• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sex

Search Result 9,610, Processing Time 0.059 seconds

The Effects of Sex, Age, and Social Support on Self-Esteem of the Aged. (성, 연령, 사회적 지원에 따른 노인의 자아존중감에 관한 연구)

  • 조옥희
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.161-172
    • /
    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of the sex, age, degree of social support on self-esteem of the old aged and to provide information for finding out ways of developing their self-esteem. The subject of this study were 504 old aged in Kwang-ju and Jun-nam. The statistics used for data analysis were frequency percentage mean standard deviation reliability ANOVA stepwise and multiple regression analysis through the SAS package program, . The major findings of this study can be summarized as follows; 1) The self-esteem of old aged was 27, 2 which was above the median 22.5 2) According to the results related to the old aged the effect were by sex, age, social support, . There were also significant interaction effects by $age^{\star}$social support $sex^{\star}\;age^{\star}$aocial support $sex^{\star}$social support $sex^{\star}$age it was shown that influencing variable on their self-esteem was sex social support $sex^{\star}$social support $sex^{\star}$age age.

  • PDF

Indirect Evidence on Sex Reversal of Sinonovacula constricta (Bivalvia: Euheterodonta) and Gomphina veneriformis (Bivalvia: Veneridae)

  • Shin, Yun Kyung;Park, Jung Jun;Choi, Ji Sung;Lee, Jung Sick
    • Development and Reproduction
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.73-78
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study attempts to propose the possibility of the sex reversal in Sinonovacula constricta and Gomphina veneriformis by confirming the changes in the sex ratio with the shell length in the same population level. For analysis of sex ratio, 100 individuals of S. constricta (SL 26.5-95.0 mm) and 2385 individuals of G. veneriformis (SL 15.1-60.1 mm) were used. Sex was analyzed histologically. Both species displayed the tendency of increase in the female proportion with increase in shell length. In this study, changes in the sex ratio in accordance with the growth of S. constricta and G. veneriformis are determined to be indirect evidence that signifies their sex reversal.

The Effect of Sex Education for High School Girls' Knowledge and Attitude related to Sex (성교육이 여고생의 성지식과 성에 대한 태도에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Yong-Ja;Lee, Hae-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.44-67
    • /
    • 1995
  • The problem related to sex is closely connected with human life. It is important to acquire accurate sexual knowledge and desirable attitude specially during adolescence, in the physical, psychological and emotional changing period. This study was made to find out the high school girls' knowledge, attitude and experience related to sex, and to support the progress of sex education at school in the future. The design was nonequivalent control pretest-posttest in the quasi-experimental design. In current study, the subjects were 102 girls from the 1 st grade of girls' commercial high school. It was control group 54 and experimental group 48. To teach the experimental group, the sex education program was combined the sex education program made in Korea Education Development Institute, Information of sex education by the Ministry of Education, other concerning articles and previous studies. The research tool was a questionnaire based on the literature review. The pretest-posttest was given to the two groups. The sex education had been taken for the experimental group but not been taken for the control group. The data was collected from May 22, 1993 to July 20, 1993 and was analyzed through spss $^{pc}$. The frequency, $x^2$-test and t-test were calculated. Summarized findings from the study are as follows : groups before sex education. 1. Regarding the first hypothesis was supported as following : "The scores of sexual knowledge in the experimental group who was given sex education will be higher than those of the control group who was not given." (t=-14.11, p=.000) 2. Regarding the second hypothesis was supported as following : "The scores of the attitude toward sex in the experimental group who given sex education will be higher than those of the control group who was not given." (t=-6.15, p=.000) The result of this study suggests that it is so necessary that school nurses should teach about sex regularly at school.

  • PDF

A Study on the Need for Sex Education of Middle School Students and Their Parents in Suwon (중학교(中學校) 학생(學生)과 학부모(學父母)의 성교육(性敎育) 요구(要求) 조사연구(調査硏究) - 수원시내 중학생을 대상으로 -)

  • Choi, Sun Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.119-134
    • /
    • 1990
  • The purpose of this study is to find out the need for sex education of middle school students and their parents. For the data collection, the survey was conducted during the period from September 10 to September 20, 1989 by using prepared questionnaire. A questionnaire was given to 592 students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade from four middle schools and to 408 their parents in Suwon City. The major results are summarized as follow; 1. Among the 25 questions were asked about knowledge of sex, the structure of reproductive organs, physical change during puberty, menstruation, Sexually stimulation and family plan were answered correctly by over 50% of the students. The higher the grade, the more the knowledge of sex. There was no significant difference between this knowledge and with eider sister or brother. Among the 20 questions were asked about knowledge of sex, sexually stimulation, pregnancy, emission, induced abortion and sexually transmitted disease were answered correctly by over 50% of the parents. 2. 30 questions were asked about attitude of sex, 47.7% of the students and 53.4% of the parents answered 'positive'. There was no significant difference between grade and sex of students. A significant difference '.vas not also found between years and education level of parents. 3. In case of students, experience of sex education was showed the structure of reproductive organs, physical change during puberty, temper during puberty, menstruation, emission more. In the event of parents, experience of sex education was showed the structure of reproductive organs, temper during puberty, menstruation, emission, relationship with apposite sex more. Most students felt that sex education should begin from the first grade of middle school and the first grade of high school strongly. In parents was showed the need for sex education from the primary school and the first grade of middle school highly. Namely, students and parents felt that sex education should begin from puberty. To help good developments and growth of middle school students with rapid change should be educated sex eduction properly for the occasion.

  • PDF

Sex Education, Sex-related Knowledge, Sex-related Attitude of 6th-Grade Elementary School Students (초등학교 6학년 학생들의 성교육과 성지식, 성태도)

  • Oh, Seung-Mi;Kim, Hyun-Li
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.228-236
    • /
    • 2010
  • Purpose: This research was conducted to compare sex-related knowledge and attitude of 6th-grade elementary school students who participated in the field based learning and those with cooperative learning methods. Methods: The data were collected from June to July in 2009. The subjects of the study were recruited from the classes of the 6th grade conveniently assigned from the D elementary school located in Daejeon metro city. Total of 60 students were assigned either to the field based learning group, and the other 60 students to the cooperative learning group. The field based learning group received sex education at the Daejean Youth Sexuality Culture Center for 3 hours. And the cooperative learning group received sex education by cooperative learning method at the classroom for 40 minutes per session, once a week, for 3 weeks. The sex-related knowledge and attitude scales developed by Lee (2004) were used. The data were analyzed by $x^2$-test, Fisher's exact test, and t-test using the SPSS/WIN V. 12.0 program. Results: The results were as follows. 1. Sex-related knowledge was not significantly different between the cooperative learning and the field based learning group. 2. Sex-related attitude was not significantly different between the cooperative learning and the field based learning group. Conclusion: In this study, sex-related knowledge and sex-related attitude of the cooperative learning group and the field based learning group were different from the lecture method groups in the earlier study. It is worthy of notice that the cooperative learning group and the field based learning group took relatively less time to improve their knowlede and attitude than the earlier lecture based group did.

Content Analysis of the Experiences and the Unmet Needs for Sex Education of University Students During their Primary and Secondary Education (대학생들의 성교육 경험에 관한 내용분석)

  • Kim Jeong-Eun
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.232-249
    • /
    • 1999
  • The purpose of the study was to analyze the experiences of and the unmet needs for sex education of university students during their primary and secondary education. Development and refinement strategies of the sex education curriculum were constructed using the words of university students. The study was conducted during the second trimester of 1998 and the first trimester of 1999. and 356 male and female students were asked to submit weekly descriptive reports on the proposed issues related to sex education. The data were collected and analyzed by the researcher to present and summarize the in-depth meanings . The results were as follows: 1) The problems of the present sex education of primary and secondary education curriculum : it was revealed as too superficial and conventional: it brought about adverse effects because it was not efficient: also it was insufficient and not appropriate to the level of the students. The erroneous stereotypes of our society towards the sexuality act as barriers to effective sex education. 2) The abstract needs for sex education revealed on the analysis of adjectives used by the students were: 'honest, interesting, easy, useful, and correct' 3) The concrete needs for the sex education were: correct understanding of sexuality, establishment of the right sense of values towards sexuality, understanding of male and female sex psychology, knowledge of solutions for sexual problems 4) The developmental strategies for the sex education curriculum were structural, comprehensive, broad, and sufficient education content, concrete and honest explanations about sexuality : provision of early sex education; sex education provided by the parents ; establishment of an open environment for the sex education, graded education reflecting the developmental stages of the youngsters ; up-to-date sex education; preservation of the perspectives of the youngsters; provision of the same sex education opportunities for both girls and boys; practical use of audiovisual aides; open discussion; development of novel education methods like field trips 5) The change of knowledge, attitudes, and values towards sexuality after finishing the sex education course were: establishment of right sense of value towards sexuality ; reconfirmation of the concepts and value for life; belief of the necessity of sex education; change of attitudes towards womanhood; reinforcement of the self-conceit, consolidation of filial piety; and acquisition of the practical knowledge.

  • PDF

A comparative study on sex-consciousness and sexual values between urban and rural elementary schoolers (도시와 농촌 초등학생의 성의식 및 성가치관에 관한 비교 연구)

  • Nho, Mi-Yeoung;Park, Yeoung-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
    • /
    • v.6
    • /
    • pp.17-34
    • /
    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-consciousness and sexual values of school children by geographic region. It's specifically attempted to make a comparative analysis of sex-consciousness and sexual values between urban and rural elementary schoolers to help provide efficient sex education for them to build the right sexual values. The subjects in this study were 400 elementary schoolers in their sixth year of elementary schools located in Danyang-gun and Chungju city, north Chungcheong province. After a survey was conducted, answer sheets from 387 students that were analyzable were analyzed. For data handling, SPSS program was employed, and t-test was utilized to see if there's any differences between the urban and rural elementary school youngsters in sex consciousness and sexual values. And $x^2$ test was used to make a comparative analysis of their view of sex education. The findings of the study were as follows : First, regarding sex-consciousness, they had general knowledge on sex. Especially, they were highly aware of sexual violence and the generation of baby, but many of them didn't know about where and how egg cells were produced. This indicated that systematic education should be offered in various ways. Concerning geographic gap, there was a significant difference in sexual knowledge between the urban and rural students. As to sexual attitude, they took a relatively positive attitude toward display of affection or sex-related talk on TV or in movies, as they viewed it as natural. This finding implied that the elementary schoolers were recipient toward sex and took an active attitude toward sexual expressions. Concerning geographic gap, there was no difference between the rural and urban students. As for sexual practices, the largest group of the students had a liking for the opposite sex, which showed that their needs for sex were unveiled in the course of having some trouble due to the other sex rather than through firsthand experiences or activities. As to geographic gap, there was a significant difference between the urban and rural students in that regard. Besides, the urban students put their sex-consciousness in practice more often than the rural students did. After they are educated to build the right sexual values, systematic sex-education programs should also be offered for them to be exposed to sustained sex education and to team how to apply their sex-consciousness to real life. Second, as for sexual values, the school children had relatively positive and equalitarian sexual values. Regarding geographic gap, there were significant gaps between the two groups' view of the opposite sex, sexual roles and chastity. Concerning view of the opposite sex, they attached more importance to the inner aspects of the opposite sex than his or her look, and they wanted to date in a natural manner. Regarding sexual roles, they were relatively well cognizant of gender equity and the importance of male and female roles. As to view of chastity, they looked upon sex as natural, not as what's ugly or ashamed of. Third, concerning their outlook on sex education, approximately more than half the students felt the needs for sex education, and there was a significant difference between the urban and rural students. They wanted to receive education about the prevention of sexual violence and physical changes during puberty the most, and there was a significant gap between the urban and rural students in this aspect. As to the time for sex education, they thought that students should start to be exposed to sex education in their fifth or sixth year. This finding signified that fifth or sixth graders who were in the beginning of puberty started to have a lot of interest in their own physical changes. Therefore, sex education would produce better effects when it's provided to fifth or sixth graders. Nearly half them preferred single-gender class when they received sex education, and there's no gap between the urban and rural students in that regard.

  • PDF

An Analysis of Sexual Health Education for Korean Adolescents (청소년대상 영상매체 성교육자료분석 -비디오를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Koang-Ok;Yang, Soon-Ok;Im, Mi-Lim
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.441-457
    • /
    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study is to provide fundamental information for the development of new sex education image media through the analysis of those tools produced by Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea. Twenty three video tapes related to the sex education were analysed. The data were sampled on the basis of the sex education instructions for primary and secondary schools published by the Seoul Office of Education in 1996 and the list of sex education information composed by the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea with the following requirements. 1) The education materials are oriented to the middle and high school students as well a juveniles and are being used in public health centers and schools. 2) The education materials are not confined to the single subject such as AIDS or contraception. Because this study is focused on the analysis of image media, an analysis method widely and effectively used in public media study was chosen. The frequency analysis and percentage treatment were done by an SAS program. The results of the study are as follows : 1. An analysis of the material structure type showed that the frequency of the following subjects in 15 video tapes, composed as drama and cartoon, had this decreasing orde : sex behavior, sex relation ships, sex health, human development, personal technique, and society and culture. 2. The eight tapes of explanation and counseling showed a different sequence from that of the drama and cartoon material, primarily treating human development with 5419 seconds (47.9%) of type. The following were also considered in decreasing order: at 2000seconds (17.6%) sex behavior, at 1366 seconds (12.1%) sex health, at 1240 seconds (11.0%) society and culture, at 667 seconds (6.0%) relation ships, and at 611 seconds (5.4%) personal technique. 3. In a thematic analysis those education materials dealing with human development show this frequency sequence: anatomic physiology, reproduction, and adolescence. In relation, ships the sequence is dates, love, marriage and vows, and family. For personal technique, it is expressed as asking for help, and an empnasis on moral values. For sex behavior, they focus on abstinence, the co-responsibility of sex behavior, the sexual response of the human, and sexual nightmares. For the sex health area, the focus is contraception with abortion and reproductive health following that. In society and culture diversity is considered. 4. An analysis of the differences in production and content between 1980s and 1990s was also done. For materials produced in the 1980s the frequency of the subjects follows this order: sex behavior, human development, relation ships, sex health, personal technique, and society and culture with sub subjects such as abstinence, dating, adolescence, anatomic physiology, reproduction, calls for help, and the sexual response of a human being. For materials produced in the 1990s, highest frequency was sex behavior, the same as the 1980s. The rest of the material follows this decreasing order: relationships, human development, sex health, society and culture, and personal technique with sub subjects such as dating, co-resposibility in sex behavior, abstinence, and love frequently considered.

  • PDF

Comparison of Surgical Patients’State Anxiety by Sex, Area of Operation, and Family Planning (성별, 수술부위, 출산계획이 다른 수술환자의 상황-불안 비교)

  • 박상연
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.9-22
    • /
    • 1979
  • The major purpose of this study was to compare the state anxiety of surgical patients by sex (male/female), area of operation (sex-organ/non sex-organ), and family planning (having the plan of child-bearing/having no plan of child-bearing). One hundred sixty patients who were to get surgical operation were equally divided into eight groups resulted from combination of variables of sex, area of operation, and family planning, The state anxiety of surgical patients was measured in terms of the discrepancy score between the state anxiety score on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) administered at a day before operation and the trait anxiety score on it which was administered at a day before discharge. In order to test statistically the differences among meant scores of the state anxiety obtained by eight groups, multiple comparisons were carried out by Scheffe method. The results of this study led to the conclusions that, (1) there was no significant sex difference in the state anxiety of surgical patients, when the area of operation and the family planning variables were disregarded, (2) the state anxiety of patients who were to get operation of their sex-organ was significantly higher than that of patients who were to get operation on the parts other than their sex-organ, when variables of the sex and the family planning were not taken into account, (3) there was no significant sex difference in the state anxiety of patients who were to Bet operation on the parts other than their sex-organ, when the family planning variable was disregarded, (4) the state anxiety of female patients who were to get operation on their sex-organ was significantly higher than the stale anxiety of male patients who were to get operation on their sex-organ, when the family planning variable was not taken into account.

  • PDF

A Study on the Factors Affecting Father's Child-Rearing Attitudes -Focussed on the Sex and Birth-Order of Childen- (아버지의 양육태도에 영향을 주는 요인에 관한 연구 -자녀의 성 및 출생순위를 중심으로-)

  • 정영숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.23-39
    • /
    • 1980
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate various factors which affect father's child-rearing attitudes through the examination of father-child relationships. In other words, the study aims at finding out how the variables possessed by father side operate on his child-rearing attitudes according to the sex and birth-order of children. Hence, the study is carried out on the hypothesis that father's variables such as age, education, occupation, religion, etc. show different aspects on child-rearing attitudes by way of a child's sex and birth-order. The results of the study show that the factors that affect father's child-rearing attitudes are child's variables such as sex and birth-order as well as father's variables such as education, occupation and religion. describing these factors I detail, the study shows that father has higher concern on daughter rather than on son; the higher education he has, the higher his concern is; and when father has a white-collar job or is a Christian, he shows higher concern on his children. The above mentioned factors are analyzed and classified as follows by the child-rearing contents: A. The factors which affect father's concern one his children are: 1) sex, 2) father's education and 3) occupation related to the sex and birth-order of children. B. The factors which affect father's participation in child-care are; 1) sex, 2) birth-order, 3) father's education, 4) occupation and 5) religion related to the sex and birth-order. C. The factors which affect father's disciplinary attitudes (Praise or scolding) are ; 1) sex, 2) father's education and 3) religion related to the sex and birth-order. C. The factors which affect father's disciplinary attitudes (praise or scolding) are; 1) sex, 2) father's education related to sex, and 3) sex in terms of negative attitudes. E. Finally, father's age is proved to be a factor that does not give any significance in his child-rearing attitudes.

  • PDF