, p<0.001; $111.609{\pm}14.881$ vs. $93.960{\pm}2.150mm$, p<0.05) and longer length of inflection ($60.306{\pm}1.992$ vs. $67.859{\pm}1.330mm$, p<0.0001; $55.714{\pm}7.458$ vs. $46.975{\pm}1.074mm$, p<0.05) than males in tail length. These growth rate constants, viz. the morphological characters and weights of the males and females, were similar to each other in two types of growth curves. These results will be used as necessary data to study species specificity of T. triton with biological foundations.

Requirement and Perception of Parents on the Subject of Home Economics in Middle School (중학교 가정교과에 대한 학부모의 인식 및 요구도)

  • Shin Hyo-Shick;Park Mi-Soog
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is that I should look for a desirous directions about home economics by studying the requirements and perception of the high school parents who have finished the course of home economics. It was about 600 parents whom I have searched Seoul-Pusan, Ganwon. Ghynggi province, Choongcheong-Gyungsang province, Cheonla and Jeju province of 600, I chose only 560 as apparently suitable research. The questions include 61 requirements about home economics and one which we never fail to keep among the contents, whenever possible and one about the perception of home economics aims 11 about the perception of home economics courses and management. The collections were analyzed frequency, percent, mean. standard deviation t-test by using SAS program. The followings is the summary result of studying of it. 1. All the boys and girls learning together about the Idea of healthy lives and desirous human formulation and knowledge together are higher. 2. Among the teaching purposes of home economics, the item of the scientific principle and knowledge for improvements of home life shows 15.7% below average value. 3. The recognition degree about the quality of home economics is highly related with the real life, and about the system. we recognize lacking in periods and contents of home economics field and about guiding content, accomplishment and application qualities are higher regardless of sex. 4. The important term which we should emphasize in the subject of home economics is family part. 5. Among the needs of home economic requirement in freshman, in the middle unit, their growth and development are higher than anything else, representing 4.11, and by contrast the basic principle and actuality is 3.70, which is lowest among them. 6. In the case of second grade requirement of home economics content for parents in the middle unit young man and consuming life is 4.09 highest. 7. In the case of 3rd grade requirement of economics contents in the middle unit the choice of coming direction and job ethics is highest 4.16, and preparing meals and evaluation is lowest 3.50.

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Indication of Dissection of the 14v Lymph Node in Advanced Distal Gastric Cancer (원위부 진행성 위암에서의 상장간막정맥(14v) 림프절 절제술의 적응증)

  • Lim, Jung-Taek;Jung, Oh;Kim, Ji-Hoon;Oh, Sung-Tae;Kim, Byung-Sik;Park, Kun-Choon;Yook, Jeong-Hwan
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.154-160
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: According to the 2nd English Edition of the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) in 1998, in case of distal gastric cancer, the 14v (superior mesenteric vein) lymph node (LN) is included in the N2 group. However, in Korea, a modified radical gastrectomy is performed, and a 14v LN dissection is not done as a routine procedure. Thus, we investigated the rate of metastatic 14v LNs, evaluated the necessity of dissection of the 14v LN, and searched for indications of 14v LN dissection. Materials and Methods: From April 2004 to August 2005, we enrolled the patients who were diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer in the distal third portion of the stomach. We peformed a distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection as defined in the 2nd English edition of the JGCA classification. We calculated the positive rate of metastatic LNs of each station and analyzed the relationship between the positive rates of No.6 LNs and 14v LNs. We also compared the positive 14v LN group with the negative 14v LN group. Results: The total number of patients was 50, the mean age was 56 (range $30{\sim}80$) years, and sex ratio (Male/Female) was 1.63 : 1. In 47 (94%) cases, distal a gastrectomy with gastroduodenostomy was done, and in the remaining 3 (6%) cases, a distal gastrectomy with gastrojejunostomy was done. The most frequently metastatic LNs were nos. 3 and 6 (54%). The metastatic rate of the f4v LN was 10%, which was similar to that of LN no. 9. In the comparison of the 14v positive group with the 14v negative group, there were significant differences in the numbers of metastatic LNs (mean 25.4 vs 4.91, P<0.001) and the numbers of metastatic no. 6 LNs, (mean 6.8 vs 1.42, P<0.001), and if no. 6 LNs were metastatic, the possibility of metastasis to the 14v LN was 19.2%. In the 14v positive group, all cases were more than stage 3 by the UICC 6th edition. Conclusion: In cases of advanced cancer with metastasis to the no. 6 IN, there was a good chance of metastasis to the 14v LN. Thus, in the operative field, if the tumor is advanced to more than stage 3 by the UICC classification and the no. 6 LN is metastatic, a 14v LN dissection is necessary. However, the usefulness of a 14v LN dissection should be evaluated prospectively through an analysis of tumor recurrence and long-term survival.

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Relationship between Stress and Eating Habits of Adults in Ulsan (울산지역 성인 남녀의 스트레스와 식습관)

  • Kim, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Jin-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.536-546
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    • 2009
  • This study was done to investigate the effect of stress on appetite and eating habits, and other health-related behaviors. The subjects of this study consisted of 188 males and 224 females in Ulsan area. The results were as follows: When stressed, 56% (n = 231) of the subjects experienced a change in appetite and of these, 32% (n = 132) experienced an increased appetite. Stress-induced eating may be one factor contributing to the development of obesity. There was a gender-specific response to stress in which women are more likely to use food to deal with stress, whereas men are more likely to use alcohol consumption or smoking. It was found that types of stressors were individual (52.9%), social (50.7%), family relations (34.5%), work demands (34.2%) and physical environment (32.3%). Stress-induced symptoms of the subjects were anxiety (38.3%), headache (36.7%) and neck or shoulder aches (36.2%), and females experienced those symptoms more than males. Those older than 50 years had a higher eating habit score and lower stress score compared with younger subjects. There were significant differences between sex, age, occupation, family type, BMI, exercise, sleeping hours and eating habits or stress level. This study may be helpful in advancing findings in this area to better provide health professionals with appropriate counseling tools to improve the health of all individuals.

Clinical Implication of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression for Rectal Cancer Patients with Lymph Node Involvement (림프절 전이를 동반한 직장암 환자들에서 Cyclooxygenase-2 발현의 임상적 의미)

  • Lee, Hyung-Sik;Choi, Young-Min;Hur, Won-Joo;Kim, Su-Jin;Kim, Dae-Cheol;Roh, Mee-Sook;Hong, Young-Seoub;Park, Ki-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To assess the influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on the survival of patients with a combination of rectal cancer and lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: The study included rectal cancer patients treated by radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Dong-A university hospital from 1998 to 2004. A retrospective analysis was performed on a subset of patients that also had lymph node metastasis. After excluding eight of 86 patients, due to missing tissue samples in three, malignant melanoma in one, treatment of gastric cancer around one year before diagnosis in one, detection of lung cancer after one year of diagnosis in one, liver metastasis in one, and refusal of radiotherapy after 720 cGy in one, 78 patients were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry for COX-2 was conducted with an autostainer (BenchMark; Ventana, Tucson, AZ, USA). An image analyzer (TissueMine; Bioimagene, Cupertino, CA, USA) was used for analysis after scanning (ScanScope; Aperio, Vista, CA, USA). A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan Meier method and significance was evaluated using the log rank test. Results: COX-2 was stained positively in 62 patients (79.5%) and negatively in 16 (20.5%). A total of 6 (7.7%), 15 (19.2%), and 41 (52.6%) patients were of grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively for COX-2 expression. No correlation was found between being positive of COX-2 patient characteristics, which include age (<60-year old vs. $\geq$60), sex, operation methods (abdominoperineal resection vs. lower anterior resection), degrees of differentiation, tumor size (<5 cm vs. $\geq$5 cm), T stages, N stages, and stages (IIIa, IIIb, IIIc). The 5-year overall and 5-year disease free survival rates for the entire patient population were 57.0% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 53.0% and 72.9%, respectively (p=0.146). Further, the 5-year disease free survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 46.3% and 72.7%, respectively (p=0.118). The 5-year overall survival rates were significantly different (p<0.05) for the degree of differentiation, N stage, and stage, whereas the 5-year disease free survival rates were significant for N stage and stage. Conclusion: Being positive for and the degree of COX-2 expression did not have a significant influence on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. However, N stage and stage did significantly influence the rateof survival. Further analysis of a greater sample size is necessary for the verification of the effect of COX-2 expression on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node involvement.

Comparison of Heart Rate Variability Indices between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Primary Insomnia (폐쇄성 수면무호흡 증후군과 일차성 불면증에서 심박동률 변이도 지수의 비교)

  • Nam, Ji-Won;Park, Doo-Heum;Yu, Jaehak;Ryu, Seung-Ho;Ha, Ji-Hyeon
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Sleep disorders cause changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) which affect cardiovascular system. Primary insomnia (PI) makes acceleration of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone by sleep deficiency and arousal. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) sets off SNS by frequent arousals and hypoxemias during sleep. We aimed to compare the changes of heart rate variability (HRV) indices induced by insomnia or sleep apnea to analyze for ANS how much to be affected by PI or OSAS. Methods: Total 315 subjects carried out nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) were categorized into 4 groups - PI, mild, moderate and severe OSAS. Severity of OSAS was determined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Then we selected 110 subjects considering age, sex and valance of each group's size [Group 1 : PI (mean age=$41.50{\pm}13.16$ yrs, AHI <5, n=20), Group 2 : mild OSAS (mean age=$43.67{\pm}12.11$ yrs, AHI 5-15, n=30), Group 3 : moderate OSAS (mean age $44.93{\pm}12.38$ yrs, AHI 16-30, n=30), Group 4 : severe OSAS (mean age=$45.87{\pm}12.44$ yrs, AHI >30, n=30)]. Comparison of HRV indices among the four groups was performed with ANCOVA (adjusted for age and body mass index) and Sidak post-hoc test. Results: We found statistically significant differences in HRV indices between severe OSAS group and the other groups (PI, mild OSAS and moderate OSAS). And there were no significant differences in HRV indices among PI, mild and moderate OSAS group. In HRV indices of PI and severe OSAS group showing the most prominent difference in the group comparisons, average RR interval were $991.1{\pm}27.1$ and $875.8{\pm}22.0$ ms (p=0.016), standard deviation of NN interval (SDNN) was $85.4{\pm}6.6$ and $112.8{\pm}5.4$ ms (p=0.022), SDNN index was $57.5{\pm}5.2$ and $87.6{\pm}4.2$ (p<0.001), total power was $11,893.5{\pm}1,359.9$ and $18,097.0{\pm}1,107.2ms^2$(p=0.008), very low frequency (VLF) was $7,534.8{\pm}1,120.1$ and $11,883.8{\pm}912.0ms^2$ (p=0.035), low frequency (LF) was $2,724.2{\pm}327.8$ and $4,351.6{\pm}266.9ms^2$(p=0.003). Conclusions: VLF and LF which were correlated with SNS tone showed more increased differences between severe OSAS group and PI group than other group comparisons. We could suggest that severe OSAS group was more influential to increased SNS activity than PI group.